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Standard AS568 O-ring sizes are well known in the seal industry. Generally adding the compound with a standard O-ring size creates a smart part number for identification and purchasing purposes. But how do we come up with part numbers for seals that are different geometries, hollow profiles, or non-standard sizes? The Applications Engineering team wrestles with questions like these on a daily basis. There are generally three options for a custom sized part: precision cut, cord stock, and extruded and spliced parts.
Parker refers to our extruded and cut part product line as a Precision Cut. These parts are manufactured by pushing an elastomer material through a die to give it a specified inside diameter and wall thickness. The part would then be “cut” to a specified width (we call this the “cut thickness”). These parts have a square cross section, and are highly customizable with minimal capital costs. Parker specializes in custom precision cut lengths, and it is worth noting that TetraSeal® parts fall into this product category as well. If the ID and CS correspond to a standard AS568 size, these are sometimes referred to as a TS-xxx size (however, this will not be the final part number). The official Parker part number for both TetraSeals and custom precision cut parts cannot be determined prior to being quoted.
Another product that we often receive inquiries about is cord stock. This product line is manufactured by extrusion and the parts can have many different geometries. Cord stock is often used when a customer wants to create their own custom sized gaskets – doing a splice on their own. For extruded cord part numbers, Parker uses the below “smart” part numbering method:
Material – Profile – Packaging Method** – Material
Example: A spool of 500 feet of S7442 in the A002 profile would have the Parker part number S7442 A002 S S7442. The quantity would be 500.
With extruded/spliced parts, there is an additional step – splicing. When given “developed length” which is the total length of the part along its centerline, the part is cut to that length and then undergoes a hot vulcanization process using the same base polymer, creating a continuous part. This can be done for both hollow profiles and solid profiles. For extruded and spliced parts, the below “smart” part numbering method can be used:
Material – Profile – Packaging Method** – Developed Length (centerline length*, where xxx.xx corresponds to the length in inches)
Example: A 37” inside diameter x 0.139” cross section part, made from E7736-70 would have Parker part number E7736 A018 D 11668
*The centerline length is calculated by taking the desired ID (37”) and adding 1 cross section width to it and multiplying by Pi. (37” + 0.139”) * pi = 116.68”
** The different “packaging methods” are:
S: Spooled footage – This is a type of bulk packaging and the cord will come on a spool.
C: Coiled – This is another type of bulk packaging, and the cord will come coiled in a bag or box.
D: Developed Length (Spliced) – This type of package method is for spliced parts. The finished parts will be coiled in a bag or box.
For more information on TetraSeals or other custom sealing solutions, visit Parker O-Ring & Engineered Seals Division and chat with an engineer today!
This article was contributed by William Pomeroy, applications engineer, Parker O-Ring & Engineered Seals Division.
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Compressed air is one of the most critical and expensive utilities in any manufacturing facility. That said, maintenance and monitoring of this crucial system are largely ignored. When it is given attention, the focus is usually in the compressor room. The piping distribution system — where most problems exist — is often ignored. This is a costly mistake. Incorrectly sized piping, leaks, rust, or other undetected issues in the piping distribution system are often the real issue – and quite simple to fix.
To fully manage your compressed air system and pinpoint areas of inefficiency, pressure, humidity, flow, temperature, and power should be measured and monitored.
To identify where to measure the above data points in your facility, a site survey must be done. A site survey is a walkthrough of the facility with a trained professional. The trained professional will ask you questions about the facility and what pain points you have. Using the answers from questions and their observations, the trained professional will provide the recommended mix of sensors and placement locations. If going with a wireless monitoring solution, the site survey will also identify any communication dead zones or obstructions to avoid when installing the sensors.
Be confident and informed about your compressed air system. Schedule a condition monitoring site survey and reduce your energy costs and increase your productivity and uptime.
Every 2 psi of air pressure generated equals 1% of a compressed air system’s total energy cost. Having an inefficient compressed air system could be costing your tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars in wasted energy. These inefficiencies result from several causes including:
Any of these issues can cause your compressor to work overtime, ultimately shortening its life expectancy.
To identify and address these issues, take pressure readings throughout the compressed air system at key locations in the compressor room, at point of use and throughout the piping distribution system. Your key locations will be identified through the site survey. This will provide a total system pressure profile. Without this holistic approach, you may know that a machine is being starved for air, but will not know where pressure starts to drop — critical information for troubleshooting. Your compressor may be completely adequate for your application, but if you have undersized or corroded piping, adding more compressor capacity isn’t going to help.
You can take these measurements manually with a pressure gauge, but that gives you only a snapshot of the data at a particular point in time. For ongoing information about your system, you can install sensors throughout the system. Wireless sensors reporting to the cloud make this task simple and cost-effective.
Monitoring humidity in your compressed air system provides early detection of system complications. Excess moisture corrodes pipes and damages internal components of machinery, increasing maintenance costs and causing production downtime. In precise manufacturing such as painting applications, excess moisture causes quality control problems in the form of product damage and paint not adhering. Moisture breeds harmful bacteria that contaminate finished goods.
The use of humidity sensors can prevent these issues. By monitoring the humidity in the compressor room lines and point of use, you can confirm your system is operating at peak efficiency. A site survey will identify if additional humidity sensors are needed in your facility. High levels of humidity in your system can indicate either a problem with the dryer, condensate removal system or simply the location of the compressor and dryer.
A common cause of inefficient air systems is clogged piping. Over time, the interior or older steel piping corrodes, restricting the flow of air. Undersized piping also causes inefficiencies in the compressed air system. In most cases, the piping was correct for the original demand, but as the facility grows and demands more air, the piping system becomes too small to deliver the correct air pressure to the point of use.
Leaks also cause compressed air system inefficiencies. Leaks are mainly seen in older pipes, but newer installations can still leak as well. Eventually, threaded connections start to separate, creating a path for air to escape from the distribution network. Installation mistakes will lead to leaks, as well as the potential for serious injuries. When attaching connectors, make sure to assemble the system to the manufacturer’s specifications to avoid leaks and potential injury.
Using the results of your site survey, placing flow sensors at the correct locations in your compressed air system identifies potential leaks, unnecessary or inappropriate uses of compressed air, and the demand of the entire facility and each individual department. The best way to check for system leaks is to monitor the artificial demand of air during idle (no production) times. The higher the artificial demand, the more leaks exist in the system. Analyzing the data also determines the health of the piping. The interior of pipes will corrode and create blockages without ever showing signs on the outside. An area with poor flow readings means the pipe has begun to corrode.
Monitoring the temperature determines the health of your compressor room equipment. To monitor the health, temperature sensors should be placed right after the key components (e.g. compressor, dryer, and storage tanks). Comparing the temperature readings to the optimal performance bands provides a quick check on the performance of the equipment. If the temperature is on the high side, the equipment is working too hard and could fail earlier than expected. If the temperature is on the low side, the equipment is underperforming.
Installing a power or current sensor on your compressor provides data on power consumption Using the data from the power and the flow sensors, you can determine the health of your compressor. When combined, these two data points allow you to calculate the cost per unit ($/cf) of compressed air. Analyzing the cost per unit determines if your compressor has performance problems such as short-cycling, faulty controls, or unregulated spikes. This also determines if your compressor is oversized for your application.
Compressed air is a costly, but vital utility in your facility. Monitoring your compressed air system’s performance identifies problem areas. By knowing these problems, you can make educated system improvements. Monitoring your system after making improvements ensures your investment is protected from reverting back to an underperforming system.
For assistance with a site survey, turn to Parker Transair. Our team of trained professionals will visit your facility and help you develop the monitoring solution that fits your needs.
For a ready to implement monitoring solution, turn to Parker’s Transair Condition Monitoring. Our sensors and cloud-based software collects the data and alerts you to sudden shifts in performance. For an out of the box solution, we offer the Transair Condition Monitoring Starter Kit. The Starter Kit provides the basics for monitoring your compressed air system. The kit includes 5 pressure sensors, 1 humidity sensor, 1 signal repeater, and 1 cellular collection server.
For more information on Transair Condition Monitoring, please visit our website.
