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The renewal of the entire ventilation system in the underground car park serving the largest European business district, was not limited to the simple replacement of filters and some mechanical components. This operation involved a vast project requiring advanced technical expertise, particularly in terms of defining and selecting drive solutions and supporting their integration, installation and commissioning.
The objective of the drive systems for the variation of ventilation speed was two-fold. Firstly, it was a question of ensuring the effective evacuation of exhaust gases. Then, secondly, achieving much faster removal of smoke in the event of a fire. The previously installed system had become obsolete because it was only equipped with two-speed motors without drives.
Parker worked with EDF and Inov Industrie on the project. The company was selected for its technical abilities with respect to drive systems, but perhaps more importantly, for its "know how" in the control of energy consumption/optimisation of energy efficiency. The project presented multiple challenges that had to be overcome. First, the project concerned the most extensive car park in Europe incorporating 22,000 spaces, spread over sixteen different sites. Then, due to the underground location of the car parks, below the towers of La Defense at a complex, major road junction, there were numerous access constraints. To this was added the problem of dimensions: the systems selected had to fit in existing cabinets and be adapted to the protocol already in place.
All of the disassembled components being replaced had to be removed and recycled. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the fire safety system needed to allow the forced operation of the drives at maximum speed in order to reliably evacuate fumes in the shortest possible time. For safety, the new systems also needed to be equipped with an automatic restart and be directly connected to the emergency fire services.
The nature of the project meant that work had to be completed quickly and efficiently under intense time pressure. The scale of the project meant that a total of 60 drives with power ratings from 5.5kW to 180kW had to be commissioned in a very short space of time. Inov Industrie, with its 20-year working relationship with Parker, turned to the motion and control specialist, opting to specify units from the company’s AC10 compact drive range.
The suitability of the AC10 range for this significant and challenging project was enhanced due to some new features such as fire mode input/output and its wide range of power ratings - all in a compact package. The AC10 range is characterised by its simplicity of installation, setup and commissioning, thanks in particular to a fast parameterization. With its enhanced functionality, the AC10 drive is able to control asynchronous motors incorporating both simple and complex types of application such as pressure and flow control. The ‘small sequential’ function (sequencing on and off) avoids the need for an additional PLC. It is also possible to obtain information relating to system power consumption and other parameters such as the occurrence of dirty filters.
Article contributed by Francis Scharwatt, sales engineer, Parker Hannifin France
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You’ve probably heard a bit about microwave absorbers and how they are used to reduce or absorb the energy that is present in a microwave. But what are they exactly? And how do they work? Go ahead, read on.
Simply put, microwave absorbers are special materials, often elastomer or rubber based, which are designed to offer a user-friendly approach to the reduction of unwanted electromagnetic radiation from electronic equipment. They also work well to minimize cavity to cavity cross-coupling, and microwave cavity resonances. When comprised of a silicone elastomer matrix with ferrous filler material, microwave absorbers provide RF absorption performance over a broadband frequency range from 500 MHz to 18 GHz.
The microwave absorber itself is considered a dielectric medium, which is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. When such a material is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in a conductor, but instead, the charges shift equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization. This creates an internal electric field.
An EMI microwave absorber is filled with dielectric ferromagnetic materials. As a microwave strikes these materials, the wave becomes attenuated and loses energy. The energy loss is due to a conversion from EMI energy to heat energy via phase cancellation.
The amount of attenuation of the microwave is dependent on the frequency and the electrical permittivit, (dielectric constant) and magnetic permeability of the material. The amount attenuation varies by frequency.
There are two general classes of microwave absorbing materials, and they have to do with the frequency range that the products can effectively attenuate.
There are two general scenarios for microwave absorbing materials:
At the end of the day, there are many theoretical factors that will determine how well a particular absorber will attenuate in an application.
However the typical approach to an absorber solution is to narrow down the selection of a product and a thickness, and then evaluate these samples in the customer’s specific application through trial and success. Ultimately, it really only matters if the product works for the customer in their application and not what theory says.
This blog was contributed by Jarrod Cohen, marketing communications manager, Parker Chomerics Division.
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A massive engineering and design collaboration have brought the vision of world-renowned Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava Valls to life in Lakeland, Florida. The new Innovation, Science and Technology (IST) Building at Florida Polytechnic University will serve as the central building for the campus of Florida’s newest state institution, dedicated to a curriculum of science, technology, engineering, and math. It houses classrooms, auditoriums, administrative offices, common areas and a number of cutting-edge laboratories; including a Supercomputer and Student Data Center, a Visualization and Technology Collaboration Lab, and a Rapid Application Development Makerspace Lab with 3D printing capabilities. The $60 million, two-story building also includes a system of 94 louvered arms that raise and lower to track the sun above a glass roof.
Each louver is manipulated by a Parker Series 2HB Mill-Type hydraulic cylinder. The custom application required five different sized cylinders, with larger cylinders for the longer louvers at the center of the roof and smaller cylinders for the shorter louvers at the ends.
“We are pleased to have supported this highly customized cylinder application with full integration capabilities and precise engineering,”
Tad Brown, cylinder application engineer, Parker Hannifin Cylinder Division
Specified by Parker distributor Atlantic Hydraulic Systems, based in Shirley, N.Y., each cylinder was assembled with integrated cartridge valves on a manifold, which was bolted to the cap and plumbed to the head end of the cylinder. Further, a spherical rod eye was installed at the rod end, and the entire cylinder was painted to match the remainder of the structure. This full integration, along with special pressure decay testing, was all accomplished within Parker’s Cylinder Division in Goodland, Indiana.
The cylinders act independently from one another and can manipulate the louvers to provide shade and artistic motion. The louvers were designed to eventually accommodate a system of photovoltaic tape to generate power for the campus. Each louver arm is engineered with the capability of a maximum upright position of 65 degrees above the horizontal plane and a maximum lowered position of 48 degrees below the horizontal plane. Traveling the full 113-degree distance takes about 10 minutes.
Construction of the 162,000 square foot IST building took 28 months and was completed by Skanska USA. Headquartered in New York, Skanska USA is one of the largest construction and development companies in the country with expertise in construction, civil infrastructure, public-private partnerships and commercial development initiatives in select U.S. markets. Florida Polytechnic welcomed students for the inaugural day of classes on August 25, 2014. The University offers six undergraduate degree programs with 19 unique areas of concentration and two masters degree programs in the College of Engineering and the College of Innovation and Technology.
The 2HB cylinder design in long-stroke industrial applications is an engineering breakthrough that is expected to extend service life, reduce downtime, increase throughput and ultimately increase the profitability of industries requiring stroke lengths over five feet. For OEMs incorporating cylinders into heavy-duty industrial equipment and machines or into apparatus where design aesthetics are important, the 2HB Series of non-tie-rod cylinders offer several differentiating benefits for competitive advantage.
Learn more about the benefits of non-tie-rod hydraulic cylinders and how they can improve performance in your heavy-duty, long-stroke industrial applications - download our Long-Stroke Industrial Cylinder Performance white paper.
For more information on the award-winning IST building and the new Florida Polytechnic University, visit their website.
