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Diminishing functionality of combustion turbine components due to aging parts is a concern for plant and maintenance managers. The harmonization of each individual part of a machine is crucial to efficient operation, and that is especially true in aging 7E, 7F and 9F combustion turbines. The valves, which were originally branded as Dana-Gresen and distributed by Tri-Line Automation, have been supported and manufactured by Parker for many years. As the parts continue to age, there is increased potential for inefficiency and performance issues. So, when is the best time to take a deeper look at your vintage turbine valves?
The answer is yesterday. It’s never too early to have a replacement on hand or get your current valves serviced. If you’re too late in responding to the potential issues, your production, efficiency, and uptime will all suffer. Find out why right now is the time to inspect your turbine valves.
Plan to register for our upcoming webinar, Parker Legacy Valve Service: How to Maintain the Future of Your 7E/7F Turbine Valves.Valves that need an inspection
There are three combustion turbine control valves that all plant and maintenance managers should keep on their radar:
Each valve has a different purpose, but if any of the aging valves are overlooked, they may cause issues or even unplanned shutdowns.Gauge Selector Valves
This valve allows for fuel pressure measurement of each supply line feeding the combustion cans. With 20 to 30 years of wear and tear from stagnant fluids or heavy cycling, the condition of this valve should be closely monitored.
There are many potential issues that may occur. First, the gauge selector handle may become hard to move. An even bigger concern involves fuel oil pressure leaking into the common port connecting the fuel pressure gauge. This type of leakage would result in the gauge always showing some amount of fuel pressure, regardless of the selector handle position. As with most elastomeric type seals, thermal and process exposure contribute to a limited seal lifespan.
This large multi-port “check valve” delivers fuel to the primary and secondary ports on each combustor can, only permitting fuel flow when actuated. Fuel isolation valves are actuated by a single-piston to ensure each combustor can get fuel at the same time. This eliminates the risks of turbine cold spots and avoids startup or fuel transfer issues. This valve also has zero internal leakage and has a limit switch to confirm the valve operation.
While there is no internal leakage to a fully functional valve, there is likely internal wear and damage due to old, dirty, and stagnant fluids, which could eventually lead to corrosion and leaking.
A new fuel isolation valve offers protection against the risk of cold spots. Contamination can cause restrictions that create an increased pressure drop across the valve, resulting in less than the desired amount of fuel being delivered to the engine. Contamination, corrosion/erosion, and heavy cycling can also cause internal leakage across the check valves and in extreme cases, external leakage.Water Staging/Isolation Valves
The water staging/isolation valves control water that is used for NOx reduction and combustion temperature control. They also have the same number of ports as the gas turbine has combustion cans.
The potential issues for water staging/isolation valves are identical to the fuel isolation valves. Valves with 20 to 30 years of wear are more likely to experience pressure spikes, leakage, and control issues. The longer a valve has been in service, the greater the possibility of internal wear, corrosion, and seal degradation.
Based on the vintage of the turbines and valves and a recent spike in requests for service and overhaul, it is crucial to understand the condition of the valves at your power plant. Parker has developed a Valve Service Plan for the replacement or refurbishment of these valves scheduled around your planned outages, minimizing disruption to plant operations.
Plant and maintenance managers should begin thinking about replacing these aging valves prior to planned spring or fall outages, avoiding downtime during the year. The inspection of these valves is important to the performance of 7E, 7F and 9F combustion turbines, and the age of the valves is enough reason to assess them immediately.
The next step is to rely on Parker. We have been an experienced and trusted partner in the industry for decades, and our goal is to help you minimize downtime, create efficiencies, and increase plant output. Inspect your valves and schedule a call to discuss Parker’s Valve Service Plan with the Energy, Oil & Gas Team. Learn more on our turbine valves website.
If nothing is wrong with your valves, that’s great! But it is never a bad idea to have a known support path, contacts within Parker’s manufacturing operations, experienced field-based engineers, and spare parts on the shelf!
If you just want to learn more about the valves in your combustion turbine and the importance of their maintenance, register for our webinar: How to Maintain the Future of Your 7E/7F Turbine Valves, which takes place at 11 a.m. ET March 18.
Article contributed by James Hoke, capital projects manager, Parker Hannifin’s Energy Team, and
Mitch Eichler, business development manager, Parker Hannifin Hydraulic Valve Division
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5 Mar 2021
Not every application needing reliable seawater to fresh water supply is located on a sail boat, motor boat or fishing vessel. When boat owners need simple, automatic or manual operation, a design for limited spaces and heavy-duty construction, they turn to Parker and our array of known brands: Village Marine, Sea Recovery and Horizons Reverse Osmosis. However, Parker watermakers are also used in remote applications to deliver purified water from salt water or a land source for on land consumption.
