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As consumers demand faster processing speeds, high resolution pictures, and a longer battery life, mobile electronic devices such as smartphones and tablets require highly-populated PCBs to support their functionality and performance requirements, in an ever-increasingly competitive market space. So how do designers fit all those components on there, with zero (yes, read ZERO) tolerance for electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues? This is where your Tetris® high score finally becomes useful!
To eliminate potential EMI issues caused by densely-populated boards, PCB and semiconductor designers are investigating new ways of shielding semiconductor devices and PCBs. Traditional metal EMI shields are no longer an option, as they take up too much board space and therefore reduce the overall competitive functionality of the mobile electronic device.
In contrast, advanced conductive organic coatings such as Parker Chomerics CHO-SHIELD 604 can be applied to semiconductor devices with minimal capital equipment investment. All the while still achieving a continuous high volume application process.
Another approach to tackling EMI issues at the package or board level in electronic mobile devices is by applying an organic absorber coating to the semiconductor package or PCB to absorb extraneous electromagnetic waves. Absorber coatings, such as the Parker Chomerics Absorber Coating 9101, are formulated to absorb electromagnetic waves at customer specific frequencies, and - because they are non-conductive - can be applied directly to PCBs already populated with semiconductor packages. These absorber coatings can be applied to the PCBs or sections of the PCBs to reduce unwanted EMI noise after board assembly.
Like conductive EMI shielding coatings, absorber coatings can be applied in a continuous high volume manufacturing environment with minimal capital equipment investment, making them a low cost, low risk solution for board or component level EMI issues.
Learn more about Parker Chomerics Package Level EMI Shielding Coatings here and click here for additional product information.
This article was contributed by Jarrod Cohen, marketing communications manager, Chomerics Division.
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Blowout prevention systems — or BOPs — are one of the most important pieces of equipment used in exploration and deep drilling applications. These large systems are vital to safety in both on- and off-shore operations, working to restrict or shut down pipes in the event of a blowout.
In the Oil and Gas industry, blowout preventers are critical to the safety of crew, rig, and environment, as well as monitoring and maintaining well integrity. BOPs are intended to provide a fail-safety to the systems that include them in drilling operations. This fail-safety means that BOP systems must be dependable, strong, and in perfect working condition. The dangers of deep drilling and exploration leave little room for mistake, and safety equipment such as blowout preventers is vital, and sometimes life-saving for equipment.
BOP fluid in hydraulic lines provides the muscle needed for the blowout preventer's powerful rams to seal a well shut during drilling or in an emergency, preventing pressurized hydrocarbons from escaping into the environment. The BOP Stack is equipped with hydraulically-powered rams that prevent the escape of high-pressure gas if a gas pocket is encountered while drilling. Therefore, the hydraulic hoses act as control lines that operate (open/close) the rams. Blow-out prevention is a major safety and environmental issue and therefore there are extremely stringent requirement regulated by the American Petroleum Institute for BOP systems.
A blowout in the world of oil and gas drilling is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas following the failure of pressure control systems. Before pressure control equipment was made available in the 1920s, the uncontrolled release of oil and gas from wells during drilling operations was common. The phenomenon was referred to as an oil gusher or a wild well. While gushers were iconic to oil exploration and served as symbols of newfound riches, they were dangerous and wasteful. An accidental spark in the event of a blowout leads to catastrophic oil or gas fires. Modern wells now have BOP systems, which are intended to prevent such damage and danger.
Our high-performance BOP hoses are designed for hydraulic use and certified to withstand fire, high heat, and pressures in safety critical applications. All Fire Armor BOP hose assemblies are tested and approved by Lloyd’s Register (LR), ensuring compliance with American Petroleum Industry API 16D guidelines to meet and exceed OD/1000/499 flame testing at 1300°F for five minutes.
Parker's range of BOP hoses are used for hydraulic connections between the well control equipment and the control system in BOP systems. Combining Parker’s trusted ParLock multi-spiral hose range with Interlock connection and optional stainless steel armor, these high-performance hoses are designed provide protection from external shock and withstand the pressures of BOP applications.
Parker offers a full range of hose sizes from -6 to -32, and a working pressure range of 3000 to 5000 psi:
The FA21 BOP hydraulic hose is made for general applications where flame resistance is required. The braided construction offers a constant working pressure of 3000 psi and a ½ SAE bend radius. The specially formulated cover is designed to withstand the flame test requirements outlined by API specification 16D.
The FA35 BOP hydraulic hose uses a spiral construction that offers a constant working pressure of 5000 psi. The red synthetic rubber cover offers flame resistance.
Parker’s FA35 BOP hose can be combined with the optional metal
armor cover to provide added protection against external damage in harsh environments. The armor is available in 304 stainless steel.
BOP systems depend upon reliable, strong equipment for safety of operations and assurance that the system will effectively contain and stop damage in the event of a blowout. Parker's Certified BOP Assembler Program guarantees customers convenience, speed, and the expertise of a local distributor with the quality, accuracy, and traceability of a factory-made hose assembly. In the world of exploration and deep drilling, waiting for replacement parts means risking the safety of workers and possible environmental damage. To ensure the best speed to market, Parker-qualified distributors undergo workshop audits, the Parker Certificated BOP Hose Assembler Program, and recertification and auditing, which means minimal risk and maximum efficiency, keeping applications running and getting the job done safely and on time.
Certified experts are trained by Parker to put together BOP hose assemblies, which must then be tested and pass the assembly burst test. Certified assemblers then receive assigned designation. Only Parker-certified distributors are qualified to complete BOP hose assemblies, and by certifying individual assemblers rather than locations, Parker ensures superior quality parts and proper assembly from local oil and gas distributors. All Parker-qualified distributors undergo recertification and audits annually to ensure the reliable and safe products every time.
Customers can expect convenient, on-hand inventory from local warehouse and assembly facilities, with an unmatched preventative maintenance plan that removes the burden of inspection and repair schedules and ensures safe and properly working equipment using the Parker Tracking System (PTS). A powerful, comprehensive, and easy-to-use system, PTS provides fast, simple, and accurate delivery of parts and services. Frequent equipment inspections and change outs are vital to safety in BOP systems. PTS provides assurance that Parker's BOP hose assemblies always provide superior quality, safety, and reliability in even the most severe conditions.
Balancing the need to control costs, while expanding exploration into ever harsher environments, requires a supplier who can address these challenges and bring innovation and quality through products and services that meet your needs. With more than five decades of experience serving the oil and gas market globally, Parker’s Hose Products Division has become a valued partner and technology leader for today’s oil and gas companies.
Article contributed by Kyri McDonough, marketing services manager at Hose Products Division, Parker Hannifin.
Other related topics on hydraulic hose, hose application, and selection criteria:
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Hydraulic Hose User Safety
In many applications across a multitude of industries like mining, hazmat and pharmaceuticals, employers must supply breathing air systems when necessary to keep employees safe. A variety of hazardous substances can be present in the air of these applications. Biological agents, dust, noble gases, processed substances, fumes, mist, asbestos and even lead are harmful and require breathing air purification to keep people healthy and away from dangerous breathing hazards.
The challenge for breathing air applications is that even with a compressed air fed breathing system, the air that feeds the system is ambient; therefore any contaminants in the air can penetrate the breathing air system, as well as any contaminants that the system itself could introduce to the breathing air. Air purification systems are necessary to remove contaminants like
Depending on the application, air must be purified to the relevant International Breathing Air Standard.
Of course, with a wide variety of purification products available, ranging from a simple respirator offering basic protection against low levels of dust particles to self-contained breathing apparatus it is essential that the inhalation risks be fully assessed and a suitable purification product selected.
With any potential inhalation hazard exists. It is essential that a full assessment of the risk to the user is completed in order to identify the risk of contamination and level of contamination in order to comply with the required air quality standards. The air flow rate must meet the needs of the total number of users in the system. Parker can assist in air purity testing and breathing air purifiers to get your breathing application to standard and is available to connect your system everywhere you need it to go.