Article contributed by Bruce Kohlmeyer, engineer manager, Parker Cylinder Division.
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Quick couplings allow fluid lines to be quickly and easily connected and disconnected without the need for tools. Non-spill or dry break couplings are a specific type of connector designed to eliminate spillage during a connection and disconnection.
What sets non-spill apart from traditional couplings? The flush face valve is the difference maker as this feature minimizes discharge and trapped air, while ensuring repeated dripless connections and disconnections. Non-spill or dry break quick disconnects are key to maintaining a clean environment, protecting system fluids from contamination caused by air or debris, and most importantly, keeping workers safe.
Did you know 98 million gallons of fluid from hydraulic equipment is improperly deposited into topsoil, groundwater, rivers and lakes annually? That’s according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The statistics are staggering when you come to the realization that one liter of oil can pollute up to one million liters of water.
Fluid leaks and spills have the potential to cause significant environmental issues. If contamination were to occur, organizations would be responsible for damage to ecosystems and wildlife, resulting in high cleanup costs and federal penalties. All industries from agricultural food production to manufacturing and service operations are affected by environmental protection regulations.
Even what looks like a small leakage can sometimes leave lasting effects on our precious planet. Non-spill quick disconnects keep fluids contained and its environmental impact to a minimum. The flush face valve quickly shuts off flow when fluid lines are disconnected and is engineered to eliminate spillage and fluid loss.
Hydraulic equipment relies on fluid system integrity to effectively transmit power for instant, accurate response and reliable performance. Contamination and the loss of performance transpire when debris and air work their way into the hydraulic fluid. It’s common for this to occur when dirt accumulates on the exposed surface of a traditional poppet valve tip when disconnected. Then, when the quick coupling is reconnected, air and contamination are pushed into the system fluid as the poppet valves open. The air and contamination can cause a loss of horsepower, temperate performance abnormalities and a variety of detrimental effects.
The flush face valves of non-spill quick couplings do not provide surfaces or areas for dirt to accumulate and collect. In environments where dirt is present, the smooth flat surface of the coupling end can be easily and quickly wiped clean. Additionally, non-spill valves keep air inclusion to a minimum because the flat-faced surface does not trap pockets of air as fluid lines are reconnected.
There are many safety and ergonomic risks associated with hydraulic system leakage. Exposure to dangerous chemicals and confined spaces significantly enhance the chances of injury during maintenance operations. Slips, trips and falls account for a third of all personal injuries and is a top cause of workers’ compensation claims.
The most common reason why? Wet or oil surfaces as a result of incremental leakage. Spills and leaks can happen at any point and pose a wide range of health hazards to workers such as sensitization and irritation as well as physical risks.
Parker offers a variety of non-spill couplers to fit versatile fluid applications. The FEM Series and 71 Series are both ideal for use in applications where air inclusion and fluid loss must be minimal. When chemical compatibility is also needed, Parker’s FS Series is a good option.
Parker’s FEM Series is compliant with the highest design and performance specifications set forth by ISO 16028. The standard defines a common dimensional and performance profile that ensures global compatibility and interchangeable connectability with other manufacturer’s quick couplings built to the same standard. Parker’s FEC Series nipples also provide the ability to connect under trapped residual system pressure. FEM Series quick couplings are constructed from steel material and are commonly used to connect hydraulic lines to tools used in construction and utility work. In addition, they are widely used on skid loaders and other similar machinery.
The 71 Series, an original Snap-tite design non-spill coupling, is rated for working pressures up to 10,000 psi. With material options featuring steel, 316 stainless and high pressure stainless steel, Parker’s 71 Series non-spill quick couplings are utilized in industrial applications as well as topside offshore oil drilling and construction.
FS Series non-spill quick couplings provide excellent chemical compatibility. The all stainless steel construction and Fluorocarbon seals make them ideal for closed system transfer of chemicals or corrosive media. Other applications include food processing and chemical dispensing.
The FEM Series | 71 Series | FS Series couplings are available for purchase on Parker.com. Simply add products to your cart for shipment within two days for in-stock items.
Article contributed by Anthony Mistretta, product sales manager, Quick Coupling Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
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Plentiful in North America and relatively inexpensive, natural gas produces 30 percent fewer greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or diesel, making it an ideal alternative fuel for a diverse range of applications. Heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, Class 7-8 trucks and buses are the largest users of this fuel source. Given this growing change, the need for reliable leak-free connections is even more important which is why Parker developed a CNG version of its Seal-Lok O-ring Face Seal (ORFS) fittings.
Known for proven leak-free connections, Seal-Lok ORFS fittings have many benefits for these CNG applications. The ORFS design provides unlimited reusability, resistance to vibration, zero clearance for easy assembly and replacement, as well as resistance to overtorque which has been known to be an issue for other fittings designs. Though ORFS fittings have traditionally been used in industrial hydraulic applications due to the elastomeric seals, the creation of a special CNG O-ring has now made this reliable connection a viable option in alternative fuel applications.
Since the available amount of energy per liter of natural gas is low compared to the traditional fuels, it is compressed to a pressure of at least 200 bar (2900 PSI). Therefore, special attention must be paid to the safety aspects related to CNG Cylinders on-board Natural Gas Vehicles (NGVs). One potential hazard seen in garbage truck operation is a load fire. Load fires are the most common type of truck fire in the refuse/recycling industry.
As you know, refuse vehicles travel in populated residential areas every day. It is critical to ensure the safety of not only the drivers, but anyone in the proximity of a NGV. The trucks are engineered to be extremely safe; however, load fires can heat the CNG storage tanks, raise pressure and introduce the risk of a rupture occurring. To reduce the risk of a rupture in the event of a fire, the CNG cylinders must be equipped with a Pressure Relief Device (PRD). The effectiveness of this specified fire protection system must be validated in a bonfire test.
Bonfire test requirements for Cylinders and PRDs are defined in Regulation 110, ANSI/CSA NGV 2, and CSA B51 Part 2, however, there are no specific bonfire test requirements for the fittings and seals connecting CNG tanks to the system. Given the growing use of Seal-Lok O-ring Face Seal CNG fittings in these connections, Parker felt it important to develop bonfire testing to validate they would perform if exposed to fire.
The criteria for passing were defined using the most rigorous requirements placed on CNG tanks in ANSI/CSA NGV 2 and CSA B51: samples pressurized to 3,600 psig and exposed to a minimum of 590 °C for 20 minutes. To qualify as passing the bonfire test, all seals must have maintained pressure for at least 20 minutes after being heated. This bonfire test was performed by the outside testing facility of Southwest Research Institute’s (SwRI) Fire Technology Department.
Seal-Lok for CNG passed the bonfire test. Passing the bonfire test confirms that Seal-Lok for CNG meets the industry safety requirements for CNG components used in natural gas vehicles. Seal-Lok ORFS CNG fittings are the first and only fittings in the industry to be Bonfire Tested. In addition to passing the bonfire testing, these fittings are also tested and certified by TUV according to the following standards: ECE R110, ANSI NGV 3.1-2014/CSA 12.3-2014 for stainless steel and zinc nickel fittings, and ISO 15500.