Living on a remote tropical island may sound idyllic, but it comes with some harsh realities. Power. Water. Access. And destructive weather.
An example is the Bahamas. Little Hog Cay is a completely private, 20 plus acre barrier island in the Northern Bahamas with lagoons, beautiful white-sand beaches and land elevations to 30 feet. The island is located in the Hog Cays, one mile from mainland Abaco or five minutes from the airstrip and full-service marina at Spanish Cay. It is centrally located between the top four Abaco sportfishing destinations Walker`s Cay, Green Turtle Cay, Treasure Cay and Marsh Harbor.
After Hurricane Dorian in 2019, the island owner was forced to replace several key infrastructure items, one of which was the water purification system, consisting of a water maker, pumps and storage tanks. The initial call to the Parker service teams was prompted by the customer who was trying to install a Parker Village Marine Little Wonder Modular LWM 145 Watermaker with a 12 VDC system.
Rather than mounting on an ocean vessel, the customer was installing the unit on land to provide water for drinking, ice, and water gardens. He intended to use salt water as the source and needed technical support on the related equipment required to supply the source water to the unit. The customer submitted a request for technical assistance on one of our Parker websites. The email was routed to Parker's Pan Am group and the technical team at the Bioscience and Water Filtration Division. The customer included a phone number and location on the request but did not provide an email address. Due to the remoteness of the location, cell service was challenging. The team was able to reach out to the customer via Whatsapp — a social media application.Dockage:
Little Hog Cay is the only private island in North Abaco with completely protected deep-water dockage. The island is approached from the Abaco Sound carrying depths of 12 feet or more at low tide. A 90-foot channel leads to a fully-enclosed 30 by 155-foot slipway with depths of 8 feet at low tide. Outside the slipway, on the Sound, a double-point Manta Mooring System is installed. In addition, shallow-draft vessels can be anchored inside the lagoon. The entrance is located on the Atlantic Ocean side and carries 6 feet of draft at low tide.Power:
After the island was badly damaged in Hurricane Dorian, the system was rebuilt and reengineered. The off-grid solar-powered system had most of the 90 solar panels fixed or replaced, adding Enphase microinverters to each, and replacing all the destroyed lead acid battery banks with reclaimed lithium batteries from crashed Tesla vehicles as the power storage system. This installation was the first in the North American continent to use an entire Tesla Model 3 battery pack - 75 kWh of power storage. Also, there is an additional 45 kWh of Tesla Model S reclaimed batteries. This is supplemented with two small wind turbines that can produce a theoretical 2.8 kW of peak power, but realistically produce approximately 900 W, almost constantly.
Salt water requiring desalination. The island originally had a 1,200 GPD watermaker that was destroyed by Hurricane Dorian. The owner was challenged by constant repairs and also determined the system was more than the needs of the island required. An analysis of time spent in the repair of the unit versus time running showed it would run for one day and then not for 3 weeks.
The intent was to produce water on a much more frequent basis (constantly when the sun shines), without a huge power draw. A smaller watermaker unit — the Parker Little Wonder LVM — was selected to match the needs. The system produces a continual supply without the noise of a traditional watermaker. In addition, the unit is set up to filter the clean water a second time (customer preference, but not required) to produce 9 ppm for ice and drinking water.
The customer built a smart monitoring system using Home Assistant (on a Raspberry Pi) that monitors the solar radiation from the island's Ambient Weather station. Based on the time of day and level of sun, it will switch on the Little Wonder watermaker. Three 33’ x 13’ water storage tanks are located below the pavilion. The smart system will switch on the Parker watermaker to ensure there is enough water for personal use and to run the auto irrigation systems.How we helped
The selection of the Little Wonder Modular (LVM) 145 watermaker with 12 VDC was ideal for use in the customer's remote location. The power source on the island was solar power and the LVM can run on 12 V power.
When the customer began installing the unit, he realized that due to his land-based application, the transfer pump needed to be reviewed. Even though a transfer pump was supplied with the Little Wonder LVM unit, installation is usually on a boat where the distance between the transfer pump and watermaker unit is relatively close. In this case, the transfer pump needed to supply the head pressure to move water from the salt water source to the watermaker unit mounted location. On the Little Wonder LVM 145, Parker supplied a raw water boost pump with a magnetic drive.