Transair® is the ideal choice for breathing air system installations since they require the highest quality of air. You wouldn't want to hang pipe that could contribute to the contamination of the breathing air. This defeats the entire purpose of the system. Transair's aluminum piping does not rust or corrode. Transair has no rough surfaces or interior restrictions that can accumulate contaminants. The full-bore designed interior is completely smooth and allows air to flow to filters and dryers, for the efficient removal of contaminants and providing employees with safe breathing air. View the entire product line of Transair products on our website.
Parker domnick hunter breathing air purifiers are designed to offer the user protection against some or all of the contaminants that may be present in a compressed air fed breathing air system. As the world leader in filtration and purification of compressed air, Parker domnick hunter offers unrivaled experience in the design and manufacture of air treatment equipment. With Parker domnick hunter breathing air purifiers in constant use worldwide, protecting lives in virtually every type of industry and the commitment to continuous research and development, Parker domnick hunter provides a complete range of breathing air purifiers designed to match the specific needs inherent when breathing from a compressed air supply.
Did you know that Transair® is approved for OSHA Class breathing air applications?
Contact us today for more details and watch our system video to see the product in actions!
Article contributed by Guillermo Hiyane, product sales manager, Parker Hannifin, Fluid Systems Connectors Division - Transair
Diesel and biodiesel engine manufacturers are moving toward electroless nickel plated connectors as part of their fuel system specification. We’ll tell you why.
The transportation and mobile markets always keep performance at the forefront of their specifications, standards and recommendations for truck, bus and other heavy truck applications. As a leading supplier to this market, Parker is committed to responding to the needs of changing requirements.
An increased use of various diesel and biodiesel fuels in heavy-duty fuel systems creates the need to continually assess the compatibility of system materials and the fuels themselves. It has been known for quite some time that B100 (pure) biodiesel fuel can degrade some hoses, gaskets, seal elastomers, glues, plastics, rubber compounds, polypropylene, etc. and the list continues to grow as testing advances. PTFE, Fluorocarbon and Nylon have been known to perform well with B100 biodiesel. B20 biodiesel blends of 20 percent or less have fewer effects on these materials, but great caution in material selection is always important.
Recently, it has been noted through further testing that the oxidation process of diesel and biodiesel may be accelerated when using materials such as bronze, tin, lead and zinc. This can create insoluble fuel gels or salts, which can cause blockage in fuel system lines. Heavy-duty manufacturers are responding by eliminating these materials (commonly used throughout the truck for many different applications) as a part of the fuel system.
Brass is comprised of approximately 60 percent copper, 38 percent zinc and 2 percent lead, all materials that are noted to accelerate corrosion with diesel and biodiesel fuels. Copper acts as a catalyst, accelerating the aging of diesel fuel, which creates organic acids. This acid, in turn, corrodes the copper, releasing copper ions that become absorbed in the fuel stream and damage downstream components.
The zinc in brass is also cause for concern due to the fact that diesel fuel, when in contact with zinc or zinc compounds, will become contaminated with low levels of zinc, which can form zinc salts. These salts will tend to form insoluble gels in the fuel and can plug fuel filters, narrow orifices, fuel injector nozzle holes and other small diameter passages within the fuel system.
Parker's Fluid System Connectors Division has responded to the changing diesel and biodiesel fuel system needs. In order to improve performance in the fuel lines, manufacturers must switch to a material that does not oxidize in fuel systems. Stainless steel is an option, but an expensive one. In turn, Parker has electroless nickel (ENI) plated to the fuel wetted surface (the area of the fitting that comes in contact with the fuel) of their brass fuel fittings to accommodate the increasing need for improved performance in the fuel systems.
This provides a very cost effective solution to the problem. While only electroless nickel plating the components in contact with the fuel, the non-fuel wetted components of the fitting can remain brass. The electroless nickel plating prevents corrosion and wear, provides robust chemical compatibility and is approved by all current suppliers that have changed their specifications to accommodate the new requirements. In fact, Parker has the capability to add an electroless nickel plated coating to any brass component that we manufacture.
For more information about our vast offering of DOT transportation fittings, please visit our website or contact Parker Fluid System Connectors Division at (269) 694-9411.
Article contributed by Samantha Smith, marketing services manager, Fluid System Connectors Division.
Additional content on DOT Fittings for the Transportation Industry:
Why are Brass Fittings Preferred by Truck Manufacturers?
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The Advantages of Cartridges in Transportation Applications
Choosing Air Brake Tube Fittings for Heavy-Duty Trucks and Trailers
Here is some information concerning refrigeration oils that every HVACR technician will find useful.
Mineral – a by-product in the distillation of crude oil to produce gasoline. Mineral oil can be classified into the following groups: naphthenic, paraffinic, and aromatic. Naphthene based mineral oils are suitable for refrigeration systems using CFC or HCFC refrigerants.
Alkylbenzene (AB) – a synthetic oil suitable for refrigeration systems using CFC or HCFC refrigerants. It is compatible with mineral oil, and compared to mineral oil, it has improved refrigerant miscibility with R-22 at low temperature conditions.
Polyolester (POE) – the primarily synthetic oil for refrigeration systems using HFC refrigerants. It is also suitable for refrigeration systems using CFC, HCFC refrigerants and being evaluated in CO2 systems.
Polyalkelene Glycol (PAG) – a synthetic oil primarily used in R-134a automotive air conditioning systems. It is more hygroscopic that either POE or PVE oils, but it does not undergo hydrolysis in the presence of water.
Polyvinyl Ether (PVE) – a synthetic oil that is being used as an alternative to POE oil. It is more hygroscopic than POE oil, but less than PAG oil. Like PAG oil, PVE oil does not undergo hydrolysis in the presence of water.
Dielectric Strength – a measure of the oil’s resistance to an electric current. A low dielectric strength is indicative of moisture and/or contamination in the oil.
Fire Point – the lowest temperature at which the oil maintains combustion. Flash Point – the lowest temperature at which oil vapor momentarily ignites.
Floc Point – the temperature at which wax will separate from the oil. Above this temperature, wax will remain in solution.
Pour Point – the temperature at which the oil begins to pour.
Specific Gravity – density with respect to water.
Viscosity – a measure of the oil’s resistance to flow. Two units of measure are typically used with refrigeration oil. The older measure is Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS); the newer is ISO viscosity grade number (ISO VG), a measure using centistokes. For comparison, an oil having a 150 SUS has an ISO viscosity grade of 32.
Esterification – the reverse of hydrolysis. It is the process in which an organic acid and alcohol are combined to form POE oil and water.
Hydrolysis – decomposition of a compound by reaction with water. In the case of POE oil, it decomposes into partial esters, organic acid and alcohol in the presence of water. The degree of hydrolysis is driven by the amount of water present. The speed at which hydrolysis occurs is dependent on temperature and the acid content (acids can act as a catalyst).
Hygroscopicity – ability of the oil to absorb moisture. The most hygroscopic refrigerant oils in descending order are: PAGs, PVEs, POEs, ABs, and mineral oils
Miscibility – ability of the oil to mix with the refrigerant. Some degree of miscibility is necessary between the oil and refrigerant so that the oil can return to the compressor during system operation.
Polar – a molecular structure with an uneven distribution of electron density. PAG, PVE, and POE oils have polar structures which allow them attract water molecules.
Solubility – the ability of one compound to dissolve into another. Water is soluble in various degrees with the refrigerants and refrigeration oils.
One may consult oil approval listings such as the one published in Parker Sporlan Catalog G-1. But one should confirm with the compressor manufacturer which oils are qualified for the particular compressor model, refrigerant, and application.
The Oil Acid Test Kit - Sporlan Test-All® is designed to assist the technician in evaluating the condition of the operating compressor. Using the kit, a sample of any refrigerant lubricant is sent to our laboratory. A complete spectrographic analysis indicating the presence (in ppm) of up to 21 contaminants (including metals which indicate wear), plus a chemical analysis for acid, moisture content and oil viscosity is mailed to the submitter.