To learn more about the Seal-Lok for CNG Bonfire Testing, download the test summary.
Find out more about this product line and see the available configurations on the Seal-Lok for CNG product series page. If you have any questions about this article, please post them and we will respond. To talk to Parker regarding the benefits of Seal-Lok for CNG for your application, please call 614-279-7070.
Written by John Holzheimer, applications engineer, Parker Tube Fittings Division
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Medical-care settings are often stressful, making it hard to rest or sleep—both of which are important for healing and recovery. And, as the portability of medical technology continues to rapidly evolve, an increasing number of medical devices and instruments can be utilized in the patient’s home—for example, point-of-care diagnostics, dialysis, and portable oxygen concentrators.
For the best possible experience, medical equipment should be as non-intrusive as possible.
A frequent complaint by patients and other end users is the disruptive noise that medical equipment can generate. Compression therapy equipment, for example, which is used to prevent clotting in a patient’s legs and feet during hospital stays and surgery, utilizes pumps that cycle on and off over long stretches of time. This can interfere with rest and sleep. The volume of the pump may also be too loud, creating a disruptive environment. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the operational sounds of medical devices to optimize the end-user experience.
For comprehensive information on the impact of noise generating equipment on patients and sound mitigation solutions, download the full white paper, "Advancements in Noise Reduction Techniques for Medical Equipment Manufacturers".
In pump engineering, there are two main sources of sound generation:
Common components in medical equipment that often generate noise are:
Diaphragm pumps tend to be the most substantial source of noise. Their motors rotate a crank that moves a connecting rod up and down, flexing the diaphragm. This action builds pressure or vacuum and generates flow. As the pump operates, it emits vibration across the body of the device.
Solenoid valve and fan noise accompany sound generated by diaphragm pumps during operation. This is caused by the normal actuation of solenoid valves and rotation of the fans as they oscillate the air to keep the equipment cool.
Since pumps often cycle, their noise levels can be intermittent. This breaks the normal sound conditions in a room, making it difficult to sleep or relax.
OEMs often report that noise generated by their equipment is the number-one end-user complaint. However, only a few component manufacturers make sound reduction a top priority in their product enhancement activities. Although mufflers can sometimes be added to equipment, this increases the overall dimensions of the device and can cause an increase in back pressure.
Noise reduction is a key component of Parker’s new product-development projects, especially sound mitigation techniques for diaphragm pumps. We recently tested several methods of sound reduction, including:
Results are shown below:
Oversizing the pump and running it slower
Adding a muffler
Plastic mounting plates
Adding a pump enclosure
For structure-born noise, plastic mounting plates that incorporate elastomeric feet reduced the vibration transmission from the pump to the medical device, resulting in a 3-dB noise reduction for an average Parker diaphragm pump. Adding a customized pump enclosure achieved up to 9 dB in sound reduction.
Pneumatic noise was reduced by oversizing the pump and adding a muffler. Oversizing the pneumatic performance of the diaphragm pump and running it at a slower speed reduced the number of pulsatile flow peaks and, in certain applications, achieved a 3-dB sound reduction. Installing an expansion chamber resulted in a 4-dB sound reduction.
A 6 to 9dB noise reduction can be achieved by combining some of these techniques. These are relatively simple and inexpensive solutions that can be easily built into medical devices and diagnostic equipment, creating a much more desirable environment for the end user.
Enhancing user comfort through medical technology advancements represents the core value proposition for OEMs. Incorporating effective noise reduction solutions into medical device design is essential for a positive patient experience and long-term use of the equipment.
To find out more about sound reduction techniques for medical equipment and what Parker Hannifin has to offer for accessories and application engineering solutions, please contact Parker Precision Fluidics at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This blog was contributed by Richard Whipple, marketing communications manager, Parker Precision Fluidics
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Industrial OEMs and end users rely on traditional tie-rod cylinders to deliver power to industrial presses, mills, foundries, power generation, oil and gas exploration and other extreme, heavy duty applications.
As the workhorse of the industrial cylinder market, tie-rod cylinders perform reliably and offer tremendous flexibility including several mounting options, cushions, position feedback, etc. However, tie-rod cylinders do have some limitations, particularly in longer strokes. Serviceability can be a concern, due to the added complexities of assembling and torquing long tie rods. And for some design-sensitive applications, the visible tie-rod profile can be aesthetically disruptive.
For operations where such concerns are an issue, the introduction of a new class of heavy-duty, non-tie-rod cylinders will be welcome news.
For applications with longer strokes, our 2HB and 3HB non-tie rod cylinders offer reduced complexity and weight versus comparable tie-rod cylinders. Parker’s 2HB and 3HB Series of cylinders are available in 1½" to 14" bores sizes and are dimensionally interchangeable with their tie-rod counterparts, since they adhere to the same industry standard - ANSI/(NFPA) T3.6.7R3 – 2009.
Tie-rods are eliminated through an innovative design which utilizes flanges threaded onto both ends of the cylinder body. The head and cap are bolted to the threaded body flanges with SHCS’s with a small gap between. That gap allows for the head & cap to be preloaded against the end of the cylinder body when the SHCS’s are torqued.
The resulting configuration presents a cleaner, more aesthetically pleasing design. Perhaps most importantly, 2HB and 3HB cylinders enable industrial users to achieve current levels of performance while eliminating tie-rod-related fatigue and maintenance concerns. These non-tie-rod cylinders meet NFPA fatigue tests for reliable performance using standard, field-proven components. They are built to a design safety factor of 4:1 on burst.
To learn more about the benefits of using non-tie rod cylinders for your long stroke industrial applications, download our Long-Stroke Industrial Cylinder Performance white paper.
Improving hydraulic cylinder performance in long-stroke applications is a challenge for industrial OEMs and operators alike. For their heavy-duty industrial applications, replacing traditional tie-rod hydraulic cylinders with non-tie cylinders can extend service life, reduce downtime, increase throughput and ultimately increase the profitability of applications requiring stroke lengths over five feet. For OEMs incorporating cylinders into heavy-duty industrial equipment and machines or into apparatus where design aesthetics are important, non-tie-rod cylinders offer several differentiating benefits for competitive advantage.
Tie-rod cylinders will remain the workhorse of the industrial world, but for those applications demanding long-stroke performance, there is now a viable alternative capable of meeting the high-performance expectations of extreme-duty environments.
To learn more about using non-tie rod cylinders for your long stroke industrial applications, including a university architectural application case study, download our Long-Stroke Industrial Cylinder Performance white paper.
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Check valves are commonly applied to a variety of load holding applications that are found, for example, in mobile equipment in mining, construction, or forestry. Typical thread in cartridge style check valves are large and mount to the surface of a manifold block. This surface mounting adds to the complexity and cost because of the additional machining or drilling of internal passages required to integrate the valve into the circuit. The compact design of Parker’s new thread-in cartridge valve is an ideal solution because it allows for an internal mount.