Best Practices EXPO & Conference will gather manufacturing personnel, engineering firms, system auditors and sales engineers, and utility incentive program representatives to share BEST PRACTICES in how to optimize compressed air, blower, vacuum, chiller and cooling systems. Leading Energy Managers and Industry Experts will share their system knowledge in a Full 3-Day Conference. Attendees will then view compressed air, blower, vacuum and cooling system technologies on the Expo Floor. Stop by Booth 407, Crowne Plaza Chicago O'Hare Hotel & Conference Center Chicago, IL.
Parker will be displaying our products and systems using OFAS Air Treatment, Nitrogen Generator, Thermal Mass Dryer, OIL-X filters, Transair Aluminum Piping, and Transair Condition Monitoring Sensors. Learn more on our event page.
This post was contributed by Keith Harger, applications engineer, Parker Fluid System Connectors Division.
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Most people enjoy theme parks as a place to get away from work, but for those in the hydraulics industry, they are a place to demonstrate their expertise. Behind many of the rides that make your stomach drop or your eyes blink in amazement, Parker's accumulators are picking up the stresses and enhancing the performances of hydraulic technology.
Behind the scenes, there is complex machinery that must run precisely and smoothly to ensure safe and reliable operation. Whether you are splashing through water, sailing above the tree lines, or being wowed by animations and simulations, powerful equipment that depends on the science and engineering of hydraulics is enriching your activities. And, many of these large, powerful hydraulic systems rely on accumulators; hidden from the public view, but critical in their roles.
Typically, accumulators installed in hydraulic systems store energy to either provide an extra boost of power or absorb energy to smooth out pulsations. One of the world's largest manufacturer of accumulators is Parker's Accumulator and Cooler Division. According to Jeff Sage, product sales manager, the Parker accumulators used in theme parks are gas-charged and are either bladder accumulators or piston accumulators. Parker manufactures both types and has the engineering expertise to recommend which kind best fits the requirements of a particular ride.
Bladder accumulators are cylinders that contain a rubber bladder (Figure 1). Hydraulic oil is kept under pressure when the bladder is inflated with an inert compressed gas, often nitrogen. When a ride needs a quick burst of power, a valve opens and releases the pressurized hydraulic fluid.
Piston accumulators are metal tubes with an enclosed piston(Figure 2). One side of the piston is charged with a pressurized gas and the other side with hydraulic oil. When the ride requires additional power, the pressurized gas pushes against the piston which forces hydraulic oil back into the ride’s power unit.
Watch it in action:
Accumulators often play valuable roles in hydraulic systems that power rides for a variety of reasons. As you can imagine, moving multi-ton cars, coasters, and props, often times with rapid acceleration in minimal time, requires extreme bursts of force. Delivering this concentrated force is taxing on hydraulics systems and can cause jerky movements. Accumulators work to absorb these extreme pressures and movements, store energy and keep performance consistent – delivering the extra “push” when a hydraulics system needs it.
Often there are many accumulators used on each ride. For example, on motion-simulator rides, which have become quite popular since the 1980s, many accumulators are used. These are amazing rides where people feel all the shakes, rattles and rolls depicted in a movie shown on a large screen. A big surge of energy is needed to move the platform. Within these rides there are 24 platforms, each with banks of 10-gallon bladder accumulators. Each time the platform moves, a quick burst of energy is needed. These accumulators provide the high acceleration needed to make the ride exciting and memorable.
Safety, of course, must be at the forefront of manufacturing accumulators. A ride that breaks down can cause injuries or worse. Most bladder accumulator failures come from the bladder failing. Parker accumulators minimize the issue by manufacturing its own bladders for quality control reasons. This is not common and differentiates Parker from the competition.
Knowing how important the chemical process is in the making of these bladders, the company has its own chemist, buys the rubber and mixes the bladder compounds. With everything controlled and created in-house, this helps Parker produce accumulator bladders that are of the highest quality and reliability.
And when a piston accumulator fails it is typically a result of a leak in the rubber seal located on the outer cylinder of the piston. A proper functioning seal separates the gas from the oil. Gas molecules are very small and can penetrate through the rubber seal. Parker applies its expertise in rubber composition to develop seals that minimize the gas permeation, thus extending the life of the piston accumulator.
Nothing stops the fun at a theme park like a sign at a ride’s entrance that says, “OUT OF ORDER.”
Carlos Aguirre, a Sales and Systems engineer at Bernell Hydraulics Inc., uses Parker because of their accumulator expertise, reliability, and service. Bernell and Aguirre have a long history of working with the nation’s top theme parks and using Parker's accumulators to keep the attractions running smoothly and safely. Aguirre and his teams work overnight after theme parks close, so it’s essential that he chooses trusted vendor partners that can deliver dependable parts when they are needed. While most of Aguirre’s theme park projects have used bladder accumulators, new projects are requiring piston accumulators.
“Park patrons want to enjoy their favorite rides. I need quality parts delivered on time so we can get the work done at night and have the ride ready to roll when the gates open in the morning. I like the expertise Parker offers on either type. One call and I get the information I need to make theme parks fun and safe for all.”
Carlos Aguirre, sales and systems engineer at Bernell Hydraulics Inc.
The next time you’re at a theme park waiting to ride, we hope that the greatest energy is the energy of the moment. However, you might take a moment to appreciate the extreme amounts of force and energy required for your favorite ride to give you a hair-raising experience. For our accumulators, handling the exciting extremes is a walk in the park.
If you would like more information about accumulators, visit Parker Accumulator and Cooler Division.
Article contributed by Jeff Sage, product sales manager, Parker Hannifin Accumulator and Cooler Division.
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Point-of-care testing (POCT) is a rapidly expanding segment of the healthcare industry, especially for at-home care and disease management. This expansion is driven by an increasingly diverse array of advanced medical diagnostic equipment that can be used at or near the point of care, which leads to easier testing and faster clinical decisions. POCT equipment measures a wide range of health indicators, including blood glucose, electrolyte concentrations, cardiovascular markers, cholesterol, drug levels, urine chemistry, infectious diseases, organ function, and immune response.
Another reason POCT is growing in demand is that these instruments are becoming more advanced in terms of functionality, yet at the same time also smaller and more compact—making them easier to use (which improves at-home compliance). POCT equipment runs the same tests that the larger in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) systems do, but is designed as a handheld or bench unit, requiring much smaller volumes of fluid samples and reagents, while also delivering rapid testing and precise analysis.
Download this application note to learn how to streamline point of care instrument development.
POCT manufacturers must balance a number of scientific disciplines to create a POCT device, including mechanical, chemical, and software engineering. The first step in developing a device is understanding the chemistry of the test (for example, molecular diagnostics, immunochemistry, or other assay).
Scaling down both the fluidics and the chemistry for a device is not as simple as just making things smaller. Chemical reactions often behave differently as the volume is decreased. In many cases this has a positive effect on performance—for example, reactions often proceed more rapidly in small volumes, with less reagent consumption.
To make devices easier and faster to use, POCT engineers design into the instrument many of the steps that are normally performed by separate instruments in the lab. These include sample preparation, cell lysis, nucleic acid purification, amplification, and detection—all in a single cartridge. This saves time, reduces sample handling, and minimizes the potential for contamination or error.
POCT flow diagram
Once the chemistry is scaled down, the next challenge is designing a compact, reliable, and cost-effective cartridge to contain the reagents and reactions. Such a small cartridge also requires miniaturized, high-performance components such as pumps and valves, which must be durable, precise in design, and chemically inert. Parker’s best-in-class 8mm X valve and 7mm C7 cartridge valves are examples of miniaturized components that provide the same performance as larger valves but within a very small footprint. This allows POCT OEMs to pack these fluidic components into smaller and smaller devices.
The final POCT design challenge deals with automating the precise movement of samples and reagents within in the cartridge to ensure tests are reliably and accurately performed. This requires a deep understanding of fluid mechanics and how pumps, valves, and manifolds can affect the movement of liquids in the cartridge. High-precision flow control is required for the samples and reagents as they make their way through the different reaction chambers within the POCT cartridge. Parker offers a variety of miniature solenoid valves to control delivery of reagents using either on-off, diverter or proportional control of flow methods. Both pneumatic pumps and valves or liquid pumps and valves can be used to move fluids through the different reactions. Electronic pressure controllers are also available to provide precise pressure control.