1. Avoid exposing POE oil to air for any unnecessary length of time. Keep containers of POE oils tightly closed when it is not being dispensed.
2. Keep the refrigeration system closed except when work is actually being performed on the equipment.
3. Keep POE oil in their original containers.
4. Use a properly sized Catch-All® filter-drier when installing or servicing refrigeration equipment.
Article contributed by Chris Reeves, product manager, Contaminant Control Products, Sporlan Division of Parker Hannifin
For more articles on climate control:
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HVACR Tech Tip: Prevent Destructive Superheat with TREV Liquid Injection
HVACR Tech Tip: Guide to Servicing Blended Refrigerants
Traditionally, DOT-rated compression and push-to-connect fittings use American National Standard Taper Pipe Threads, referred to as NPTF pipe threads. NPTF or pipe fittings feature tapered threads providing the mechanical strength needed to hold the joint together, plus the metal-to-metal sealing formed when the tapered threads are tightened against tapered port threads. This thread type requires the use of a thread sealant to seal any spiral leak paths or voids that may remain between the tapered threads on the fitting and threads on the port.
The far more common industry standard for the connection ports installed on air brake system components such as air tanks and brake valves, the choice of pipe thread fittings often arises as a matter of necessity, with the fitting thread dictated by the corresponding ports on components. As another benefit, pipe threads don’t require an additional sealing mechanism, besides thread sealant, and they tend to be the lower cost of the two major types.
The main disadvantage with pipe threads, however, is that voids in the connection still can remain. Pipe threads are prone to leakage, especially since there is no other sealing mechanism besides the tapered threads themselves. In air brake systems, pipe thread leakage has been noted at one area in particular-- port connections on air tanks, a known source of warranty claims. Studies of these leaks have shown it may be the way these ports are manufactured that leads to a poor seal.
The process requires female threads to be machined into steel spuds that are welded into the air tank. The ensuing welding process can cause the spuds to warp, which results in a poor fit. In addition, certain NPTF threads can be difficult to position. For instance, an elbow pipe thread fitting may need to be loosened to orient, creating a potential leak path.
Leakage issues like this are less of a concern with the other main fitting thread type, the straight-thread O-ring (STO). Fittings of this design have straight threads providing only the mechanical connection, but not the airtight seal. Meanwhile, the seal is handled by an elastomer O-ring seal or gasket that mates up against a defined portion of the equipment. In this way, the O-ring compensates for any variation in the surface of the port.
A less common option for ports installed on air brake components, STO fittings may not be specified in systems with the frequency of pipe threads. However, they have proven to offer more reliable connections where they’re used. For example, warped air tank spuds have less impact when STO fittings are used. One OEM found that most of their warranty claims for air leakage disappeared when they switched from air tanks with pipe thread ports to tanks with STO ports.
However, the added reliability of STO fittings also comes at an increased cost to truck OEMs. In many cases switching to STO fittings may require some customization of the fittings or their respective components. These are costs and benefits for OEMs to weigh as part of their overall business plans.
Article contributed by Samantha Smith, marketing services manager, Fluid System Connectors Division
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Composite DOT-certified push-to-connect fittings are manufactured with a polymer body and brass screw threads and holding mechanisms. They utilize a collet to grip tubing, plus an elastomeric sealing mechanism to complete the tube end seal, allowing for a relatively foolproof assembly with no additional tools other than a tube cutter.
Like their brass counterpart, Prestomatic (PMT), composite PTC fittings do not rust or corrode. The internal push-to-connect sealing mechanism affords a strong and dependable seal robust enough to meet all DOT parameters and to withstand high and low-temperature extremes.
Composite fittings are particularly notable for their lightweight and durable construction, which features the same sharp biting edge as Parker’s Prestomatic fittings. What’s more, the weight benefits provided by composite push-to-connect fittings over brass fittings are significant enough to affect fuel efficiency and payload potential.
Composite push-to-connect fittings weigh about 43% less than brass push-to-connect fittings. With approximately 60 to 100 DOT tube fittings used per truck, that equates to a weight savings of about seven to nine pounds per vehicle! When you consider that some fleets number in the thousands, the potential benefits of composite push-to-connect fittings are substantial and can be passed along to end users.
One major benefit of PTC technology is the time savings in assembly. Attached to tubing with a simple push, these fittings may reduce assembly time by as much as 90 percent over compression style fittings, averaging four seconds per connection. That means an assembler who used to assemble 90 compression fittings in one hour may be able to assemble as many as 900 connections with push-to-connect fittings. This also means one worker can potentially complete in one hour, the same number of fitting connections it would have taken 10 workers to complete.
Considering an hourly wage of about $25, the labor cost to assemble each compression fitting connection is around $0.27, compared with just under $0.03 for each push-to-connect connection. At that rate, by switching from compression fittings to push-to-connect fittings, a manufacturer could potentially reduce its assembly labor costs from $250 per hour to less than $50. The financial benefits are compounded when you consider that with faster assembly processes, OEMs may also be able to produce more vehicles per hour with push-to-connect fittings.
Since push-to-connect fittings don’t require manual assembly or counting turns of the wrench, truck and trailer OEMs may be able to increase the consistency of the quality of their assemblies. Another time-saving benefit of push-to-connect fittings is that they can be supplied with color coding on the tube ends of the fittings, helping to specify which sections of the air brake system the fittings are to be installed. This not only adds further time savings by categorizing fitting connections but also helps to prevent installation errors and rework.
They also add greater customization potential for truck OEMs, since they allow for the creation of uniquely shaped bodies produced by injection molding processes. With longer lead times and upfront tooling costs required, custom-made composite fittings make sense when higher quantities of the custom fittings are required. However, with proper mold design, suppliers may be able to offer jump-sized versions of a part at a fraction of the cost and lead time required for the original component.
Although the unit cost of composite push-to-connect fittings is higher than that of compression fittings, most truck OEMs find the significant labor savings and weight reduction of this product more than make up for higher unit costs. And, when installed properly, DOT-rated push-to-connect fittings are just as reliable as compression style fittings in virtually all applications.
Article contributed by Samantha Smith, marketing services manager, Fluid System Connectors Division.
From OEM component suppliers to heavy-duty truck manufacturers, there are advantages of using cartridges in transportation applications.
Cartridges are used across many markets including industrial, pneumatic, filtration, semiconductor, life science, automation, and heavy-duty trucking. In all of these markets, manufacturers and end users alike recognize the benefits of a compact sealing design that improves system reliability. Originally developed for thermoplastic materials, specialty cartridges have been manufactured and tested for a variety of materials to bring the sealing technology to a wide array of applications.
Many of our OEM manufacturers that supply to the transportation market have found great success in utilizing Parker’s Prestomatic SAE Encapsulated Cartridges in their systems. Let’s take a closer look at how manufacturers can improve system reliability and automate their processes.
For best practices on choosing DOT air brake tube fittings download the complete guide.
Basically, any component that uses compressed air on the truck could potentially utilize a cartridge. In-cab controls, air horns, air ride seats, airbags, brake valves and leveling valves are all great examples. A cartridge connection is typically taking the place of a threaded port.
Cartridges are very compact and provide great advantages when working in tight spaces. It is not always easy to get a wrench in tight spaces and pipe fittings are known to leak when not installed properly. A cartridge eliminates this worry with assembly simply by pushing the tubing into the cartridge. The compact design of the one-piece cartridge enables automation of the manufacturing process and improves system reliability. The cartridge becomes an integral part of the overall component, eliminating threaded connections and the possibility of spiral leakage along the mating threads.
This affords the component manufacturer the ability to produce a highly reliable product that allows end users and truck manufacturers to speed up their assembly time. Cartridges also often provide the opportunity to reduce overall weight, which is always of importance to the trucking industry.