The CVH021 can be compact in nature because of its application; used in circuits to isolate pressure signals to flow compensators and load sense lines for pumps. Load sensing is a common methodology used for pump control on many multifunctioning hydraulic circuits that use a variable displacement pump. In load sensing circuits with two or more functions, it is important to use check valves to isolate the signal from each function. This ensures that the pump control is receiving the highest pressure signal in the circuit while multiple functions are being used at the same time. (The pump control receiving the highest pressure means the pump output is increased to meet the demand of the highest demand function).
When used as a pressure sensing isolation check valve, the need for zero leakage and flow rates over 4 LPM (1 GPM) are not required. Standard check valves are available in a C8-2 or C10-2 cavity configuration but these are large and costly, given the number of check valves needed. The cavity can also restrict the placement within a manifold. The schematic above shows an example circuit where isolation checks are used.
As with cast iron sectional valves, a common practice to reduce cost and save space was to drill the check valve seat into the manifold then drop in a ball, spring and port plug. While simple in design and function, these types of check valves are not durable, as neither aluminum or cast iron manifold material hold up to the cycling with flow and pressure impacting the ball onto the seat. Further complications arise for service since it can be difficult to change out in the field with loose springs and balls. If the seat is damaged, there is no service possible and the entire manifold would then need to be replaced.
When used as an isolation check valve, the CVH021 provides a good solution. It incorporates the seat and ball in a single cartridge that fits an SAE 2-style port that can be machined in the manifold to be part of the port connections between valves, without the need to be a surface mounted cavity valve. The heat treated seat and ball bearing provide a durable, high cycle design that allows for simple service if needed.
Parker Isolation Check Valves are available from the Hydraulic Cartridge Systems Division. Consult your HCS catalog or www.parker.com/hcs for more information. You can also contact a Product Manager or Technical Support Specialist for help at 847-955-5000 or HCSTechnical@parker.com.
Article contributed by Bill Guse, senior principal engineer, Hydraulic Cartridge Systems Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
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Mobile electronic devices such as smartphones and tablets require highly populated printed circuit boards (PCBs) to support their functionality and performance requirements in an increasingly competitive market space. Consumers demand faster processing, high resolutions, and a longer battery life all in the palm of their hand.
To deliver advanced functionality and performance, board and semiconductor package designers must work together to tightly pack semiconductor devices on PCBs in the most efficient ways possible without causing EMI issues. Mobile electronic device OEMs have no tolerance for EMI issues since performance and reliability drive consumer demand in this market.
To eliminate potential EMI issues caused by densely populated PCBs, PCB and semiconductor designers are investigating novel new ways of shielding semiconductor devices and printed circuit boards. Traditional metal EMI shields are no longer an option, as they take up too much board space and therefore reduce the overall competitive functionality of the mobile electronic device.
One possible solution is an integrated EMI shield: a semiconductor device which has an electrically conductive layer applied over the top and sides of the semiconductor package, which grounds the device to the printed circuit board internally. Integrating the EMI shield into the semiconductor package this way has two main advantages: first, it saves PCB space by incorporating the EMI shield into the semiconductor device itself, reducing the overall size of the final product, and, secondly, it simplifies the board design and shortens product cycles.
The two most common ways to create an integrated EMI shield are applying a metallization layer using some form of physical vapor deposition (PVD) or spraying an electrically conductive coating directly on the semiconductor package. Both technologies provide effective EMI shields, reduce the PCB footprint of the semiconductor device, and simplify the PCB design. Using a PVD process to create an integrated EMI shield can be a high risk and costly option.
In contrast, Chomerics advanced conductive coatings can be applied to semiconductor devices with minimal capital equipment investment in a continuous high volume application process. By applying a conductive coating in a continuous high volume application process, semiconductor manufacturers can minimize their risk and achieve the lowest overall cost/integrated EMI shield. Also, organic conductive coatings are more flexible than typical metallized PVD coatings, resulting in fewer adhesion issues following environmental exposure.
Another method to resolving EMI issues in electronic mobile devices is by applying an organic absorber coating to the semiconductor package or PCB to absorb surplus electromagnetic waves. Chomerics’ absorber coatings are formulated to absorb electromagnetic waves at customer specific frequencies, and because they are non-conductive - can be applied directly to PCBs already populated with semiconductor packages. These absorber coatings can be applied to the PCBs or sections of the PCBs to reduce unwanted EMI noise after board assembly.
The challenges of suppressing board level EMI are not going away. On the contrary, as consumers continue to demand more and more functionality from their mobile electronic devices, OEMs must continue to find novel approaches to solve these ever growing board level EMI issues without impacting product design cycles and manufacturing costs.
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Simplifying user interface and machine system design requires expertise and products. Often machines require a simple, cost effective weight measurement system to improve loading or processing of materials.
The ability to measure the weight of a container or packager in applications such as material handling or fruit harvesting is important to both optimize and measure productivity. If a wheel loader operator can measure the weight of each load in real time and calculate a cumulative weight, it helps measure productivity. Determining the weight of a material transferred helps minimize the number of truck loads required. In harvesting, the real-time measurement of the load of each container can increase productivity by making sure each load is filled, without being overweight. As a matter of fact, highlighting errors and overweight conditions help increase productivity and machine up-time. Icon images and text messages dynamically shown on the screen are extremely helpful for improved operator feedback as well as to clarify error codes and messages.
The PHD line of touch screen displays provides this functionality when coupled with pressure transducers. PHD based load weight measuring systems provide a unique solution to customers who are seeking a cost effective, basic load weight measuring system. The PHD28 offers more capabilities than standard number displays through dynamic screens that show the operator error and system fault messages, over weight conditions, color coded icons, messages and multi-lingual capabilities. These features help improve operator productivity as well as increased up time through faster, clearer diagnostic messages. In addition, the onboard CAN communication allows the PHD to interface with other devices to help automate loading and weighing processes for even better machine productivity. PHD28 is available as a standalone or as part of an integrated solution.
The PHD28 has a dynamic screen that changes based on the weight and system condition as well as including an operator interface. In addition, it has built in processing power to perform the basic calculations to measure the weight, check the pressure sensor inputs for faults, rescale values in metric or imperial or even change the font size and icons on the screen. System productivity can be improved since the screen can change dynamically, based on weight, system faults or user errors to highlight conditions that could slow down or stop the weighing process. With its compact, 2.8-inch size, it suits many consoles and dashboards without compromising valuable space.
In this example, two pressure sensors read the pressure on both the rod and piston side of a hydraulic cylinder while checking the inputs values and scaling the readings. The PHD28 has the processing power to calculate the corresponding force of the cylinder based on the cylinder dimensions while the weight of the container can be calculated as well. In addition, it can be used as the operator interface to perform the tare calculations, store the value and then compute the weight of the payload. The PHD28 offers the functionality of the weight display, operator input device and the system information center in one unit to help reduce costs and save dashboard real estate.
Learn more about our electronic solutions or contact an engineer (link to contact us form on web site).
Article contributed by John P. Thomas, regional application engineer, Electronic Controls Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
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We are all witnesses to the fourth industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0 as it has been coined, as most of us will have seen robots, machines, vehicles or control systems connect to the Internet at some level or another. Of note here is the speed with which changes are taking place, a factor that has seen many new and exciting technologies come to market. In short, the union between the IT and industrial automation worlds is taking place in front of our eyes.