Parker Precision Fluidics understands the needs of POCT design engineers. We can help design the perfect fluidics systems for your devices, allowing you to focus on what you do best—the chemistry. Because we manufacture both pumps and valves, our engineers are highly experienced in the flow mechanics required for POCT and can provide reliable, complete, and cost-effective solutions. Solutions can be customized to your needs, including complete fluidic subsystems or components that are preassembled and tested for easy assembly into your products.
To learn more about POCT instrument development and the benefits of using pneumatic fluid controls, download our application note.
For more information on Parker Precision Fluidics' products and solutions, please visit our website or call 603-595-1500 to speak with an engineer.
This post was contributed by Don McNeil, market development manager, Parker Precision Fluidics.
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Cold weather may force designers to reconsider the usual technical choices regarding rolling stock systems.
Combining ergonomics of use, a cost-effective approach and technical performance are the challenges associated with a low-pressure circuit intended for use at cold temperatures.
This blog describes the specific features of the various connector technologies in a low-pressure circuit and provides a professional opinion regarding the choice of the onboard connection.
Fluid transfer low-pressure circuits on rolling stock consist of four main functions:
When choosing connectors, manufacturers and operators must consider in particular two main selection criteria which are the technology and the materials
The connector is chosen according to use criteria related to the disconnection frequency, speed of assembly, tube quality implemented and design habits. The four main connector types are as follows:
Push-in fittings: Available in three gripping versions (by washer, by gripping and by reversed gripping), to quickly create flexible and modular systems. The gripper technology is recommended for low-temperature applications down to -25 °C, while the washer technology can be used to temperatures as low as -50 °C.
Quick couplings: Available in three valve versions and with various standardised end-fittings, they are suitable for frequent connections-disconnections. This technology provides very good resistance down to -40 °C.
Spigot fittings: Easy to implement, they guarantee direct leaktightness on flexible tube with no seal and no anchor ring. Their resistance to cold, as low as -40 °C, depends on the tube quality.
Compression and bite type fittings: Available in two versions with separate ring or built-in ring, they adapt to all types of tube (metal or plastic). They offer exceptional resistance to cold, down to -60 °C.
These last two connection types are more complex to implement.
Fitting and tube form a pair which, when correctly associated, guarantee optimum operation of the low-pressure circuit over time.
Key factors when designing the low-pressure circuit, the materials play a role in the performance of the system and its resistance to cold through their composition and structure.
The tube material participates in the chemical and mechanical compatibility of the circuit. Being used throughout the circuit, it has a considerable impact on the resistance to cold. A flame-retardant version is available which can withstand temperatures down to -50 °C.
The materials of the fittings and other connection systems guarantee leak tightness, efficiency over time, the ergonomics of the circuit and operating safety. They are available in two versions: metal and polymer.
Other criteria must be taken into account when choosing the connector, for example pressure/temperature performance, compliance with standards and regulations. Taking into account all these criteria will guarantee that the connector is perfectly compatible with the operating conditions.
To conclude, the range of Parker LPCE low-pressure connector systems focuses on the safety of persons and goods, having provided solutions for all relevant applications in various types of train and rail vehicles for many years. Two quick-reference brochures detail everything you need to know about a selection of connectors and associated products.
For more information, please complete our form to make an appointment with one of our experts at email@example.com.
InnoTrans is the leading international trade fair for transport technology and takes places every two years in Berlin, Germany. Sub-divided into the five trade fair segments Railway Technology, Railway Infrastructure, Public Transport, Interiors and Tunnel Construction, InnoTrans occupies all 41 halls available at Berlin Exhibition Grounds. The InnoTrans Convention, the event’s top-level supporting programme, complements the trade fair.
A unique feature of InnoTrans is its outdoor and track display area, where everything from tank wagons to high-speed trains is displayed on 3,500 metres of track.
Visit Parker at Booth 206, Hall 10 to learn about our innovations to keep you on track. If you would like a free ticket to the exhibition hall, please signup on this page.
Article contributed by Laurent Orcibal, ebusiness manager, Lower Pressure Connector Europe, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
This article is part 2 of a two-part series. Read the first part at Learn How Cold Weather Affects Connector Design for Rail Applications
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The reliability of every component is significant for the design engineer of modern railway vehicles if they are to function smoothly in the long term.
The EO-2 fitting has been extremely reliable for application use in the rail industry. The soft-sealing fitting does not need to be re-tightened even after years of continual usage, and the seal is designed for long term cost savings.
Furthermore, it is always an advantage for the assembler when components are simple, safe and quick to install - easily carried out with commercial tools. But there are other benefits.
The main advantage lies in the design detail. The EO-2 was developed on the foundation of the Ermeto Cutting Ring System - a well-known concept. It features a special characteristic - a large-volume elastomeric seal. Invisible from the outside, the seal assures sustained function and leak-tightness even in extreme application conditions.
The profile of the EO-2 elastomeric seal shows a particularly large cross-section which seals safely even in unfavourable tolerance ranges of tubing and fittings. So the sealing effect is supported by the system pressure. This means that EO-2 fittings are well suited for high-pressure applications. Due to the high preload of the seal, the EO-2 design has formidable gas leak-tightness. This prevents the penetration of air in vacuum conditions.
In comparison with other fitting types, the EO-2 Series has an advantage because of optimal installation room without gaps and dead volume. For the user typical sealing damage such as spiral extrusion or wear caused by “pumping” are prevented.
An ever-recurring problem is under- and over-assembly. EO-2 eliminates this because before assembly of the fitting, a gap is located between the end faces of the sealing and retaining ring. This gap closes as soon as the retaining ring has reached its final cut depth into the tube. Assembly completion by this dead-stop is very clearly indicated. An equally good assembly outcome is achieved with manual assembly too. So completed assembly can be checked by an operator's quick visual inspection.
As soon as the gap between both rings is closed, the EO-2 connection is ready for assembly-inspection and installation. If the functional nut is then tightened to spanner tightness, it is sufficient to tighten the connection with 1/4 to 1/6 of a turn. This clearly noticeable stop point increases the user’s feeling of safety and prevents effectively dangerous under-assembly. And always remember this: “after fixed comes off”. This will certainly be avoided with EO-2.
EO-2 Fittings meet DIN 2353 and ISO 8434. They are available for tube sizes from 6 -42 mm O.D. – which covers most situations. For warm temperatures, it can be used with no problems up to +200 °C. Conversly, arctic temperatures pose no problems. EO-2 fittings are available in steel and stainless steel depending on your application.
All EO-2 fittings are certified in accordance with EN45545-2 and EN61363 and also have the IRIS certification. For the designer, this means a universally deployable fitting which meets the current certification standards. This significantly simplifies designs.
A big application range means wider design possibilities. EO-2 covers hydraulic and pneumatic applications. For the user, there are clearly reduced costs and assembly work. In addition, this fittings series is also well suited to restricted access situations.
EO-2 are well-greased and easily assembled. The threads of the standard smooth-coated retaining nuts are additionally treated with EO-LUB from sizes 25S/28L. The torques of EO-2 fittings are thereby reduced by about 25 percent and make their contribution to preventing dangerous under-assemblies.
In the EO-2 functional nut the sealing and retaining rings are assembled so that these three parts cannot be lost and form one design element. Because of this, individual parts such as seals and cutting rings cannot be forgotten, mixed up or fitted the wrong way round. All these kinds of mistakes that might be made must be avoided at all costs because they affect the safety of both passengers and railway personnel.
Individual parts do not have to be laboriously collected together during assembly. The user can shorten assembly times, reduce warehousing costs and into the bargain increase the security of his/her systems free of charge.