In short, this technological advancement to the industry brings consistent reliability and a number of benefits to the end user truck manufacturer. As mentioned before, ease of assembly ranks high on the list of benefits. In addition, when a cartridge is used in a port, there is no need for the truck manufacturer to buy fittings for the ports. It is a quick and easy push-to-connect assembly that saves time and money in the assembly process. Easy assembly equates to fewer errors and therefore a more leak-free solution. In fact, with the low profile solution that a cartridge offers, more design freedom for future changes and improvements are possible; not to mention the ability to color code the connections to ensure proper plumbing of the system.
Now that we understand the benefits of using a cartridge in place of a threaded port, let’s take a quick look at the actual features of the Prestomatic SAE Encapsulated Cartridges.
The SAE encapsulated cartridge meets performance requirements of FMVSS 571.106 and SAE J2494-3 and the proposed dimensional standards of SAE J2494-4 in 6061-T6 aluminum.
The push-in connection is self-centering in the cavity and no thread is needed to insert the fitting into its cavity.
The seal is pre-assembled, greased and protected.
The cartridges are protected against contamination from manufacture to installation and the packaging is designed for the automation assembly process.
Watch our latest video to see the benefits of using a cartridge versus a tapered thread fitting:
Parker’s Fluid System Connectors Division offers the widest range of brass fittings for the transportation market and SAE encapsulated cartridges are just a glimpse into the vast offering we provide. From extruded, forged, plated, and composite materials, we make connections to bring increased efficiencies and higher productivity. Our vast offering of NTA, Transmission, Vibra-Lok, Prestomatic, PTC, Air Brake Hose Ends and PMH, and Pipe fittings can fit the needs of the heavy truck market with superior quality.
For more information about our Prestomatic SAE Encapsulated Cartridges or the rest of our vast offering of transportation fittings, please contact Parker Fluid System Connectors Division at (269) 694-9411.
Article contributed by Samantha Smith, marketing services manager, Fluid System Connectors Division.
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In today’s medical device industry, there is strong demand for smaller, sleeker designs and speed to the market with the newest breakthrough products. Engineers designing respiratory equipment, such as ventilators and anesthesia machines, are challenged by a host of critical factors. Users demand top performance and compliance with evolving regulatory standards. Medical device original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) must address these challenges by producing equipment that meets design specifications and performance expectations while also controlling costs. To do this, resources need to be identified to help meet these needs and expedite the design process.
A direct acting proportional valve, integral to the design of an inspiratory flow system, provides precision control for the flow of gas. Specialized proportional valves are available for application in ventilators and anesthesia machines and provide accurate and safe delivery of precise gases to patients.
In this blog, we will focus on proportional valves and the key factors OEM design engineers should consider when selecting them to meet ventilator and anesthesia machine design requirements, including:
Choose the right proportional valve for your application needs, download the guide, "Selecting a High Flow Proportional Valve for Ventilators & Anesthesia Machines".
There can be on the order of a dozen components in an inspiratory flow system. Proportional valves are often located in the middle of the system and provide flow control of the gases employed and prevent over-pressure in lines. Other components may include: inlet filters, pressure transducers, auto zero or calibration valve switches, check valves, pressure regulators, mass flow sensors, relief valves, oxygen sensors and fittings and tubing. The various components can be categorized as safety elements and control elements. Proportional valves are considered control elements.
The following application and design specifications should be considered when selecting a proportional valve:
Air source: Most ICU/Operating room and general ward ventilators use hospital plumbed air which can be prone to significant pressure variations. A proportional valve will balance the variation of pressure. Depending on the application, using a high-pressure proportional valve can eliminate the need for a pressure-reducing regulator.
Safety: When a pressure reducing regulator is installed for safety purposes, then a proportional valve is necessary to maintain consistent flow rates.
Device size: Trends are towards smaller systems. Employing a proportional valve with pressure regulation can reduce the number of pressure management components needed, thus reducing system size.
Gas compatibility: Careful selection of proportional valves with compatible elastomers is important, particularly in anesthesia applications.
Life and reliability: Documented life testing across varied temperatures and conditions is important to the prevention of premature aging of valves.
Compliance: It is important to select a valve that meets the most recent directives and regulations pertaining to the manufacturing of medical device products and components such a RoHS and REACH.
Mounting style: Proportional valves have several mounting options. The most common are manifold and cartridge. Selection should be based on the best fit for the designed system.
Customization: If customization is a requirement, choosing a supplier that offers flexible design capabilities such as lead wires, calibration and mounting options is ideal.
The specifics of the installation location, physical size constraints, type of gases being used, the extent of use anticipated and operating conditions are variable and should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. Once a clear picture has been drawn, the following considerations should be evaluated, specific to the proportional valve selection:
Parker Precision Fluidics has recently expanded its line of proportional valves for respiratory equipment such as ventilators and anesthesia machines as well as other life science applications. The VSO® MAX HP line consists of two models that offer a combination of flow performance, operating pressure range, controllability and power efficiency.
When specifying proportional valves for medical equipment such as ventilators and anesthesia machines, it's important to consider component functions, application requirements and system specifications to ensure the valve you choose optimizes the performance and design of the device while keeping costs in check.
For additional information on choosing proportional valves for ventilators and anesthesia machines, download the guide "Selecting a High Flow Proportional Valve for Ventilators & Anesthesia Machines".
This blog was contributed by Sam Ruback, marketing development manager, Parker Precision Fluidics Division.
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In the world of semiconductor manufacturing, performance requirements are driving circuit sizes smaller and smaller, causing increased sensitivity to wafer defects. In parallel, the number of manufacturing steps has also increased driving a need for improved tool utilization and leaving more opportunity for these defects to be introduced. Identifying and eliminating the sources of defects is a tedious but necessary process to improve wafer yield.
One very distinct source of defects are the seals within a fab’s tool. Plasmas involved in both deposition, etch and cleaning processes utilize aggressive chemistries that put even high-functioning perfluorinated sealing compounds to the test. Much room for improvement has been left in this industry with many seal materials still posing significant threats to defectivity or downtime despite being designed for low particle generation or etch resistance.
Parker’s UltraTM FF302 Perfluorelastomer has proven success in CVD and etch applications, putting this material at the top of its class. Typically, seal materials for semiconductor applications are optimized for low particulation or extreme etch resistance, however, Ultra FF302 provides both attributes in one material. Laboratory testing shows Ultra FF302 has lower erosion in aggressive plasma chemistries even when compared to today’s leading elastomeric materials (Figure 1 below shows comparison erosion levels of various etch resistant perfluoroelastmers after exposure to O2 plasma).
Not only has Parker’s Ultra FF302 shown promising results in the laboratory, but it has also had major success within the fab. In one field use, a fabricator was experiencing notable etching of industry-leading seals during a High Density Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDP-CVD) process involving SiH4 deposition with NF3 and O2 plasma cleans. Use of competitive materials (Competitor I, Figure 2) resulted in severe degradation with roughly 20% of the seal volume eroding; after the same period, FF302 O-rings experienced no erosion even in the most aggressive locations of the tool. (Figure 2 below shows the cross-sectional view of various FFKM O-rings after a full PM (60k wafers) on an HDP-CVD process).
If you are an equipment owner, you know this type of erosion is not unique to this fab alone. As a matter of fact, Parker has seen this type of erosion across various fabs and various companies.
Resistance to any variety of etching of the sealing material is imperative. Physical and chemical etch often wears away the polymeric components of the elastomer, leaving behind organic or mineral fillers in a rough, abraded manner and dislodging larger particles. The successes of FF302-75 show its ability to resist the most aggressive etching and cleaning chemistries. For this very reason, more and more tool owners see Parker’s Ultra FF302 as a great solution for reducing the cost of ownership on the tools for which they are responsible.
For more information, visit Parker O-Ring & Engineered Seals Division online and chat with our experienced applications engineers.
This article was contributed by Nathanael Reis, applications engineer, Parker O-Ring & Engineered Seals Division.