Of course, there are many levels of industrial communication and each requires different hardware and software features. Smart factories are looking to get a lot smarter, more flexible and dynamic, so networks need to respond to these goals. The high performance and reliable communication technologies that are entering the market are making it possible to transfer large amounts of data and connect a high number of individual devices both reliably, and with the highest data security standards.
Well, in the first instance, all levels of communication need to be involved. With Industry 4.0, the boundaries of the different levels shift from what is currently in place. The field level remains a dedicated layer, but the devices on it will incorporate more and more intelligence – including smart sensors – which are able to perform many processes autonomously.
Many efforts to develop IoT platforms have focused on the enterprise level with a top-down approach. Although this level is indispensable, it actually only collects about 10 percent of the available data, limiting the ability to support predictive maintenance and component performance optimisation. Unless a discrete IoT system is used for the remaining 90 percent of critical component data, enterprise systems cannot exploit their potential to truly transform business activities.
With its centralised ‘Voice of the Machine’ strategy, Parker provides an example of a company developing and implementing an Industry 4.0 solution which supports extensive autonomous monitoring and control. The strategy comprises hardware such as smart sensors and IO Link, plus a common set of standards, principles and best practices. Although Industry 4.0 is still in its relative infancy, the technology has reached a point of evolution that can provide significant value in many industrial applications.
The use of industrial networks to make sensors and actuators more intelligent has become common across modern factory environments, and the use of continuous position sensing is a pathway to achieving smart motion control in pneumatic systems.
Continuous position sensors are more sophisticated sensor devices with two-way data flow that help to bring intelligence to pneumatic motion control and provide necessary continuous data to help facilitate a true Industry 4.0 environment.
Using contactless technology to continuously detect the linear position of a piston in its cylinder, the quick, precise and high-resolution sensing of the piston magnet is achieved without the need for separate position encoders or additional mechanics, therefore minimising the cost of implementation.
The data communicated by the sensor allows for monitoring, and when information flows in both directions and actuators are employed, control. The result is that positional data is made available for fast detection of any issues that might cause downtime or potential loss of productivity.
Another critical part in the success of Industry 4.0 manufacturing strategies is choosing the right protocol to connect sensors with controllers and actuators. Here, IO-Link provides the ideal solution, allowing two-way communications to receive data and then download a parameter to the device/actuator. As a result, processes can be adjusted remotely.
The advantages of IO-Link include the automatic detection and parameterisation of the IO-Link device, device monitoring and diagnostics, changes on the fly and reduced spare part costs.
Ultimately, the key to unlocking the power of smart sensors is in making diagnostic information easy to access. IO-Link allows for cyclic data exchange capabilities so that programmers can easily send the information directly to where it is required, either to an HMI screen, a signal light or a maintenance request. If sensor or actuator parameters need to be changed or calibrated, this can be done remotely, even while the production line is still running, ensuring that shutdowns, stoppages and unnecessary costs are avoided.
Watch this video to know more about IO-Link:
Article contributed by Manuel Finotto, business development manager IoT, EMEA
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The future of electronics are smart, safe, and secure thanks to technological advances in EMI shielding and thermal interface materials found at electronica.
Every two years in Munich, Germany, electronica, one of the world’s largest electronics trade fairs and conferences, brings together 3,100 exhibitors from over 50 countries, who provide insight into the future of electronics with their vast solutions and innovative products. The focal topics of this year’s electronica included blockchain, artificial intelligence and medical electronics solutions. With a 10% increase in visitors to over 80,000 from over 80 countries, electronica 2018 was bigger and more successful than ever before.
“No other event gives us as many ways to showcase Parker Chomerics to such a large and appropriate audience,” remarked Matt Finley, global marketing manager for Parker Chomerics. “We were able to debut our new form-in-place EMI shielding gaskets to an environment of people who are looking for the exact solutions we provide. For that alone, electronica is invaluable to us.”
Parker Chomerics, in its 5th year of exhibiting, prominently featured CHOFORM 5575 EMI shielding form-in-place gaskets, which are ideal for high temperature applications where galvanic corrosion is a concern. Chomerics also featured other EMI shielding solutions such as PREMIER conductive plastic, THERM-A-GAP GEL 30 dispensed thermal interface materials and more.
Also, featured prominently at the Parker Chomerics booth were EMI Shielding and thermal interface materials for medical devices and electric vehicles – all burgeoning markets for EMI shielding solutions.
Our team members were proud to represent Parker Chomerics at electronica 2018 and garner the opportunity to network with other professionals, engage with current partners, and nurture relations with future partners. We hope to see you again next time at electronica!
This blog was contributed by Jarrod Cohen, marketing communications manager, Parker Chomerics Division.
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Hard working excavators, tunnel boring, mining, oil field and forestry equipment use a variety of tool attachments. This allows them to be versatile for a multitude of activities, all necessary to perform the work at hand. Some of these attachments require multiple connections to the hydraulic lines, depending on their individual function, whether it be digging, scraping, scooping, grabbing and lifting, cutting, or any other articulated motion.
At the job site, equipment tool attachments might be changed out several times in the process it takes to complete the project. A machine operator can save time and efficiently utilize a single piece of equipment by switching out a bucket for a scraping blade or rock crushing hammer or any other attachment end that is needed.
Heavy duty screw-to-connect quick couplings are the best choice for these types of tool attachment connections. They allow the hydraulic lines between the equipment and the tool attachment to be quickly disconnected and reconnected without extensive downtime.
Screw-to-connect couplings are built to withstand the demanding requirements of applications where hydraulic lines are subjected to the stress of high-pressure impulses. The repeated pounding of pressure in the lines and through the coupling can wreak havoc and easily cause damage to the internal components and sleeve locking mechanism of any standard quick coupling.
The threaded sleeve on a screw-to-connect coupling provides a secure connection that is resistant to loosening or disconnection caused by vibration. It is also a good defense from the damaging effects of material Brinelling, which results from hydraulic shock, when repeated pressure impulses cause metal to deform. When Brinelling occurs on a quick coupling with a standard sleeve mechanism, the coupling can become permanently locked together and inoperable. Threaded sleeves on screw-to-connect couplings prevent Brinelling and keep couplings in working order to be reliable for repeated connection and disconnection.
Parker understands the rigorous performance expectations that define screw-to-connect quick couplings. The FET and 59 Series have both been engineered to meet the challenge. Built from high strength materials, these couplings are rated for pressures up to 6,000 psi. They also enable connection while hydraulic lines are under residual pressures up to 5,000 psi and disconnection at 2,500 psi. The ability to connect the couplings while under pressure allows equipment operators to switch-out tool attachments without first having to spend time bleeding pressure off the system.
Parker FET and 59 Series also have flush face valves that are designed for non-spill operation, virtually eliminating fluid loss at disconnection and featuring low air inclusion at connection. Air inclusion in a hydraulic system causes diminished performance and increased wear of system components. Non-spill valves guard against the damaging pressure checking from trapped air in the lines.