Parker's technical team reviewed the installation details provided by the customer. The technical team provided specific recommendations on the installation location for the transfer pump, which was as close to the source as possible. The Little Wonder LVM 145 requires .5 GPM, so a boost pump with 2-4 GPM was sufficient. A centrifugal pump was recommended by Greg Newman, Parker sales manager, to deliver 50 psi or less to the high-pressure pump. Technical schematics for the LVM unit were also provided.
Original message from the customer:
"Hi, I have the LWM 145 GPD watermaker unit - very cool!! I am setting it up on my island here to use to water my plants and make some drinking water and ice. I need to install a raw water pump to deliver the water to the unit. What PSI do I need to deliver the saltwater at and what flow rate? Thank you in advance."
Customer - Island Owner
The Village Marine Little Wonder Modular Series Watermaker is the ideal reverse osmosis desalination system for experienced sailors and boaters who require small low-power watermakers. Capable of producing up to 145 GPD (550 LPD), the Little Wonder is designed for cruising sail boats and land applications where space and power are limited and reliability is required. The system is simple to install and easy to operate. High-quality components ensure safety and years of reliable service. Featuring a compact, modular configuration, this desalinator is the most reliable, field serviceable, quiet, efficient and economical source of fresh water available on the market today.
Meters and monitors:
The fact that our application engineers across the country were able to find a way to reach out, answer questions, and provide the right recommendations for auxiliary products that keep customers supplied with clean fresh water is part of who we are at Parker. We always enjoy reading follow-up testimonials from the users of our products:
"The quality of the Little Watermaker is way better than any other desalination equipment I have used before (and I have used a lot). But the thing that really astounded me was the amazing quality of the support! I could not hold back my enthusiasm for the professionalism, and my amazement that I had finally found a company that is happy to embrace a modern communication standard (in this case WhatsApp) to ensure the products are working as they should!
Wow, you guys are AMAZING!! Literally - you have a customer for life and I will influence many, many, many others. I absolutely love the quality of the product, your manual/documentation and that you included a full schematic!! The point that you responded so quickly and on WhatsApp further confirms the professionalism of your company. I own a small island in the Bahamas - and companies like yours make it soo much easier to do what I need to do. Thank you very much!"
Customer - Island Owner
Leading with purpose
After more than a century of experience serving our customers, Parker is often called to the table for the collaborations that help to solve the most complex engineering challenges. We help them bring their ideas to light. We are a trusted partner, working alongside our customers to enable technology breakthroughs that change the world for the better.
This article was contributed by Paul Kamel, product manager II, Parker Bioscience and Water Filtration, and
Greg Newman, leisure sales manager, North American, Caribbean, South American, Parker Bioscience Water Filtration Division.
*Images supplied and approved for use by our confidential customer.
Additional and helpful content on Parker Watermakers:
4 Mar 2021
Plastic is one of the largest and most important markets for process and precision cooling and is a critical success factor in the production of formed plastics. Precision temperature control ensures dimensional stability of the plastic product and enhanced quality of the finished product. Failure to provide sufficient cooling can result in surface flaws in the finished product, such as blistering, roughness, structural defects and opacification.
The most common forms of plastic processing that require precision cooling are:
The injection moulding process accounts for a significant proportion of all plastic products manufactured globally. Injection moulded products range from electrical switches, wheelie bins, to complete car dashboards. The process is compatible with both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic material. Commonly used materials include: polystyrene, ABS, polyamides, polypropylene, polyethylene and PVC. Almost all manufacturing sectors use injection moulded parts in some form.
The following diagram depicts a typical injection moulding machine. Click to enlarge.
Cooling is essential to the process and is used for the following purposes:
The injection moulding process consists of four stages. The cooling phase is critical to the process and often involves direct cooling from a chiller.Clamping
The two halves of the mould must be securely closed by the clamping unit prior to injection of the molten plastic. The clamping device provides sufficient force to hold the mould in position during injection. The clamping set up generally takes more time with larger machines that can generate more force.Injection
Raw plastic material (generally pellets) are fed into the injection moulding machine and enter the screw assembly. Heat and pressure are applied to melt the raw plastic as it moves through the screw. The molten plastic is rapidly injected into the mould with the pressure ensuring the mould is entirely filled.Cooling
The water-cooled mould ensures that the plastic starts to cool as soon as it contacts the interior surface of the mould. As the plastic cools, it solidifies into the shape of the desired part. Shrinkage of the part may occur during cooling. The packing of the material during the injection stage allows additional material to flow into the mould reducing visible shrinkage.