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The European standard EN 45545 was introduced in 2013 with a transitional period until 2016 and raises the level of requirements to the previous national standards, which have now been withdrawn.
The standard affects manufacturers of rail vehicles in all different categories including high-speed trains, regional trains, city-trams, industrial rail transportation and truck maintenance vehicles. But what does this all mean for design engineers of rail vehicles?
Download the rail hose selection guide here
The EN 45545 aims to protect passengers and staff against onboard fire incidents on railway vehicles. Part two of the European standard (EN 45545-2) defines tighter requirements for the fire behavior of materials and components including flooring, seats and cables on railway vehicles.
This part also specifies the test methods, test conditions and reaction to fire performance requirements. Concerning the burning behavior of hydraulic hose materials, the EN 45545-2 contains specific requirements for oxygen index, smoke density and smoke toxicity. Products are classified according to 26 requirement sets (R1-R26) depending on where the materials are used. Each requirement has a corresponding series of test performance criteria. The requirement sets defined for hose materials is R22 (inside the vehicle) and R23 (outside the vehicle) and as well three hazard levels (HL1, HL2, HL3). HL1 contains the lowest requirements and HL3 the highest. The classification depends on how many kilometers the rail vehicles are in a tunnel and whether they are automatic, two-stores or if sleepers are on board.
Several tests are used to measure how the product compares to the product requirement sets. EN 45545-4 contains normative references to the EN 50553, which is furthermore important for hose assemblies installed within hydraulic/pneumatic circuits essential for the running capability of the vehicle. Hose assemblies selected for such important applications must pass a flame test according to ISO15540 (min. 800 °C for at least 15 minutes).
New trains built from March 2016 onward must be in line with the new standard. It is no secret, that the rail rolling stock industry is among the world’s most demanding in terms of the pressures placed on components and systems used, particularly considering the extremes of vibration and temperature that are present in typical operating environments.
As we are now in the age of higher speed trains, longer tunnels and the need for greater survivability, the European Union was looking for an alternative either to the prior valid different national safety standards or to the classic hose assembly flame test in accordance with EN 15540 and all of this combined with the demand to ensure compliance with ever lower pollutant emission limits. Design engineers have to deal with a variety of pneumatic, hydraulic and further applications which require different hose characteristics and this means a range of different hose types and all of these hose products must be EN 45545 approved. These challenging requirements can be a burden for a design engineer.
The first step is to determine which product requirements apply (R1-R26). Secondly, determine the fire hazard level (HL1-HL3) and finally, identify a suitable material that meets the above ratings and the technical requirements for the application. It is Ideal to select a partner and products that meet all requirements set and that have been tested and approved according to the EN 45545-2 requirements.
Working with a certified and well-experienced partner can ease the selection of the right components. Parker has developed a complete range of rail hoses (RH) for rail applications from low to high pressure and was the first hose European manufacturer to develop a new rubber compound to meet the required standards of EN 45545 in terms of fire retardancy, smoke behavior and toxicity. On top of that, the Parker RH hose range delivers additional advantages such as a better bend radius to support easier design and routing and assembly cost savings. All hoses can be supplied for many rolling stock applications:
International companies with substantial expertise, such as Parker, have a global presence for the leading players of the rail industry and can offer the right hose for each rail application and on top, you can choose the way of product supply which best answers your individual manufacturing philosophy. The delivery options include complete hose assemblies, hose/tube assemblies, single hoses and fittings and hose crimpers and tooling for the Parkrimp No-Skive self-assembling.
The Parker Rail Hose range focuses on the safety of people and property and for many years has been supporting all relevant applications within different types of railway trains and vehicles. A comprehensive cheat sheet that details all you need to know about a successful rail hose selection has been developed.
For more information, download the brochure "The Rail Hose Range for European Rail Transportation'"
This blog was contributed to by Conny Stöhr, marketing services manager, Hose Products Division Europe.
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Over the past 6-1/2” years the water blast industry has witnessed significant positive progress in many areas of operation, most notably the area of safety. In September 2011, WJTA established a color coding scheme using system operating pressures through its Recommended Practices for the Use of High-Pressure Water Jetting Equipment. Manufactures throughout the water blast industry responded to meet this recommendation, with UHP hose manufacturers moving away from their traditional hose jacket colors to ones that complied with the recommended color scheme.
OEM pump manufacturers ensured each component from the UHP pump to the “shotgun” was compliant with WJTA recommendations. Since then, OEM’s have also made tremendous advancements in the process of heat exchanger cleaning. Automated equipment now allows the operator to work at safer distances from high- pressure lines while improving productivity and reducing worker fatigue.
To learn more, download our white paper Why Safety Concerns Are Changing the Water Blast Hose Market.
Major water blast contractors also embraced increased safety for operators by examining every area of their operation and looking for ways to eliminate risk while raising productivity and lowering operational costs. Overcoming these challenges, in many cases, required taking a second look at some of the most traditional water blast practices. For example, one tradition has been the use of a PVC cover on UHP hose assemblies. The objective was to lower operational costs by protecting the UHP hose from abrasion. The PVC cover served its purpose by protecting the underlying UHP hose and reducing the occurrences of abrasion damage. The lengthened service life of PVC covered assemblies justified the modest cost increase for the PVC and became an accepted practice in the water blast market.
While the PVC cover solution has remained unchallenged for decades, the increased focus on safety has exposed the weaknesses of this approach. With the proper inspection of every component of the assembly being paramount to safety, foremost, is the inability to thoroughly inspect the entire assembly before use:
The PVC cover obscures the underlying high-pressure hose.
Over time, as the PVC begins to discolor from exposure to UV rays, the ability to visibly inspect a PVC covered assembly decreases further.
As dirt and debris from the application find their way into the PVC cover, it becomes nearly impossible to inspect the UHP hose inside.
Secondly, a PVC cover adds weight to the assembly, increasing the amount of effort or force required to drag the assembly across a surface. A common issue with PVC cover is that water builds up between it and the hose, further adding to the weight. The heavier load requires more effort during the cleaning operation, moving hoses as the work progresses, and loading assemblies back on to service trucks upon job completion. This increased effort contributes to operator fatigue and muscle strains possibly leading to other injuries and job- related mistakes.
In many cases, weight is also the destructive force causing the PVC cover to detach from the retaining collar, commonly referred to as PVC cover pull out. Even without additional weight, PVC pull-out can occur by merely dragging the assemblies while holding the cover. The other alternative is pulling the assembly by the PVC collar. By applying the load to the collar, the force transfers into the fitting. While crimped fittings can sustain some level of external force, experts do not recommend it. The fact is, there is no good way to drag a covered hose.
Another potential hazard associated with a PVC covered hose assembly is operator confusion regarding the true purpose of the cover. It is not uncommon for operators to mistake the PVC cover for a burst containment shield. This misunderstanding could result in an operator using a PVC covered assembly when the application requires a safety shroud or burst shield, thus increasing the chance of injury for the operator and bystanders.
With the realization that PVC covers protect from abrasion but at the cost of operator safety, the challenge is to provide an abrasion resistant hose that:
• solves the problems of the inability to inspect the underlying hose;
• prevents water ingression and reduces weight to eliminate fatigue;
• eliminates PVC pull out; and,
• stops confusion regarding the burst shield.
Safety is important at Parker. Our hose engineers have developed a solution to these challenges by extruding a highly abrasion resistant secondary jacket directly onto the primary UHP hose. The extrusion of a secondary jacket on water blast hoses, referred to as TOUGHJACKET™, addresses every area in which a PVC cover falls short while adding a few more benefits.
“Abrasion testing of the TOUGHJACKET material to ISO 6945 showed the proprietary polyurethane jacket achieves abrasion levels at least 100 times greater than PVC.”
— George Molinar, senior engineer Parker Hannifin
The TOUGHJACKET hoses also have a WJTA compliant outer jacket color, with the underlying primary hose having a contrasting color. This contrast in the hose jacket colors serves as an early warning indicator of an abrasion problem to the operator and safety inspector, prompting the operator to correct the abrasion issue or potentially remove the assembly from service. And since the secondary jacket is extruded on to the UHP hose, it is impossible for water to ingress into the assembly, eliminating all weight gain caused by trapped liquids. Ultimately, it allows operators to fully inspect all components of the hose assembly.