As the FET and 59 Series have many similarities, they also have some significant differences that are important considerations when choosing the best screw-to-connect coupling for your heavy-duty application.
Parker’s FET Series is directly interchangeable with other manufacturers’ screw-to-connect couplings of similar design. The threaded sleeve uses the same style of connecting threads as the competitive designs, which can take up to seven sleeve rotations to complete a full connection of the two coupling halves. This is a very popular and widely used interchange design. FET Series Couplings have an FNC coating and stainless steel valves for extended durability and corrosion resistance. They are available in a wide range of body sizes up to 2 inches. Heavy-duty Code 62 Flange ends are also an option for the larger sizes.
Parker’s 59 Series is highly engineered with the end user in mind. This unique screw-to-connect coupling makes the most demanding hydraulic connections manageable. Rugged Acme threads in the connecting sleeve resist damage, and the larger thread form is easier to keep clean from dirt and debris. The double start feature quickly aligns the threads to provide fast engagement and a full connection requires only 2.5 sleeve rotations. The 59 Series also has an integrated bearing that adds a swivel function to ease the frustration of dealing with hoses under pressure.
The FET Series is ideal for any high impulse screw-to-connect application, especially where couplings need to be interchangeable with other similar couplings already installed on equipment in use. In contrast, Parker’s 59 Series has a unique design and brings the benefits of added performance features to provide a faster, cleaner and easier connection that far exceeds other heavy duty screw-to-connect couplings available today.
Learn more about Parker’s screw-to-connect solutions.
Parker’s screw-to-connect couplings are available for purchase on parker.com. Simply add products to your cart for shipment within two days for in-stock items.
Article contributed by Lori Wessels, product sales manager, Quick Coupling Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
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Today more and more applications are utilizing “heat reclaim” as a means of providing a supplementary or even a primary heat source. Heat reclaim can significantly lower energy costs. Heat reclaim is best described as the process of reclaiming heat that would normally be rejected by an outdoor condenser. Typically, the refrigerant is diverted to an air handler in an area that requires heat. One of the older applications of heat reclaim is in a supermarket since a supermarket has a constant supply of heat removed from the many refrigerated display fixtures and coolers. Today there are many cost-effective applications of heat reclaim in refrigeration, air conditioning, dehumidification, and heat pump systems.
While the most popular application of heat reclaim is air, water heating is popular in supermarkets, convenience stores, and restaurants, which all use considerable amounts of hot water. Essentially any application that requires heat can recover the heat from a refrigeration or air conditioning system. The energy efficiency of recovered heat will almost always be more efficient than any other purchased heat source. The common sense question is “Why reject heat to the outdoors when additional heat is required in any other moderate temperature application within the system or building?” 3-Way refrigerant heat reclaim valves make it convenient to recover rejected or waste heat.
Valves may be installed in either a horizontal or vertical position. However, it should not be mounted with the coil housing below the valve body.
Figures 2 & 3 show typical piping schematics for the two basic types of piping arrangements, series and parallel condensers. The selection of the piping arrangement will depend on the sizing of the reclaim coil and the control scheme of the system.
If the parallel piping arrangement is used, the reclaim condenser must be sized to handle 100% of the rejected heat at the conditions and time at which the reclaim coil is being utilized.
If the series piping arrangement is used, care and safety measures should be taken to prevent the mixing of subcooled refrigerant with hot gas vapors. These safety measures could include pressure or temperature lockout controls and time delay relays.
For both parallel and series piping, when the idle condenser is pumped down to suction pressure, a small solenoid valve can be used to pressurize the idle condenser prior to the 3-way valve shifting. This may reduce the potential for stress and fatigue failure of the refrigerant piping.
3-Way Heat Reclaim Valves with 3-way pilot valves are available in a variety of different sizes. These valves are available with an optional “bleed” port, see Figure 1. The bleed port allows the refrigerant to be removed from the heat reclaim coil or heat exchanger when it is not being used. There are two reasons why the refrigerant is removed from the heat reclaim coil. One is to maintain a proper balance of refrigerant in the system (i.e., refrigerant left in the reclaim coil could result in the remainder of the system operating short of charge). A second reason is to eliminate the potential of having condensed refrigerant in an idle coil. When an idle reclaim coil has condensed or even subcooled liquid refrigerant sitting in the tubes there is a potential for a problem. When refrigerant liquid, either saturated or subcooled, is mixed with hot gas refrigerant, the reaction of the mixing can cause severe liquid hammer. Hot gas mixed with liquid can create thousands of pounds of force and has the potential of breaking refrigerant lines and valves.
An alternate method of removing the refrigerant from a heat reclaim coil is to use a separate normally open solenoid valve and an optional fixed metering device, see Figures 2 & 3. The separate solenoid valve allows the flexibility of pumping out the reclaim heat exchanger as a liquid instead of a vapor. There are two benefits to pumping out the reclaim coil as a liquid: (1) Removal of any oil that may be present in the reclaim heat exchanger. (2) The refrigerating effect of the liquid can be used to lower the superheat of vapor entering the compressor, instead of cooling the heat reclaim heat exchanger. Sporlan recommends that recognized piping references be consulted for assistance in piping procedures. Sporlan is not responsible for system design, any damage resulting from system design, or for misapplication of its products.
Note: A check valve should be installed in the heat reclaim pump out or bleed line whenever the reclaim heat exchanger is exposed to temperatures lower than the saturated suction temperature of the system. This will prevent migration of refrigerant to the coldest location in the system.
Use optional solenoid valve and piping if pump out is required and “C” model Heat Reclaim Valve is used, see Note 4. It is optional to omit this solenoid valve and piping on systems using “B” model Heat Reclaim Valve.
Restrictor, Part #2449-004, may be required to control pump out rate on an inactive condenser.
The pilot suction line must be open to common suction whether or not Heat Reclaim Coil is installed at the time of installation and regardless of Heat Reclaim Valve model/type.
Proper support of heat reclaim valves is essential. Concentrated stresses resulting from thermal expansion or compressor vibrations can cause fatigue failure of tubing, elbows and valve fittings. Fatigue failures can also result from vapor propelled liquid slugging and condensation induced shock. The use of piping brackets close to each of the 3-Way valve fittings is recommended.
This check valve is required if lowest operating ambient temperature is lower than evaporator temperature.
Restrictor, Part #2449-004, may be required to control pump out rate on inactive condenser.
Pilot suction line must be open to common suction whether or not Heat Reclaim Coil is installed at time of installation and regardless of Heat Reclaim Valve model/type.
Proper support of heat reclaim valves is essential. Concentrated stresses resulting from thermal expansion or compressor vibrations can cause fatigue failure of tubing, elbows and valve fittings. Fatigue failures can also result from vapor propelled liquid slugging, and condensation induced shock. The use of piping brackets close to each of the 3-Way valve fittings is recommended.
For additional information on 3-Way Heat Reclaim Valves download Parker Sporlan Bulletin 30-20 or visit the product page here.