Viewed on the whole, the EO-2 Series, represents an attractive, safe and reliable alternative to comparable fittings systems. EO-2 is available world-wide and in the case of replacement, makes the procurement of the required components easier. EO-2 also meets the “Buy America Act.” Click here to earn more about on EO-2 Fittings or visit us in person at Innotrans 2018 at Hall 10, Stand 206 in Berlin from 17th to 21st September, 2018.
Article contributed to by Georg Kälble, manager marketing-service, High Pressure Connectors Europe, Parker Hannifin.
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EMI (electromagnetic interference) is the disruption of the operation of an electronic device when it is near an electromagnetic field in the radio frequency spectrum that is caused by another electronic device. When used with a conductive EMI gasket, conductive foil tapes with a polyester paint masking provides a conductive, non-corroding surface on painted metal electronic enclosures that forms and effective EMI shielding solution.
But sometimes, applying conductive EMI foil masking tapes can be tricky and quite the hassle. Luckily, we’ve come up with five easy steps to make applying conductive tape easy and worry-free.
To ensure maximum adhesion of your conductive foil tape with peel-off mask, remove all surface oils and dust. In large volume applications, proceed through your normal automated cabinet cleaning procedures. In small volume applications, clean cabinet flanges thoroughly with a cloth dampened with an industrial cleaner (acetone, toluene, or isopropyl alcohol).
Be sure to wear rubber gloves, because some cleaning agents tend to be nasty chemicals, and you do not want them to get on your skin. It is important to avoid contact with or handling of the adhesive on the back of the tape. Oils from the hand will affect adhesion. If oxidation or rust is present, abrade surface with sandpaper to expose clean metal before cleaning.
Still wearing your rubber gloves, peel away the release liner of the conductive tape and apply the tape to cabinet flanges, being careful to avoid wrinkles. Extend the tape beyond the corners and cut away excess. This prevents residual stress in the foil from lifting tape at ends. Run your finger along the mask to provide initial adhesion.
The excess tape in each corner should now be trimmed, and it is not necessary to overlap the tape in the corners. It is recommended that a gap be left between the vertical and horizontal strips. The gap should measure about .080 in. (2.0 mm) wide (which is equivalent to the recessed edge of the tape). Later, when paint is applied to the cabinet, this gap will be filled and serve to edge seal the tape ends.
Then, using a precise cutting tool, cut about a .080 in. (2.0 mm) piece of the mask layer on each strip and remove. This will further ensure edge sealing when the cabinet is painted.
Smooth over the surface of the conductive foil tape with a small rubber roller. Touch down the exposed tinned copper edges until they are flat and even. Note: Only moderate pressure is required (about 5 psi).
Now your cabinet is ready for normal phosphatizing and painting. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for paint application and curing. Note: Recommended paint thickness, including primer, is 4 mils (0.1 mm) or more.
When the cabinet has reached room temperature, remove the mask of the conductive foil tape at a 180° angle from the foil tape leaving a clean, conductive grounding surface. The mask is easily removed at room temperature, with or without baking.
Looking for the perfect conductive foil tape with a peel-off mask? Check out Parker Chomerics CHO-MASK® II EMI Foil Tape now. CHO-MASK II tape provides
effective shielding performance and grounding points within the painted enclosure, and can accommodate a wide range of enclosure finishing processes, including powder coating.
This blog was contributed by Jarrod Cohen, marketing communications manager, Parker Chomerics Division.
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Condenser coil cleaning is one of those subjects in which there is much misdirection and misinformation being propagated by some manufacturers/distributors that has caused unfortunate confusion in the industry. Addressed below are answers to common questions to set the record straight on the use of these products.
Condenser coils depend on a chemical reaction between the aluminum fins and either a strong acid or alkaline solution to clean the coils. This chemical reaction produces heat and several fumes and gasses (primarily hydrogen) which causes the coil cleaner to foam and push out the dirt loosened by the wetting and heating process. If a foaming condenser coil cleaner is used and does not foam, it means that aluminum is not in the coil (possibly a steel or copper coil), or grease, oil, paint or some other substance is keeping the cleaner from contacting the aluminum and creating the reaction. Due to the fumes given off in this process, these types of cleaners are not suitable for use inside. Evaporator coil cleaners are specifically formulated for indoor use and, although probably not as effective as the foaming condenser coil cleaners, they are effective cleaners on the types of dirt commonly found on evaporator coils.
In the past, acid based condenser coil cleaners were the standard. There really was no other option. The primary acid of choice was hydrofluoric acid (HF) because it reacted well with aluminum to create the desired foam. It was common knowledge that HF was a serious chemical and needed to be used with a certain amount of caution. One of the peculiar things about HF is that if it comes in contact with skin, it typically does not create a burning sensation immediately. Instead it can soak into the skin and later cause the user pain. By this time, skin and tissue damage is advanced and may require a trip to the doctor for a neutralizing injection.
Due to this danger, coil cleaner manufacturers developed alternative acidic cleaner formulas that did not contain HF directly, as well as non-acid (alkaline) coil cleaners whose primary ingredient was either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, both of which are very similar chemically. These chemicals do cause a burning sensation when in contact with skin and the discomfort will encourage the user to rinse the cleaner off before serious skin and tissue damage occurs. It should be noted, however, that neither type of cleaner should be called safe. Both the acid and alkaline condenser coil cleaners can cause serious skin and eye damage, and the vapors, especially those during the cleaning process, can cause serious lung and throat problems and should be used with caution. Due to the change of ground pH, both types of cleaners can kill grass and other foliage immediately around the condenser coil. Both types of coil cleaners are technically biodegradable. Both types are for outdoor use only. Both types should be rinsed thoroughly from the coil and surrounding area when the coil cleaning process is complete. These are serious chemicals and demand serious respect.
Both acidic and alkaline cleaners continue to have roles in your arsenal of coil cleaning products. The acid based Acti-Brite remains the cleaner of choice for removing corrosion by-products and scale build-up. Alkaline-based Alki-Foam is recommended to remove excess dirt, grease and grime.
One of the interesting things that has come about in recent years is the push for cleaners with more and more foam generation. This begs the question “how much foam is really enough?” The idea to keep in mind is that you need enough foam to push out the quantity of dirt down in the coil. More foam does not necessarily mean that the unit is getting any cleaner. Clean is clean - anything more is too much. Before cleaning the condenser coil, the coil should be inspected to determine how dirty it really is. In the vast majority of cases, the coil just has a light coat of dirt and dust covering the surfaces and really just needs a light cleaning. Using super-high foaming cleaners straight out of the bottle is overkill. In most applications, a good coil cleaner such as Acti-Brite or Alki-Foam mixed to a dilution ratio of between 1:2 and 1:4 is usually adequate for most cleaning jobs. The reality is that most technicians love to see thick foam and tend to use the cleaners straight. We discourage this practice because it usually is not needed, can result in damage to the fin stock and results in unnecessary amounts of chemicals that are transferred into the ground. If inspection determines that a condenser coil is very dirty with grease or other difficult dirt, then a dilution ratio of 1:1 will usually result in a very thick foam and enough chemical to clean virtually any application. If the coil remains dirty after one application, then rinse it off and reapply at a 1:1 ratio.
Before cleaning a condenser coil, make sure to break power to the unit. Perform an inspection of the coil to determine how dirty it is. This should entail disassembly of the unit to the extent that if there are multiple rows of coils, you can inspect between the rows to determine the depth of dirt. On multiple row coils, it is not uncommon to have a quantity of dirt make it through the outside row of coils and block the inside row of coils. The unit may look clean from the outside, but airflow is blocked.
If accumulations of dirt, dust, cottonwood or other contaminants is matted on the face of the coil, it is a good idea to use a coil brush similar to the one discussed in the evaporator coil section to quickly brush the condenser coil face. This will aid in the penetration of the coil cleaner and speed up the job considerably. After inspection, mix your coil cleaner in a low pressure sprayer to a ratio appropriate for the amount of dirt on the coil (1:1 to 1:2 for heavily soiled coils, 1:3 to 1:4 for light to medium soiled coils). It is recommended that due to the nature of these chemicals, chemical impervious gloves, goggles and apron are worn. Always make sure to put the water in the sprayer first, then add the appropriate amount of cleaner. Wet the coil with water first as this will aid penetration of the cleaner into the coils. Apply the cleaner to both the inlet and outlet side of the coil, saturating the coil with cleaner. Caution should be taken on windy days as condenser coil cleaners can etch glass and remove paint from vehicles, as well as cause harm to anyone standing downwind. Do not allow the cleaner to rest on other system components. Sprayers with foaming tips are not recommended as pre foaming the cleaner will hinder penetration into the coils. The foam generated is a chemical reaction with the aluminum, not from a spray tip.