To learn more about how safety concerns are changing the water blast market, download our white paper Why Safety Concerns Are Changing the Water Blast Hose Market.
Article contributed by Paul Walker, business development manager for Ultra-High Pressure Thermoplastic Hose at Parflex, Parker Hannifin.
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Heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and trailers, use air brake systems to assure safe and effective stopping. Air brake tube fittings are a virtually invisible component on these vehicles, but they are instrumental to the reliable operation of the air brake system. A typical truck requires between 60-100 air brake tube fittings, and these components can have a significant effect on brake system performance, cost and assembly line productivity. In this blog, we will explore the major types of DOT air brake fittings used by truck and trailer OEMs and how they compare on price, performance, ease of assembly and customization as well as new technology trends.
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) standards have been in place for over 50 years and they specify how air brake hose and tubing, assemblies and end fittings used on trucks and trailers are expected to perform. The official requirements for DOT-certified air brake fittings are published in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 571.106.
These regulations were developed to reduce injuries and fatalities that could occur as a result of brake system failure. DOT-certification is required for the air brake hoses and tubing used to control the air brakes, and for the end fittings directly connected to those hoses and tubing. There are certain applications for fittings and tubing outside of the air brake system on heavy trucks, including air horns, air-ride seats, axles and others. Fittings and tubing used for these applications do not need to be DOT–rated. However, most OEMs choose to avoid the mistake of applying a simple industrial fitting into an area of use requiring DOT conformance. They will standardize on DOT conforming parts, adsorbing the higher cost to ensure safety.
Air brake tubing, tube fittings and plastic air brake tubing assemblies must be able to meet the following code requirements:
There are several key factors truck and trailer OEMs should consider when choosing DOT conforming air brake fittings:
An industry staple for decades, brass compression fittings are trusted for their dependable, versatile application and comparatively low price point. While they are priced competitively, installation tends to be more labor-intensive than other types of fittings. Once installed though, they are considered excellent in terms of forming joint connections and offering superior sealing performance.
Brass compression fittings withstand high heat. As such, they are often chosen for environments near air compressors and in engine compartments.
Customization lends itself well to brass compression fittings. Brass can be manufactured into various shapes with relative speed, however, its physical properties can add some manufacturing complexity.
Introduced in the 1990s, brass push-to-connect fittings offer reductions in fitting time assembly and complexity. They maintain the performance profile of brass compression fittings, yet allow for relatively foolproof assembly with no additional tools other than a tool cutter.
The biggest benefit to brass push-to-connect fittings is the assembly time savings. Installation time can be reduced by as much as 90%. Compounding this savings over time and installations can represent an enormous cost improvement for the user. In addition, the brass push-to-connect fittings can be color-coded. This helps to identify where the fittings are to be installed, saving more time and reducing installation errors.
Although the unit cost is higher for a brass push-to-connect fitting than a compression fitting, the labor savings more than makes up the difference.
Brass push-to-connect fittings offer similar customization attributes to compression fittings. But the advances in simplicity, fool-proof design and color coding, make them an exceptional choice, adding value to truck OEMs.
Manufactured with a polymer body and brass screw threads, composite push-to-connect fittings offer all the labor saving features of brass push-to-connect fittings. However, due to the polymer, the material is lighter in weight and lower in cost than brass. The 43% weight reduction, when considered in aggregate on board a truck where 100 or more DOT fittings may exist, can be a substantially positive design factor. Customization is also enhanced as the polymer is formed using versatile injection molding processes. This allows for freedom in creating uniquely shaped bodies for specific applications.
In recent years, engine temperatures have increased, due to design enhancements that offer other positive benefits. This has pushed the upper-temperature limits of some DOT push-to-connect fittings and tubing. When maximum operating temperatures are close to, or surpassed, the probability of problems occurring, such as leaks and premature hardening of elastomeric seals, increases.
This challenge can be met in several ways. Some manufacturers have opted for brass compression fittings in high heat areas. Others have chosen to modify the seal used in push-to-connect fittings. They have increased the thickness of the elastomeric seal, thereby offsetting the accelerated setting activated by heat. Still, others have designed completely new DOT-rated push-to-connect fittings, with a higher maximum temperature specification.
Two main types of thread patterns are typically used on air brake tube fittings: American National Standard Taper Pipe Threads (NPTF) and Straight Thread O-ring (STO).
While NPTF threads are far more common, STO fittings are found to be more reliable connections where they are employed. This is largely due to the sealing being completed by an elastomer O-ring as compared to the metal-to-metal sealing in an NPTF fitting. In NPTF fittings, voids in the connection remain, increasing the chance of leaks.
An STO fitting does present an increased cost to truck OEMs. They may require some customization of the fittings or their respective components. The added reliability of the STO fitting will need to be weighed against the increased cost by the truck OEM.
Truck OEMs want to avoid performance issues with air brake assemblies at all costs because these may lead to accidents, complaints, investigations, warranty claims and recalls – with significant financial implications and public repercussions. Careful consideration should be given to selecting the right type of DOT fitting to optimize brake system performance while at the same time keeping costs in check.
To learn more about what to consider when choosing DOT air brake tube fittings, download Parker’s guide “The Truck and Trailer OEM’s Guide to Air Brake Tube Fittings”.
This blog was contributed by the Fluid and Gas Handling Technology Team, Parker Hose Products Division.
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Most supermarket refrigeration equipment breakdowns are repeat problems. When responding to refrigeration service calls at supermarkets, refrigeration technicians immediately play “problem percentages” upon entering the store—this allows them to get to the root source of the problem as quickly as possible, to prevent perishable product loss.
A common problem with refrigeration systems is when the thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) doesn’t feed enough refrigerant and the refrigeration technician sees high superheat.
The following checks will help the HVAC technician identify the TEV problem quickly and restore refrigerant flow.
Checking these seven points first will save the technician considerable time in troubleshooting and repairing TEV issues with refrigerant flow. Regular maintenance is, of course, essential for maintaining proper TEV flow and function and keeping downtime to a minimum. For more information, contact Sporlan Division technical support at 636-239-1111.
You can also download a copy of 12 Solutions for Fixing Common TEV Problems - Form 10-143 for more troubleshooting tips.
Article contributed by Glen Steinkoenig, product manager, Thermostatic Expansion Valves, Sporlan Division of Parker Hannifin.
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Considering the variables that require attention in the design and installation of a fluid conveyance system, it is no wonder that hydraulic system engineers, operators and technicians are concerned with the broad margins of error when it comes to assembly and installation. Some of the challenges faced by machine manufacturers include lack of standard routing protocols, misalignment of steel tubing, and how to reduce the number of leak points – while trying to contain costs at the same time.
Solutions to these issues come from proper assembly, installation, and specifying the right hoses and tubing for the application – factors that are critical to the trouble-free operation of mobile equipment employed in construction, forestry, mining and similar industries.
This blog examines how formed thermoplastic hoses address these challenges and details how a skid-steer manufacturer reduced labor time and realized significant cost savings.
Applications requiring hoses installed in complex routings with tight tolerances create difficult installations. Many OEMs provide assembly part numbers, but not routing instructions. This can result in employees routing assemblies differently which can lead to quality issues like side load on the fitting or abrasion against edges of the frames on the equipment.
Formed hoses borrow from the principles of bent steel tubing and apply them to thermoplastics, creating an easy to drop in assembly that ensures consistent routing, mitigation of risk factors that lead to quality problems, and faster assembly times.
Download the white paper and case study to learn how formed thermoplastic hoses reduce risk and lower labor costs.
If a hose is misaligned and cannot be successfully hooked up, or if routing causes kinking or other damage, production will halt, reducing productivity and output.