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Today more and more applications are utilizing “heat reclaim” as a means of providing a supplementary or even a primary heat source. Heat reclaim can significantly lower energy costs. Heat reclaim is best described as the process of reclaiming heat that would normally be rejected by an outdoor condenser. Typically, the refrigerant is diverted to an air handler in an area that requires heat. One of the older applications of heat reclaim is in a supermarket, since a supermarket has a constant supply of heat removed from the many refrigerated display fixtures and coolers. Today there are many cost-effective applications of heat reclaim in refrigeration, air conditioning, dehumidification and heat pump systems.
While the most popular application of heat reclaim is air, water heating is popular in supermarkets, convenience stores and restaurants, which all use considerable amounts of hot water. Essentially any application that requires heat can recover the heat from a refrigeration or air conditioning system. The energy efficiency of recovered heat will almost always be more efficient than any other purchased heat source. The common sense question is “Why reject heat to the outdoors when additional heat is required in any other moderate temperature application within the system or building?” 3-Way refrigerant heat reclaim valves make it convenient to recover rejected or waste heat.
Whether train driving is done manually or automatically, human being remains responsible for safety. Man is increasingly assisted by automatic means to control and communicate with his machine. This assistance is provided by systems called Human Machine Interfaces (HMI).
The objective of the HMI is to make the facilities more functional, better adapted to the environment and to avoid risks. For this reason, electronic systems are growing to benefit passenger and goods safety but also for the productivity of equipment.
In trains, the HMI are deployed on different mechanical components in the form of electronic systems. They can be placed on the mechanical components of a pressure circuit to monitor and control their operation.
The sensor is an element of the HMI more and more used in the architecture of mechanical systems of a train, especially in pressure circuits. The assembly of sensors on mechanical components allows precise control of movement in pressurized fluid transfer systems, thus improving safety.
These sensors are detection devices with signals that make it possible to bring intelligence to the control of the movement. They provide the data needed to foster a reactive and preventative environment. Position sensors, for example, make it easy to control the open or closed position of a valve on a fluid transfer circuit.
The use of a sensor with electrical or contactless technology minimizes the overall cost of implementing a secure mechanical system. Indeed, it allows to quickly and accurately detect the open or closed position of a circuit, without separate encoders and especially without additional mechanics.
The data transmitted by the sensor allows the monitoring and, when the information flows in both directions, the control of the mechanical component itself. Position data available improve risk control and prevention by quickly detecting any problem and saving it to databases. The HMI then makes it possible to avoid malfunctions that can lead to downtime or productivity losses.
Several fluids are circulating in a train between a tank and actuators such as brake shoes and motors. The medium conveyed range from compressed air, water or glycol water, to diesel or hydraulic oil. Some circuits need to be secured.
Well known for its expertise in fluid transfer solution, Parker Legris has developed a new lockable valve with sensor, adapted to the low-pressure circuit for compressed air supply. Thanks to this valve with open or closed position detection, the user quickly identifies the valve status and can act faster at the exact location.
This new Parker Legris valve has two additional functions:
To adapt to the railway equipment constraints, the new valves have a robust IP67 protection box at the sensor. They are 100 percent leak-tested and have an inductive sensor electrically connected to the HMI.
Electronic sensors are now essential safety instruments in railway vehicles. They are expected to expand to more mechanical components, because safety is at the heart of the innovation of railway market players, and more widely of manufacturers like Parker.
Article contributed by Céline Joyeau, marketing development manager, Low Pressure Connectors Europe Division
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Washing a car effectively takes more than soap and water; it takes proper equipment. At the heart of the operation is the motor. Motors actuate brushes, cars, water-hoses and more within a car washing system. Because these motors must operate for long hours under harsh conditions, motor selection presents a unique engineering challenge. For example, electric motors last longer, but can be more expensive. Conversely, hydraulic motors are more cost efficient, but reputed to suffer periodic oil leaks.
While electric motors appeal to consumers because of their longer life, applications in water-rich environments can lead to issues. Water and electricity do not mix. Leaks, rust and corrosion are prevalent in a car-wash application and can lead to premature failure.
In addition to problems with water, an electric motor’s long life comes with a cost. Simply put, electric drive motors are more expensive. Typically, electric gear motors cost four to five times as much as a hydraulic motor with comparable performance. If repairs are required, electric replacement parts cost more as well. However, in an application that requires long life, the costs of an electric motor may be justified.
A hydraulic motor is more cost effective, but has the reputation of creating a mess. While hydraulic lines can break and lead to oily spills, hydraulic motors should operate indefinitely, if proper system maintenance is followed:
When water and metal is involved, corrosion is a concern. By design, hydraulic motors can withstand corrosion in a way that electric motors cannot. Unpainted and sealed hydraulic motors form a rust coating that allows the motor to adapt to a wet environment, without compromising motor performance.
Parker Low-Speed/High Torque (LSHT) motors are used in conveyor systems, wheel polishers and/or brushes. They offer a two-pressure zone, high pressure shaft seal that does not require a case drain line back to the reservoir. This design reduces cost, while retaining possible leak points on fitting and hose lines. The internal flow passage of the motors allows oil to reach all internal components, keeping fresh oil at the internal bearing and ensuring seal shaft lubrication. Fresh oil for components means longer life.
Robust bearings withstand higher side loads for applications that may require chain or sprocket shaft connections such as the car conveyor. The rugged construction of the TK series motor can transmit over 23,000 lb-in of torque in a compact, 6 x 10 inch package.
Discover more about Parker’s motors used in car wash application motors.
Article contributed by Hersh Chaturvedi, business development manager and Kenney Ricker, product manager, Pump and Motor Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
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Many companies, including those in the food and beverage, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, manufacturing and electronics industries, recognize the negative effects on quality created by oil contact with their product during production. Product rejections and consumer safety concerns associated with oil contamination can have broad negative financial and commercial impacts on a company. However, an often overlooked source of oil in compressed air — ambient air — is frequently misunderstood, underestimated or ignored.
In this blog, we’ll examine the effect that ambient oil vapour levels can have on downstream compressed air quality and what to consider when looking for technically oil-free compressed air to ISO8573-1 Class 0 or Class 1 for total oil.
For details on oil vapour testing levels in ambient air, test methods, compliance and other gaseous contaminants of concern, download the full white paper “Oil Vapour in Ambient Air”.
Ambient air is the air we breathe and it’s all around us. It’s also the air that is drawn in by air compressors. Ambient air is made up of approximately 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. The remaining 1% contains a mix of argon, carbon, helium and hydrogen as well as a variety of contaminants — oil vapour being one of them. Ambient air is an often overlooked source of contamination that can have a big impact on a compressed air system.
Ambient air quality is directly impacted by air pollution caused by industrial processes such as burning fossil fuels and emissions from vehicle exhaust, oil and gas fields, paints, and solvents.
Oil vapour in ambient air is made up of a combination of hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Ambient air typically contains between 0.05mg/m3 and 0.5mg/m3 of oil vapor, however, levels can be higher in dense, urban or industrial environments or next to car parks and busy roadways.
These levels may seem negligible, but when it comes to compressed air contamination, we must consider the effect that compressing the air has on the ambient contamination, the amount flowing into the compressed air system, and the time the compressor is operating.