Allow the cleaner to work for a maximum of five minutes. During this time, foam should form and dirt should be visibly carried out on the foam. Smoke or other vapors may be visible during this time which are a side effect of the chemical reaction and is not something to be concerned about. Begin rinsing the coil from the top down, taking care not to splash the cleaner on yourself or other surfaces as damage may occur. Continue to rinse the coil until no more foam is visible coming out the bottom of the condenser coil. Be sure to rinse all of the cleaner out of the coil as the cleaners may cause coil damage if left to dry on the coil. Rinse the surrounding area thoroughly with water, reassemble the unit and restore power to the condenser. Always be sure to rinse out the sprayer when finished as the chemicals may cause damage to all but the best sprayers over time.
Article contributed by Chris Reeves, product manager, Contaminant Control Products, Sporlan Division of Parker Hannifin
For more articles on climate control:
HVACR Tech Tip: Coil Cleaning Basics for the HVACR Service Technician
HVACR Tech Tip: How to Clean Evaporator Coils for Preventive Maintenance
HVACR Tech Tip: When Should a Catch-All Filter-Drier be Changed?
Control of vehicle speed is important to equipment operators. The ability to accurately set the speed of a conveyor or roller in applications such as road paving or striping, crop sprayers and sugar cane harvesters is essential to help optimize productivity and help reduce waste. Additionally, the ability to enter a user ID, PIN or password is often a requirement to help ensure only authorized users have access to operate heavy equipment. Although large, more complex displays can perform these basic functions, they are often not cost effective or small enough to be a good application fit.
The PHD28 touch screen display offers a cost-effective replacement for a traditional, robust keypad in a dynamically configurable platform. In addition, the PHD28 has enough built in processing power to perform basic calculations, check entry limits of values entered, rescale values or even change the value based on an incoming CAN message or input signal. With its compact, 2.8-inch size, it fits well in many consoles and dashboards without compromising valuable space.
Using the PHD28 in conjunction with other Parker electronic products where a simple to use number entry system can control complicated systems.
When control of conveyor speed is needed to perform the functions of the vehicle, a PHD along with an IQAN controller can provide this functionality as a low cost and efficient solution.
For example, the PHD28 programmed as a numeric keypad will allow the operator to select the desired conveyor speed and then transmit that value to an IQAN MC43 controller to control the vehicle. This instance can be expanded to any of the PHD family displays as well as the IQAN family of controllers.
In this example, a value is entered by the user and if within range, the target speed is transmitted over the CAN bus to the IQAN controller. To confirm the value, the feedback from the IQAN controller is shown in the top right of the screen and is used to control the vehicle speed.
The IQAN controller can then communicate with the diesel engine and brake control system to regulate vehicle speed. When vehicle speed does not match the input value from the keypad, the IQAN controller can notify the engine to speed up if the vehicle is moving too slow. If the vehicle is moving too fast, the IQAN controller can activate the brake system so the vehicle will slow down.
Vehicle speed can be measured using a sensor such as a Parker GS60 speed sensor. The frequency output from the GS60 can be connected to the IQAN controller, which would use a PID loop to control the engine and braking system to maintain the desired speed.
If an operator must adjust vehicle speed, they can enter the appropriate speed value or use the up and down arrows to adjust the current value.
Parker offers the keypad program for the PHD eliminating the need for programming in this specific configuration. An IQAN 5 external function and example application is also supplied to make it easy to integrate with the rest of the IQAN application. If a custom design or look is desired, the PHD28 can be programmed to fit that application using Crank Storyboard software.
In the example to the right, the screen shows a numerical keypad where the user can enter a numerical value with 0.1 precision. The user enters the value and then has the option to select cancel, revert to the previous value, or enter to accept the value. Upon acceptance, the value is then transmitted to the system controller via a J1939 message. The user also has the option to increment and decrement the current value using the up and down arrows.
This example is configured so that the system controller can send an acceptable maximum value as a variable to the PHD to qualify the input value is within range. Then the PHD gives a color coded visual indication to the user the value was accepted.In the example above, the screen shows a numerical keypad where the user can enter a numerical value with 0.1 precision. The user enters the value and then has the option to select cancel, revert to the previous value, or enter to accept the value. Upon acceptance, the value is then transmitted to the system controller via a J1939 message. The user also has the option to increment and decrement the current value using the up and down arrows.
The transmitted J1939 message in this example uses PGN 0xFF00 with two parameters: the entered value and a Boolean search that is active while the OK button is pressed. The resulting J1939 message in the example also uses PGN 0xFF00 with two parameters: the maximum acceptable value and a feedback value so the system controller can acknowledge that entered value was accepted.
This application example can be used as is for a basic keypad device, can be modified to accommodate desired form and function or can be used in an existing PHD application to add keypad functionality. The example contains the graphical content, screen layout using Crank Storyboard and functionality written in Lua script.
In many cases, the content of the keypad should be adjusted for regional content, customer color theme or operating mode. These dynamic changes cannot be accomplished on a traditional mechanical keypad.
Easily enter and change values in system
PHD program and IQAN function group available
GS60 Speed Sensor
Robust, outdoor rated products
To learn more about PHD Displays, view our product literature, technical specifications and reference materials.
Article contributed by Edward Polzin, regional application engineer - central, Electronic Controls Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
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We’re thrilled to announce the Chomerics Division of Parker Hannifin Corporation, the global leader in motion and control technologies, has received the prestigious Q1 certification from Ford Motor Company for its Fairport, NY location.
This Q1 certification is internationally recognized as an indication that Parker Chomerics has attained excellence in quality performance, capable systems, warranty performance, and delivery performance. We are elated to display the Q1 designation with honor, as it is only given to Ford suppliers who can meet very stringent standards.
“I am proud of everyone at Fairport and their contributions to make this happen, outstanding job everyone,” said John Beswick, global business unit manager, Chomerics Division.
Specifically, Q1 award recognizes Chomerics Division for its ability to provide superior product quality, ensure high reliability, with exceptional materials and dependable supply chain management on an on-going basis.
“Congratulations to the Fairport team,” said Dave Hill, global general manager for Chomerics Division, “It’s a great reflection in Ford’s confidence in our operation. What a great accomplishment!”
Parker Chomerics Engineered Plastic Solutions business unit in Fairport, NY, located 10 miles outside of Rochester, NY, heavily utilizes robotics and automation to achieve high quality and delivery standards across many industries.
For more information on Chomerics products, visit our website or download our Engineered Custom Injection Molded Plastics Solutions brochure.
Article contributed by Kyri McDonough, marketing services manager at Hose Products Division, Parker Hannifin.
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In a European context favouring a unique rail system, the design and use of trains are becoming increasingly complex. They must comply with a wide range of specifications and regulations while proposing standardisation of the systems. This is known as interoperability.
Interoperability of the rail systems operating in Europe, supported by directive 2016/797, means that the same rolling stock can be used outside the borders of a particular country, with weather constraints caused by extreme temperature variations.
Temperatures down to -40 °C/-50 °C are a reality for the equipment, no matter where it was manufactured. This temperature constraint has an impact on the technology employed for the low-pressure circuits and gives the designer/ operator a new use challenge.
The fluid transfer connection technology is no exception. Very low temperatures must not be allowed to affect the basic connectors principles. These basic principles revolve around the ease of installation, the leaktightness and pressure performance, the fast maintenance of the circuit and the mechanical strength.
Cold is known to cause structural damage which may threaten a person's safety but also affect the operation of the machines:
Designers and operators therefore need to review the criteria they use to validate low-pressure circuits to overcome the cold constraint.