“As little as 1/8” of misalignment to the connection could create enough issues to potentially shut down an operation and require the product to be re-worked.”
– Matt Davenport, product sales manager, Parker Parflex
With some consideration and the right choices in design, these threats can be mitigated, assuring reliable system operation.
Thermoplastic hose combines the forming characteristics of steel tubing with the flexibility of hose allowing for movement to eliminate misalignment concerns.
Leaks and flow stoppage are two primary risks of misalignment and improper routing in fluid conveyance systems.
Leaks are often caused by misaligned connections. Improper measurements, resulting in forced connection and incorrect actuation of connectors will cause leaks. Additionally, the actual number of connections in a fluid system will increase or decrease the potential for leak points; thus, careful consideration should be given to minimizing the number of connections in a system. One continuous formed thermoplastic hose reduces the number of fittings required and can decrease leak points by 50 percent when compared to hose to tube combinations.
Flow stoppage can occur when hoses and tubing kink. Kinks are common when hoses and tubing are routed in ways that create an excessive bend radius. A protocol that identifies the best routing for the run will ease the stress and assure that kinking does not interrupt the flow. Formed hoses take this a step further by standardizing the hose assembly for a custom fit to the optimum routing.
In addition to the trouble-free design enhancements, employing formed hoses allows for:
A skid-steer manufacturer who adopted ready to install formed hoses by Parker’s Parflex Division realized over $37,000 in labor savings associated with decreased assembly time and part complexity.
To read the details of the case study and learn more about how formed thermoplastic hose technology is reducing risk and enhancing productivity, download the white paper - Engineering Solutions with Formed Thermoplastic Hose and Tubing.
This blog was contributed by Matt Davenport, product sales manager, Parker Parflex.
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Increased emission restrictions are requiring engine manufacturers to conform to Euro 6 and Tier IV regulations to reduce exhaust leakage 80% or more. In order to achieve these new standards, engines with extreme temperatures coupled with a high amount of vibrational movement, need to have highly engineered sealing solutions. Applications with predetermined mating components cannot always be changed, so the need for a sealing solution with a similar coefficient of thermal expansion is needed.
Most heavy duty diesel engines can reach exhaust gas temperatures upwards of 1292°F(700°C) while subjected to constant vibrations. These engine vibrations can cause havoc when a seal needs to be maintained on the exhaust line. Vibrations from the engine cause rotation, cavity offsets, pivoting, and reciprocation which become difficult to seal against. Movement, pressure cycling and thermal cycling require an engineered solution to maintain a seal under extreme application conditions. With the use of custom engineering and advanced analysis techniques, Parker is able to create custom solutions for our customers’ most difficult applications.
Parker’s Air Duct Seals for Heavy Duty Engines are a single piece, easy to install metal design, providing lower leak rates than traditional labyrinth piston ring seals.
The continuous single-piece metal seal design is enhanced with the use of TriCom-HT™, Parker’s proprietary high-temperature, anti-wear coating. TriCom-HT™ provides superior wear resistance, protecting the Air Duct Seal from the detrimental effects of engine vibration and thermal cycling, resulting in 80% less leakage and extended seal life.
Our Air Duct Seal design fits tightly into the mating hardware, greatly reducing leak paths. Machined grooves are not required in the mating hardware, thereby lowering your manufacturing cost.
Parker has been able to incorporate its design experience and knowledge of metal sealing technology and material science technology to create this solution. The Parker Air Duct Seal was designed with cost savings in mind and the patented design allows for value added one-piece out of the box installation, virtually eliminating complex sealing needs. Installation of the Air Duct Seal is simple, and requires only a press fit for both sides of the seal. Some key benefits are:
For more information on this technology, available sizes or additional questions, please contact our applications engineering team at Composite Sealing Systems Advanced Products Business Unit at 203 239 3341.
This article was contributed by Vivek Sarasam, heavy duty mobile senior applications engineer, Engineered Materials Group.
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It’s not an exaggeration to say oil is the lifeblood of all machines. Commercial fleet vehicles, heavy machinery and large-scale power generation equipment all rely on clean engine oil to lubricate, protect and cool. Regular oil changes are an essential preventive maintenance function to assure maximizing the productive life of equipment. If maintenance is neglected or not properly maintained, engines will run inefficiently, resulting in unreliable equipment and eventual costly breakdowns.
The cost of downtime can be very significant. On average, manufacturers experience up to 80 hours of downtime annually. That’s 33 days out of the year lost to halted production, machine repairs and labor overhead, costing companies millions of dollars in potential profits. Knowing when, where and how downtime occurs is key to knowing how to prevent it.
With preventive maintenance, you are being proactive by consistently monitoring, inspecting and updating machinery while it’s operating in good standing order rather than wait until a problem arises. Regular maintenance checks are critical to ensuring equipment is operating at peak condition for long stretches of time. This includes an oil analysis to determine when it’s time to change engine oil. In fact, with regular oil checks in engines, you can lower the number of yearly oil changes.
Changing oil sounds simple enough, but there are many significant hidden costs associated with the oil change process that are not taken into account.
Lost production, providing staff with proper training and oil change equipment, consumable supplies and their disposal, labor, testing and inspection contribute to an oil change expense frequently exceeding 40 times the cost of the oil itself.
In addition, oil changes can be complicated and when not done properly, can lead to equipment damage and failure as the result of introducing the wrong oil, adding contaminated oil, over or under filling the sump or reservoir, and starting the equipment dry.
Unfortunately, one of the most common types of chemical spills in the workplace involves oil. It’s considered low toxicity, but is combustible and poses a direct threat to the safety of workers. Spills and leaks can occur at all phases of the oil change process including:
The repercussions of oil spills can range from the need for solvents and cleaning agents to removing oil from equipment and walkways to replacing pavement or digging up soil. Based on the nature and severity of the occurrence, clean up costs may vary from hundreds of dollars to thousands. Most important though is the safety of workers. An employee changing oil is faced with numerous potential safety risks including injury from slipping and skin contact to toxic chemicals. When an injury occurs, the loss of time and productivity directly affects the bottom line. Providing a safe work environment ensures workers will be able to return home to their families unharmed by workplace hazards.
Oil spills can be eliminated by 100%. Parker has revolutionized the oil change experience with a simplified approach to deliver better, cleaner, and safer oil changes for engines and machinery in 30 minutes or less. By removing spills, leaks and drips from the equation with a more environmentally friendly solution, clean up costs associated with oil becomes nonexistent.
QuickFit’s three-step process is designed for ease of use and allows technicians to change oil faster and more effectively. An added plus is the savings on training and labor costs with a standardized solution that can be operated by anyone. Oil is drained directly to the waste containment and then a vacuum is applied to extract the used oil from the filter. This same connection point is then utilized to refill the system with new oil. By applying one connection per compartment, it results in less variability during maintenance checks.
Reducing the number of steps in the process simplifies training for operators and eliminates any risk of safety hazards or spills, which improves an organizations’ bottom line by creating less consumable waste. Plus, QuickFit’s streamlined process helps to lower operating costs, increase profitability and reduce oil change time by 50%.
The QuickFit System features an ergonomic design that allows for easier access to even the most cramped and isolated engine compartments. This greatly reduces operator’s exposure to fluids from fill to purge and lowers the possibility of slips, falls, and burns. In return, better safety conditions while changing oil saves time and costs on avoiding workplace injuries while increasing productivity.
Routine maintenance of industrial applications and equipment is critical to the sustainability and efficiency of machinery operations. A key aspect of maintaining the longevity of machines is through proper lubrication that can be accomplished with Parker’s QuickFit Oil Change System. By taking advantage of a single point of connection, oil spills are eliminated while improving safety conditions for employees and greatly reducing downtime and costs.
Ready to get started or have questions? Locate the Parker Distributor near you.
Learn more about Parker's QuickFit Oil Change System.