The cooling of the mould is important as the product can’t be ejected until it is sufficiently cool. Efficient cooling increases product throughput and prevents unnecessary downtime. Water is generally used as the primary cooling agent. Water is channelled through the mould to facilitate a quicker cooling time. Decreased mould temperature is generally more efficient allowing for faster manufacturing cycle times to be achieved.Ejection
After sufficient time has elapsed, the cooled part is ejected from the mould by the ejection system located at the rear of the mould. When the mould is opened, a mechanism is used to push out the part. Once the part is ejected, the mould can be clamped shut for the next shot to be injected.
Injection moulding - cooling of the hydraulic system
Injection moulding machines typically use a hydraulic pump and circuit to power the screw, press, mould and ejection componentry. Hydraulic fluid is moved by a pump and that generates significant heat during operation. Approximately one-third of the electrical installed power must be removed from the system to prevent machinery issues. Insufficient cooling prevents optimal operation of the press; this results in problems with the plastic maintaining its shape in the mould. Loss of batch quality and increased rejection rates alongside frequent equipment downtime originate from poor cooling capability.
The hydraulic system generally employs the use of an oil to water heat exchanger. In many cases a chiller can be used to supply cooling capacity directly to the oil to water heat exchangers, in larger installations where multiple machines are in operation.
Cooling capacity is generally supplied to the injection moulding machine through two independent water cooling circuits:
Higher temperature loop for cooling the hydraulic oil application. Chillers are often used in conjunction with free cooling and a water tower as part of a system to supply cooling capacity to multiple applications.
Lower temperature loop for the plastic mould cooling. The cooling water is typically delivered between 10 – 15°C.
Precise cooling is not as critical for the hydraulic oil application, temperature control for cooling the mould tends to be more critical. Precision cooling is important to deliver the correct finished quality and increase productivity. In many cases, a separate chiller will be installed for each injection moulding machine to manage heat loads.
The plastic extrusion method is generally used for high-volume manufacturing where raw plastic material is melted and formed into a continuous profile. Extruded plastic products include: pipe & tubing, weather stripping, window frames, plastic sheeting, adhesive tapes and wire insulation.
The following diagram depicts the stages of the plastic extrusion process. Click to enlarge.
Thermoplastic beads are gravity fed from a top mounted hopper entering the barrel of the extruder. A rotating screw forces the plastic beads forward into the barrel which is heated by resistors to the desired melt temperature. Extra heat is contributed by the intense pressure and friction taking place inside the barrel.
At the front of the barrel, the molten plastic leaves the screw and travels through a screen pack to remove any contaminants in the melt. After passing through the breaker plate, the molten plastic enters the die that is responsible for forming the final product shape.
The product must be cooled as it leaves the die; this is generally achieved by drawing the plastic through a large water bath. In tube or pipe extrusion lines, the product is often cooled in a sealed water bath with a controlled vacuum to prevent the newly formed molten product from collapsing. Once the product has been cooled it can be spooled or cut into lengths for later use.
For products such as plastic sheet or film, the cooling is achieved by pulling through a set of cooling rolls. In sheet extrusion, these rolls not only deliver the necessary cooling but also determine sheet thickness and surface texture.
Extrusion blow moulding is commonly used to produce plastic beverage bottles. Around 508 billion plastic bottles were manufactured in 2018 with growth to 583 billion by 2021. Almost all plastic bottles were manufactured using the blow moulding technique. Most of the plastic bottles destined for the beverage market are manufactured from polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
The following diagram depicts the key steps in the extrusion blow moulding process. Click to enlarge.
In the above process, plastic is melted and an injection extrusion process is used to create a small hollow tube called a parison (or pre-form).
The parison is captured and enclosed within a metal mould that contains cooling channels. Clean dry compressed air is blown into the parison inflating it to form the shape of the hollow bottle, container or part. The plastic must be cooled before it can be ejected from the mould. A typical mould can be seen in the picture below:
A critical stage in the extrusion blow moulding process is the cooling phase. The final product is technically frozen inside the mould cavities using cool water flowing through the cooling channels.
Because blow moulding typically uses an injection moulding technique to form the parison, the heat load from the hydraulic circuit powering the press must be removed.
More precise cooling capacity must be delivered to the mould responsible for cooling the finished product prior to ejection. Typical cooling requirements for the mould are as follows:
When calculating the cooling capacity required for the blow mould, the target mould temperature in and quantity of plastic that will be blown per hour must be obtained. The Kcal/hr of heat load that needs to be removed from the mould can then be calculated. For additional sizing information please contact your local Parker specialist.
Parker Hyperchill and Hyperchill Plus chillers offer an ideal solution for the plastic industry, providing a one-package solution to meet the different needs of plastic production processes thanks to:
This post was contributed by:
James Brown, compressed air and gas treatment/analytical gas sales manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
Filippo Turra, product manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
2 Mar 2021