The low-pressure components of rolling stock can be classified into two categories, depending on whether they are used inside or outside with temperature variations between -25 °C and -40 °C/-50 °C.
These temperatures place the low-pressure circuits under considerable stress and may lead to loss of performance or premature wear of some train components.
Cold temperatures may limit the performance and operation of the onboard low-pressure systems, causing the trains to slow down or even stop, in order to guarantee the safety of the passengers.
It may therefore affect the service rate of rolling stock and the profitability of installations. Rail operators therefore need to employ specific methods such as:
When considered right from the beginning design stage, these practices, necessary due to the cold conditions, ensure that the connector is fully compatible. The circuits assembled in this way will guarantee optimum service rate and increased profitability of the installations. More specifically, tests must be conducted to validate the behaviour of a low-pressure connector exposed to cold. For example, standard NF F11806 describes the requirements and mechanical tests applicable to shut-off valves down to -40 °C.
Cold may also aggravate corrosion phenomena. In this case, we speak of structural damage to the materials possibly leading to breakage of the low-pressure circuit. Premature wear is due to:
Standard ISO 9227 describes the tests and corrosion resistance levels of metallic components, helping designers to make appropriate choices. The corrosion resistance requirement may be very high, possibly demanding exclusive use of stainless steel.
To conclude, it is a truism that rolling stock manufacturers want to ensure that systems can operate at 100 percent service rate to guarantee customer satisfaction. Cold changes the technological deal, and the design and use of the connector systems must be adapted accordingly. Choosing the right connector is an increasingly critical challenge.
This article is Part 1 of a two-part series.
How to Overcome Environmental Challenges for Rail Freight Applications
Do you Know How Extreme Cold Affects Your Hydraulic Hose Properties?
Modern Swiss-type lathes have evolved from simple screw machines to high-precision, high-production machines and are now widely used across many industries to completely machine small parts, even for complex operations where no turning is required.
Whereas a conventional CNC lathe has two, three or four axes, a Swiss-type lathe is an entirely different proposition having up to 13 axes. This makes it possible to machine highly complex components in a single set-up, compared with multiple set-ups using conventional lathes. So why not apply this thinking to a multi-spindle Swiss-type lathe? After all, such a strategy would multiply the benefits in proportion to the number of additional spindles deployed. While this statement is true enough, more spindles means that space becomes a premium commodity which demands clever design and compact spindle motor technology. After all, in a highly competitive global marketplace, every square metre in today’s manufacturing shops carries a cost.
One machine tool manufacturer, however, has found a way around this issue. When Tornos, a leading specialist in Swiss-type lathes, wanted to bridge the gap between single-spindle and multi-spindle machines, it turned to Parker’s permanent magnet synchronous motor technology to reduce the amount of space required to position components and cutting tools and, in so doing, increase productivity in the next-generation design of Swiss-type lathes.
Equipped with eight spindles and eight slides for main operations, and accommodating up to three tools per slide, the Tornos MultiSwiss 8x26 features eight SKW frameless spindle servo motors from Parker and fast barrel indexing for producing turned parts up to 26mm in diameter. Each of the 11kW motor spindles is equipped with a C axis and counter spindle. Reaching speeds of 8,000 rpm in tenths of a second, the motors make a major contribution to performance and productivity, as well as space economy.
Comprising two separate elements (rotor and stator), SKW motors are integrated directly into the mechanical structure of the MultiSwiss. Compact, reliable and highly dynamic, the motors offer constant torque capabilities over a wide speed range with very small dimensions. Indeed, the space-saving design gave Tornos the flexibility to fit eight spindles into the MultiSwiss without sacrificing any of the high-precision benefits that come with permanent magnet synchronous motors.
As part of a collaborative, partner-based project, Parker supplied Tornos with a complete bespoke spindle motor solution, including a cooling system and sensor equipment. Parker’s long-standing relationship with Tornos has existed since 2005 and received the following endorsement:
“With the high-performance output of Tornos’ machines in mind, the quality and reliability of Parker’s solutions make the collaboration a good fit. We appreciate the close cooperation in terms of both commercial and technical aspects. We also benefit from Parker’s strong commitment with regard to after-sales support and enjoy the close contact and cooperation with their research and development department. Over time, this has meant Parker has turned out to be not only a reliable supplier but also a trustworthy partner.” Bertrand Faivre, Engineering Manager R&D at Tornos
To find out more about the latest Parker spindle motor solutions for machine tools, please click here.
Article contributed by Michel Finck, market development manager, Electromechanical & Drives Division Europe.
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Extremely cold environments with conditions such as snow, ice and high wind speeds are a challenge for all rubber hydraulic hoses.
Frequently, hoses must withstand temperature ranges below -57 °C which influences the rubber compounds used on the inner tube and the hose cover. What does this mean for your equipment?
When rubber is permanently cooled, the material characteristics and the bending behaviour will change even if the product has been developed for such temperature limits. Elastomers are used at the inner tube and the hose cover. When cooled to permanent low temperatures, hoses may no longer behave with their normal characteristics and become hard, stiff and inelastic. They can even decompose or work at reduced performance under continuous thermal loads. The material parameters change under the influence of heat and cold. If you cool down to lower temperatures, rubber becomes hard, tough and leathery.
Engineers describe this process with thermal changes that affect the molecular behaviour and the microstructure becomes crystalline. The result is that the rubber compounds become brittle, but in principle they remain deformable. The heat builds up in heat or mechanical energy. At -40 ° C (depending on rubber compound and hardness) the so-called glass point is reached; the rubber is hard. Crystallization of the elastomer at low temperatures may cause cracking. However, this depends strongly on the type of load in the low temperature range, more critical here are shock loads. We strongly recommend a regular visual inspection of the rubber for cracks, which can reduce its service life under unfavourable conditions and failure and leakage can occur when the temperature exceeds the rubber compounds acceptable range.
Hose manufacturers, such as Parker, are continuously putting their designs to the test. With the latest in technology, our state-of-the-art materials development and performance test labs are capable of determining baseline engineering and design properties to ensure that hoses meet application requirements. The cold-flexibility test is one of those tests required to meet specific specifications such as ISO 10619-2. An advantage to Parker's manufacturing process is the use of in-house compounds. This advantage opens new opportunities for the ideal compounds mixture of hoses such as Parker's SX35LT and SX42LT, which are multispiral hoses with four or six spiral high tensile steel wires for high pressure applications of 35,0 Mpa (5000 psi) and 42,0 Mpa (6000 psi) for extreme cold environments. These hoses are developed for extreme cold and demanding low temperature applications.
Parker also offers braided hoses with a synthetic rubber inner tube and as well a No-Skive thin synthetic rubber cover construction for mobile applications in low temperature environments such as forestry machines or refrigerated warehouses (461LT) or a 3-wire braid low-temperature compact hose with 4SP working pressures (371LT). These two hose types are not only cold resistance up to -50 °C but also characterized for an excellent ozone resistance. General typical applications are heavy construction equipment, side booms, mining and/or mobile equipment, arctic oil fields, materials handling in low temperature conditions, snow grooming equipment and any cold storage applications.
If your equipment relies on hydraulic systems, you know, it is not “IF” but “WHEN” a hydraulic hose fails, the race against downtime begins. The longer your equipment is down, the greater the loss and cost. Hydraulic system failures cause 35 to 65 percent of all mobile equipment downtimes – a great part due to relatively simple and cheap hydraulic hoses.
Ask yourself the following questions:
If YES is the answer to your questions, then the Parker Parkrimp No-Skive Self-Assembly system might be a problem solver for you.
Learn more about how to make your own assemblies using Parkrimp® No-Skive hose crimpers.
International companies with substantial expertise, such as Parker, have a global presence for the leading companies of the mobile market and can offer the right hose for each mobile application and on top, you can choose the way of product supply which best answers your individual manufacturing philosophy. The delivery options include complete hose assemblies, hose/tube assemblies, single hose and fittings and hose crimpers and tooling for the Parkimp No-Skive self- assembling.
Learn more about Hose Products.