Contributed by Matt Walley, product sales manager, Quick Coupling Division, Parker Hannifin
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The mining industry, known for its harsh and unforgiving environments, demands reliable, high quality equipment to ensure safety and efficiency. Longwall mining, which accounts for around 50% of total underground production, has had the largest continual impact upon underground coal operations in the U.S. over the last two decades.
Longwall mining is an underground mining operation in which a large panel or block of coal spanning up to 1,500 feet across distances of two to three miles is extracted. Longwall mines are characterized by low ceilings and tight spaces in which workers must operate heavy duty machinery. Hydraulic-powered roof supports, also called shields, protect the working area of the mine by extending as the shearer cuts back and forth along the coal face. Once it is cut by the shearer, coal falls onto a large chain conveyor and is removed from the mine. The movable hydraulic shields in longwall mines advance with the shearer throughout the mining process, enabling increased productivity as well as improved safety of miners.
Safety is imperative in the mining industry, particularly when it comes to the dangers of roof falls and lack of clean air in underground coal mines. It is vital for the equipment used in mining to be thoroughly tested to meet internationally approved MSHA standards and provide consistently reliable performance to ensure safety of operations and individuals in extreme environments.
Parker's new GlobalCore 187 Hose is a 1,000 psi (7MPa) constant working pressure hose specifically engineered for the mining industry. The innovative design of 187 Hose, which can be used as a high-pressure return line or used to address an application where other hoses may be excessive, requires a lower force-to-flex and exceeds the ISO 18752 performance specification (AC and AS). The first of its kind in on the market, the 187 Hose is unmatched in performance and capability. For instance, the 187 Hose is designed for one-half of SAE and ISO 18752 bend radius specifications, which saves overall hose assembly length, facilitates easier routing in the restrictive areas of underground mines, and decreases the number of bent tube fittings necessary. The tighter bend radius capability also means longer hose life in applications where machinery movement causes hoses to bend sharply.
The hoses included in the GlobalCore family are constant working pressure hoses, which contradicts traditional hydraulic hoses where the pressure decreases as the inside diameter increases. For instance, if the maximum pressure requirement for your application is 1,000 psi, you could utilize one hose family operating with a constant working pressure of 1,000 psi across all diameters for your hydraulic system. Converting from various product lines to a singular hose family that provides constant working pressure across sizes means a simplified selection process as well as reduced inventories, maintenance costs, and downtime.
At Parker Hannifin’s Hose Products Division, we understand the concerns facing our mining customers. We know that safety is your number one priority. The risk of serious injury resulting from the uncontrolled release of high pressure hydraulic fluids is an ongoing concern. Hydraulic fluid injection injuries are caused by a release of pressurized hydraulic fluid penetrating the skin. A pinhole-sized leak can travel at the same velocity as a bullet — 600 feet per second. According to research, more than 10% of mine safety incidents in the United States involve fluid power systems, with one percent resulting in serious injury or death. This being said, Parker has designed and engineered hoses to withstand the harsh environments of the mining industry to protect lives. The 187 Hose has three different cover options (standard, ToughCover, and SuperTough cover) to increase the service life and personnel safety. Parker also offers a wide range of hose sleeves, wraps, hose shields and a hose whip restraint system designed to protect operators, equipment, and the environment from the hazards of hydraulic hose malfunctions. To further protect against potential fire hazards, Parker’s Firesleeve is a flame resistant sheath that protects the hose from extreme temperature conditions.
In addition to the 187 Hose, Parker has an entire range of MSHA approved hoses, fittings, and equipment designed and engineered to service the needs of the mining industry. With a thicker, more durable outer cover to prevent impact damage from debris, Coalmaster hoses are ideal for tough underground conditions. Paired with the SteckO fitting system, Parker’s Coalmaster products provide increased performance and reliability in highly abrasive environments.
Longwall mining has shown a significant increase in production and today accounts for the largest amount of tonnage mined among underground methods. Because of this shift, improved crimping equipment that can withstand the harsh environment and keep up with increased production is essential, however, it must be cost-efficient. Parker's Parkrimp family of crimping machines enable any user to make factory-quality hose assemblies quickly, easily and cost-effectively. The Parkrimp-style crimpers are designed to crimp fittings to the proper diameter every time. These crimpers are simple to operate and they're built to provide years of dependable service. Designed to produce accurate crimps from the first time it's used, Parkrimp crimpers require no calibration and continuously produce proper crimps, time after time. Parker's family of Parkrimp models can crimp straight or bent-stem fittings from ¼" to 2" in diameter and cover needs ranging from high-volume productivity to portable, on-site assembly.
In order for crews to efficiently operate in the cramped conditions of underground mines, equipment must be easy to use, install, and change out. Adding a global asset tagging and identification system to your mining operations would provide a fast, accurate and convenient hose assembly replacement regardless of where or when the original assembly was made. Parker estimates that the addition of an asset tag, such as Parker’s PTS label, can save a customer at least 15 minutes of downtime (simply stated as the time spent waiting in a store, or as the additional time spent in first removing an assembly before proceeding with the repair). If the average cost of labor and machine downtime is calculated at the low end of $60 per hour, PTS can save the customer $15 in direct productivity losses. For customers with multiple, untimely failures per month, this can add up to considerable savings. Many customers have documented downtime of two to three hours or more due to hydraulic hose failure, and at labor and loss productivity rates of up to $500 per hour or more. In such circumstances, PTS can be invaluable in helping to ensure maximum machine or vehicle uptime.
To learn more about GlobalCore, visit our website or download our brochure. To learn more about Parker’s product solutions for the mining industry, visit our landing page.
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In radiographic tilting beds the table upon which the patient is placed needs to be moved and controlled with smooth precision. In this type of application, servo motors and drives play a key role.
Fluoroscopes, angiograms and other radiographic applications can be achieved by obtaining a series of individual X-ray images that are then stitched together or animated to create increasingly detailed imagery that is suitable for expert medical analysis.
In addition to utilising advanced computer software to process the high-resolution radiography imaging, the table upon which the patient is placed needs to be moved and controlled with smooth precision – often over a wide range of angles and positions.
Servo motors and servo drives can be utilised to assure the safe and smooth movement of medical patients.
For upper and lower gastrointestinal barium enhanced studies, the table needs to smoothly tilt the patient from a horizontal position right up to a vertical position. This movement allows the liquid to flow through the patient’s digestive system while being captured in real time by the fluoroscopic X-ray source.
Each movement of the bed must be engineered to facilitate optimal operator use, to ensure maximum patient safety and to prevent extraneous patient movement during the examination.
Each bed is equipped with six Parker SMB low-inertia brushless servo motors ranging from 3 to 10 Nm, with four of the motors equipped with a holding brake for additional safety.
In addition, six SLVD-N servo drives ranging from 5 to 10 A receive command signals from the controller, amplify the signals and transmit current to the servo motors to produce the precise range of motion, torque and positioning required.
The first servo motor controls the up-and-down motion of the table for easy patient access, enabling the table to be lowered to a minimum of 43 cm above the ground, the lowest of its category. The second motor allows the table to move transversally up to 30 cm outwards. The third and fourth motors meanwhile, control the oblique projections of the X-ray source. The fifth servo motor controls the movement of the column holding the X-ray source, allowing it to extend up to 180 cm from the table surface. The sixth and final motor controls the tilting motion of the table, enabling a full 90° range of motion for fluoroscopy and other radiography applications.
Working closely with experts from Parker, the manufacturer was able to improve the reliability and movement repeatability versus the previous solution used.
“We have chosen Parker because of their reputation, quality and the reliability of their products. Furthermore, thanks to Parker’s innovative technologies, it has been possible to constantly improve the performance of our machines. Partnering with Parker is profitable, in terms of both the technical and commercial support provided with the ultimate beneficiaries being medical staff and of course the patients themselves.”
Ing. Alessandro Biasini, R&D project leader, CAT Medical Systems
Learn more about servo motors here.
Article contributed by Michelangelo Matullo, automation account manager, Central South Italy, Electromechanical & Drives Division Europe.
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