The process of compression, as well as flow rate and time, build the level of oil in the compressed air that travels through a production system — air that eventually finds its way to production equipment, instrumentation, products and packaging materials.
Compression, or pressurizing the compressed air, can significantly increase the volume of oil. The greater the operating pressure, the higher the potential level of oil in the compressed air. This is compounded by the flow rate and time of operation. Compressors are often designed to operate continuously. This means that the concentration of oil continues to multiply in the confined space of the compressed air system. In turn, it will only exit the system at points where the air is released. These exit points are often in areas where the contaminated air comes in contact with product, production equipment or instrumentation. So, what may seem like negligible levels of hydrocarbons and VOC in ambient air, can become a great concern when the same is drawn in and compressed for use in manufacturing.
Once inside the compressed air system, oil vapour will cool and condense, mixing with water in the air. This contamination causes numerous problems to the compressed air storage and distribution system, production equipment and final product leading to:
Due to the financial and commercial impact of contaminated product, many companies specify the use of an oil-free compressor, in the mistaken belief that this will deliver oil-free compressed air to critical applications.
Oil-free compressed air systems are typically installed without downstream purification equipment intended to remove oil, as they are deemed unnecessary accompaniments. While it is true that oil-free compressed air systems will not contribute contamination in the manner that oil lubricated systems will, oil vapour from ambient air remains untreated.
Technically oil-free air, in accordance with ISO8573-1 (international standard for compressed air purity) Class 0 or Class 1 for Total Oil, can only be guaranteed through the proper application of downstream purification equipment. This equipment may include water separators and coalescing filters to remove liquid water and oil, aerosols of water and oil, and solid particulate as well as adsorption filters to treat oil vapour. Compressed air users seeking an oil-free source of air would be wise to consider these precautionary purification steps, whether they are used with oil-lubricated or oil-free compressed air systems.
In order to establish compliance with ISO8573-1 Class 0 or Class 1, the international standards categorizing oil level in compressed air, users must perform tests to assess both oil aerosol and oil vapor presence in their systems. The levels of each phase will combine to establish total oil in the compressed air system.
To conduct the tests, samples of each phase must be drawn through a solvent extraction process and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) or Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technology. The combination of the two methods will provide an accurate reading down to 0.003mg/m3.
While there are other methods for testing oil levels, like Photo Ionisation Detector (PID), these will leave certain compounds undetected. To this end, they should be used for estimation purposes only. GC and FT-IR will provide results that can be related to ISO standards with reliable and complete accuracy.
Parker has recently introduced a new compressed air purification system. The OFAS Oil Free Air System is a fully integrated heatless compressed air dryer and filtration package suitable for use with any compressor type and can be installed in the compressor room or at the point of use. Fitted with a third adsorbent column for oil vapour removal, the OFAS has been third-party validated by Lloyds register to provide ISO 8573-1 Class 0, with respect to total oil from both oil-lubricated and oil free compressors, ensuring the highest quality air at the point of use for critical applications.
Compressed air is vital to any production process. Whether it comes into direct contact with the product or is used to automate a process, a clean, dry reliable compressed air supply is essential. If the compressed air contains oil, the consequences can be high both financially and in terms of brand damage.
For details on oil vapour testing levels in ambient air, test methods, compliance and other gaseous contaminants of concern, download the full white paper "Oil Vapour in Ambient Air".
This blog was contributed by Mark White, compressed air treatment applications manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division, EMEA.
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Lighter, versatile, non-corroding and cost-effective. These are some of the advantages as to why manufacturers are increasingly replacing metals with plastics for product development. Plastic injection molding is a key component in a shifting manufacturing landscape and has grown beyond specialty applications. Today, it’s a sophisticated process for producing parts requiring machinery and tooling of increasing complexity. As a result, injection molding operations are being pushed to the limits at a time when product quality and manufacturing efficiency is crucial to success.
Injection molding processes are exposed to a variety of potential risks over the course of production. From running unattended for long periods to equipment performance faults, operating without production monitoring can lead to real business headaches. Even the smallest of deviations or errors can impact an organization’s bottom line and result in significant ramifications including line downtime, increased scrap, late shipments and the biggest factor of all, a dissatisfied customer.
There are many variables affecting the injection molding process and each impacts product quality. The variations in temperature, humidity or machine pressure can lead to process or mechanical breakdown. By regularly monitoring the status and condition of processes and equipment, you’re able to identify potential problems and select a course of action to rectify it.
A continuous condition monitoring program provides a valuable amount of information for predicting machinery failure or process variation aiding in the analysis of the root cause of the problem. This solution provides reliable and useful data to assess the health and condition of injection molding machines and processes.
The following two case studies showcase how IoT-based condition monitoring solutions help injection molding operators solve production issues while increasing safety, productivity and quality.
A large injection molding company that produces components for the medical device industry struggled with maintaining the quality of a particular molded part. Production runs were inconsistent due to temperature and pressure anomalies in the mold injection lines, which resulted in short shot, or incompletely formed parts. This caused production downtime, as well as increased part inspections and scrap.
Accurate and continuous monitoring of the temperature and pressure lines with SensoNODE™ Sensors and Voice of the Machine™ Software revealed a small leak in a pressure hose that caused the pressure to drop at certain times during the molding process. With the hose replaced, SensoNODE and Voice of the Machine Software ensured the pressure remained stable during the process. In addition, data collection was much easier than utilizing standard gauges, which would be in difficult-to-see locations within the machine.
The injection molding company was able to fix the problem quickly, minimizing downtime and scrap. The company also avoided a serious product recall risk that comes from shipping out-of-spec molded parts to a medical device customer.
A customer that makes washing machines and dryers had been using manual diagnostic test tools for their manufacturing processes and machines where a majority are hydraulic-based assets. Two pieces of equipment in particular – an injection molding machine and a stamping press – are driven by the same hydraulic power unit (HPU).
The HPU is located 20 feet off the floor at the top of the machines. In order to diagnose or evaluate each asset, a maintenance technician must use a manual diagnostic tool connected to the HPU to collect pressure changes at several points of interest. A second technician would be on the floor watching and cycling the machine.
Those technicians would then test several points individually, which took hours. Because the manual diagnostic devices have long cords that connect the sensors to the handheld meters, the set up for testing was cumbersome and time consuming. Technicians would shut down the machine due to safety risks, then set up the tools to take readings, which further extended downtime and led to missed revenue opportunities.
The customer needed a solution that allowed a single maintenance technician to test multiple functions simultaneously as well as take readings from the floor while also observing asset processes.
By installing SensoNODE Sensors at each of the five points of interest, the technician is now able to run the machine and use Voice of the Machine Software to track all pressure measurements at once, as well as watch the machine functions from a safe area.
Being able to monitor multiple points at the same time simplifies the troubleshooting of a complex system, which helps technicians quickly resolve issues that minimizes downtime and saves money. In turn, the injection molding manufacturer’s customers receive quality products on time leading to increased satisfaction and loyalty.
Learn more about our injection molding solutions or speak to an engineer to discuss your injection molding issues.
Contributed by Dan Davis, product sales manager, SensoNODE Sensors and Voice of the Machine Software, Parker Hannifin.
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