This blog was contributed to by Conny Stöhr, marketing services manager, Hose Products Division Europe.
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Selecting the proper hose for a hydraulic assembly is critical to ensure that it meets the requirements for that specific application. One of the first steps in selecting the proper hose is to identify the type of reinforcement that is needed. The reinforcement is the strength of all hydraulic hoses; it determines the working pressure of the hose. Within the hydraulic hose industry, you will commonly see three types of reinforcement:
Download our HoseFinder app to make it easier to select your next hydraulic hose.
It is important to note that there are hoses that have a reinforcement that is a combination of fiber and wire, or multiple layers of wire braids or spiral layers but typically there are one or the other. Watch this video to see the differences.
Hose reinforcement has a direct correlation to the working pressure rating of a hydraulic hose. Pressure capacity is the defining criteria for hydraulic hose and pressure dictates how it is constructed. The type of reinforcement as well as the number of layers; 1-wire hose, 2-wire, 4-wire, etc., generally indicates pressure capacity. As you increase the number of layers, the pressure rating increases.
Hose reinforcement also impacts the flexibility of a hydraulic hose. Although hydraulic hoses are usually fairly stationary and don’t move around very much, hoses used on a piece of equipment that has a flexible joint, like a backhoe, must be flexible. Furthermore, the flexibility of hose enables components to be positioned in the most efficient or convenient places due to its ability to bend around corners, through tight spaces, or across long distances. Braided and spiral hoses definitely differ in terms of flexibility along with other differentiating factors.
Braided construction has a crisscross wire arrangement. This ends up looking like a braid when it’s all done. Braided constructions allow for increased flexibility of the hydraulic hose. Several layers of wire braid can make the hose stronger while keeping the reinforcement material untangled and maintaining a constant pitch (i.e. the inclination and the thread count per unit length). "Medium-pressure hoses" typically feature one- and two-wire braided construction. These hoses are frequently found on construction equipment, heavy-duty trucks, and fleet vehicle applications. In general, braided hose is selected for its flexibility, however, this type of hose is also more susceptible to failure under high-impulse applications.
The majority of "low-pressure braided hoses" have a textile reinforcement. In applications with typical operating pressures below 300 psi, the use of fiber braid allows for maximum flexibility. Hoses with textile reinforcement are commonly used to transmit petroleum-based fluids, diesel fuel, hot lubricating oil, air, ethylene glycol anti-freeze and water.
Below is an image of one of Parker Hose Product’s braiding machines.
At one time in the industry, two-wire braided hose was most commonly used in many applications. But the advent of larger, off-road specialty equipment drove the creation of spiral hose, which is very well suited for applications where extremely high impulse pressure is encountered.
Spiral hose construction consists of either textile or wire reinforcement. Each ply is laid at a specified angle for maximum dimensional stability. Instead of crisscrossing, wires remain parallel as they wrap around the circumference of the hose. Even though spiral reinforcement results in a stronger hose; there is an increased minimum bend radius and less flexibility due to the stiffness of the wire reinforcement in most cases. Spiral wire construction was designed to handle the high impulse applications such as construction equipment, heavy-duty trucks and fleet vehicle applications.
Below is an image of one of Parker Hose Product’s spiral hose machines.
Usually the more layers of wire, the stronger the hose, which means higher pressures can be achieved. Multi-layer spiral hoses, such as four- or six-wire construction, are used in a wide variety of applications from lawn tractors to earth movers. The demand for durable, high-performance spiral hydraulic hoses is continually growing, especially in applications where service life is critical.
Helical wire construction is used in addition to layers of fiber spiral or fiber braid hose reinforcements. Helical reinforced hoses are designed with maximum flexibility and vacuum handling in mind. The use of a helical reinforcement construction prevents collapse under vacuum. Helical wire reinforcement can be found in low pressure suction and return line hoses.
If you are in need of a hydraulic hose but don’t know which is best for your application, contact a local hose distributor. Provide them with all the details of your application in order for them to fully understand what you need. You can also download Parker’s HoseFinder to go through the STAMP process, which enables you to identify hoses based on your specific application.
From one- and two-wire braided, and up to six-wire spiral hose construction, and with a variety of cover options to protect from abrasive situations, Parker’s hydraulic hoses cover the pressure and media requirements for most hydraulic applications.
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When it’s time to provide your customer's preventive maintenance don’t forget to pay particular attention to system components that are out of sight within the system cabinet or air handler enclosure. The unit’s evaporator coils are among the more important of these hidden components. Problems can develop with dirty evaporator coils as it can effect the system's performance and efficiency. This can also lead to damage and/or breakdowns. Here is some basic information on effectively cleaning evaporator coils.
Evaporator coils are probably the most difficult to clean. They are usually packed tightly inside a blower compartment that are usually difficult to service. They may be located over bathtubs, in tight dark closets, on rooftops in commercial applications, in a hot attic or a myriad of other places that are usually cramped, dark and uncomfortable. Due to these inconveniences, evaporator coils are often left alone and not cleaned until a system problem emerges. An evaporator coil should be inspected every six months and may need to be cleaned every six months to four years, depending on environment and filtration.
Make sure to disconnect the power to the unit while cleaning the coil. This will prevent a potential electrical hazard. Disassemble the unit to the extent that both sides of the coil can be accessed. For applications that have matted hair and dirt on the intake side of the coil, it is important that they be carefully brushed clean. Failure to do so will severely limit the penetration of the coil cleaner and dramatically reduce its effectiveness. There are several disposable types of coil brushes available from different manufacturers that do a very good job of cleaning the surface dirt off while keeping your hands away from the filth and fins. One note of warning - the fins on a/c coils are very sharp and can cause severe cuts to skin. Be sure to avoid contact with the coil with your hands, arms, etc. It’s advisable to wear gloves, face mask and apron during this procedure since potential organisms growing on the coil and contact with lungs, skin, eyes or clothing may transmit disease. Once the surface dirt has been removed, a good evaporator coil cleaner, such as Acti-Klean should be mixed in a low pressure sprayer with water in a dilution ration of between 3:1 to 1:1, depending on the condition of the coil and the type of dirt encountered. Acti-Klean is a concentrated set of soaps and surfactants (wetting agents that help the cleaner penetrate the coil fully). The coil should then be sprayed liberally from both sides of the coil with the coil cleaner solution. This coil cleaner will not create the foam that condenser coil cleaners do, so don’t be shy applying the coil cleaner. Make sure that the liquid does not fall onto electrical components in the system. The cleaner will cut through grease and oils, as well as dislodge any dirt, dust and hair that may be trapped in the coil and rinses them down the condensate drain. An alternative option would be Virginia Coil Klean aerosol coil cleaner. This product will foam out dirt and dust and is certainly more convenient in the aerosol container, although it is more costly than cleaners like Acti-Klean. When the coil is clean, it is recommended that where possible the coil be rinsed off. This will aid in removing any remaining dirt from the coil. If this is not possible, then the condensate created by running the a/c system will rinse off any remaining cleaner. Depending on temperature and humidity conditions, the unit should run for between 15 minutes to 1 hour to ensure all cleaner is rinsed off the coil.
In recent years, indoor air quality receives a lot of attention. Often a case of “black mold” in some air conditioning system is reported in the news and the entire building must be evacuated and sanitized. It is a good idea after cleaning the coil that an EPA registered bacteriostat be used on the coil and surrounding ductwork and insulation to ensure that any minor growths and odors are eliminated. Doing so provides your customer a valuable service by ensuring that mold and other growths do not develop throughout the system. It is important the technician pays close attention to the volume of dirt and other growths coming off the coil. It is not uncommon for release dirt to block the opening of the condensate drain line and restrict the draining of water. If this is observed, the blockage should be removed before the drain pan overflows.
While cleaning the coil, it is a good time to clean the drain pan as well. Simply clean out any rust and deposits that may be sitting in the bottom of the pan with a towel, rag or other means. Once again, be careful not to rub your hand across the coil as the edges are quite sharp. Protective gloves are recommended.
For more information see Catalog G-1.
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Challenged by the industry to advance the fire protection of hoses used in aircraft engine applications, engineers at the Parker Aerospace Stratoflex Products Division have used standard, low-cost materials to create a high-temperature flexible hose (HTFH) that redefines hose life expectancy. HTFH replaces traditional solutions, including both standard flexible hose and rigid pipe, to provide more durable fire protection, vibration damping, and thermal expansion flexibility to the feeder lines that supply the nozzles spraying fuel into the combustion chamber of jet engines.
Vibration is a growing challenge for today’s engine manufacturers. While new lean-burn engines deliver a more complete combustion of fuel that results in lower NOx and particulate emissions, they can cause more vibration or rumble in the engine. Additionally, lighter and thinner components used to reduce engine weight are more susceptible to vibration.
Traditional technologies used to connect fuel manifolds to nozzles are problematic, even potentially dangerous:
Our high-temperature flexible hose is a win-win for engine manufacturers. With a temperature rating of 800°F for ambient conditions with minimal fuel flow of 0.07 gpm, the kink-resistant innovation has inherent damping capability, reducing vibration sensitivity. Plus, it is easier to install, less sensitive to tolerance stack up, offers equal fire-resistance performance to integral fire sleeve hose, and eliminates the problem of thermal aging of fire protection material.
Constructed with a robust, stainless steel outer braid that is superior to a silicone fire sleeve for abrasion and chafing, HTFH has an insulating layer that acts as a fire sleeve. This insulating layer:
The end result of this advanced engineering is a product that is much less costly to maintain due to ease of replacement and significantly longer service intervals, projected to be minimum of 15 years.
Qualified in -4 and -5 sizes (1/4 inch and 5/16 inch diameters respectively) and adaptable to a wide variety of fitting styles and configurations, HTFH is redefining the market.
For additional information on Parker Aerospace systems and capabilities, please visit our website.
This post was contributed by Tracy Rice, strategic chief engineer – engines for Parker Aerospace Stratoflex Products Division.
Quiet Aircraft Initiative is Turning Down the Cabin Volume
Evolution of Fuel Tank Inerting for the Aerospace Industry
New Milestone Reached for Aircraft Inerting Systems
Innovations Drive Weight and Emission Reductions for Aircraft Engines
Keeping Aircraft Fleets Healthy Around the Clock and Around the Globe
As global air traffic continues to grow, the need for cleaner, more efficient airplanes is rising right along with it. In an effort to reduce the global impact of pollution attributable to aviation, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adopted new CO2 emissions standards in 2017 for commercial aircraft, requiring new aircraft type designs to meet these standards before delivery. These regulatory requirements, coupled with airlines’ desire to reduce fuel expenses and other costs, drive engine makers to seek every possible advantage in producing more efficient aircraft engines.
One way to reduce an aircraft engine’s emissions and improve engine performance is through active clearance control (ACC). This is achieved by managing the clearance between the gas turbine casing and the tips of the rotating blades, referred to as turbine tip clearance. An engine’s turbine clearance control system (TCCS) relies on turbine clearance control valves (TCCVs) to control this tip clearance by managing the thermal expansion of the turbine case that surrounds the turbine stages of the engine.
The Fluid Systems Division of Parker Aerospace developed its line of TCCVs with a goal of exceeding customer requirements for reliability, safety, and performance. The product offers engine manufacturers a proven control mechanism that has not only undergone extensive testing but demonstrated improvements in engine fuel burn, which translate into measurable savings for its engine and airline customers.
Turbine tip clearance between the turbine blades and the turbine case is a key parameter that influences turbine efficiency and the propulsive efficiency. The tip clearance should be kept to a minimum value, considering the turbine blade and the case expansion resulting from temperature excursions during the entire operating envelope of the engine. These temperature excursions are a result of the extremely hot combusted gases that enter the turbine stage of the engine, downstream of the combustion chamber and provide the thrust required to power the engine.
The combusted air temperatures can be in excess of 2,000°F, resulting in the expansion of the turbine blades and the case, thereby increasing the tip clearance and loss of turbine efficiency. The net effect is that more fuel needs to be combusted to compensate for this loss of efficiency, in order to generate the required thrust, resulting in increased fuel burn and increase in specific fuel consumption.
By controlling the thermal expansion and contraction of the engine’s turbine casing over its operating envelope, engine manufacturers can better optimize the turbine tip clearances in the engine. A proven method of controlling this clearance is to either direct cooler air around the turbine case to cool and contract the casing ‒ or ‒ to restrict the cooler air, allowing the casing to expand when required to compensate for the turbine blade expansion. thereby maintaining the tip clearance.
This delicate balance is realized through temperature sensors in the engine that measure turbine air temperatures during the entire flight cycle. This information is relayed in real time to the engine’s full authority digital engine control (FADEC), an autonomous, system that monitors and controls all aspects of an engine’s operation, including its turbine tip clearance control system.
Depending on the flight status, the FADEC sends electrical commands to the engine’s turbine clearance control valves, signaling them to incrementally open or close (modulate the flow through the valve), to control the case thermal expansion. The opening and closing of these valves ultimately controls the amount cooling air taken from the engine’s bypass flow to manage engine casing temperatures, thereby facilitating optimum blade tip clearance control.
Parker’s TCCV consists of a butterfly valve actuated using an integral fuel-actuated actuator. The fuel actuator consists of a Parker electro-hydraulic servo valve (EHSV) integrated as part of the actuator. The EHSV receives an electrical command from the FADEC and directs the fuel flow appropriately for the actuator to either extend or retract the actuator rod. Actuator retraction or extension results in modulating the valve position to either fully open or fully closed or anywhere in between, depending on the stage of flight.
The actuator and the valve position are monitored by a linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT), which is integrated within the actuator rod. The LVDT provides the position feedback to the FADEC, which through its built-in software deduces the position of the valve (hence, the TCCV flow). Therefore, the TCCV valve system forms a closed loop sub-system with the FADEC; it receives a command, executes, and relays back the result of its action back to the FADEC for further instructions.
Turbine clearance control valves operate in a hostile environment, being exposed to aircraft engine surrounding air temperatures that can range from -65° to 350° Fahrenheit. The valves also handle the contaminated air flowing through them, as well as engine-induced vibration, and continue to function throughout the engine life.
To survive and perform in this environment, Parker’s butterfly-type valve incorporates several design features to enhance valve life, reliability, and performance. Features such as specially designed dynamic seals have been validated for long-term performance under extreme conditions, enabling superior sealing capability, low friction, and high wear resistance.
These seal designs are critical in ensuring that air flowing through the valve does not leak externally. This type of leakage is wasteful; not only does it rob the thrust-producing bypass air, it also results in less-than-optimum functionality of TCCV sub-system. Together the valve and actuator designs have a proven track record of meeting strict fire requirements during flight certification. The mechanical linkages between the actuator and the butterfly valve shaft are designed to withstand the vibration and endurance cycles required to ensure accurate position feedback and control of the TCCV system.
Parker’s Jet-Pipe® electrohydraulic servo valve (EHSV), designed and manufactured by the Parker Aerospace Control Systems Division. The EHSV is a proven, robust two-stage design that is contamination-resistant, providing the accuracy needed to precisely move the actuator to its commanded position, while providing the durability needed for long, trouble-free service life.
Parker Aerospace’s Fluid Systems Division in Irvine, California, has been providing TCCVs to engine manufacturers for nearly 40 years, continually improving the design and performance of its valves, making them extremely accurate and durable. Our longstanding engine customers include Rolls-Royce, GE Aviation, and Pratt & Whitney, among others.
Parker’s Fluid Systems Division offers its customer the benefit of extensive in-house testing capabilities for its TCCVs as well as its full line of products and systems. Parker TCCVs are designed and tested to meet and exceed vibration and endurance life requirements.
Complete endurance testing of the valves to multiple life cycles, which includes applying a full flight profile to simulate flight conditions and mimic valve performance in flight, helps ensure a TCCV design that has achieved maturity at entry into service. Our endurance test routines also include the introduction of contaminants to further prove the valves’ integrity. Additionally, we provide complete control system simulation models of the TCCV control system, utilizing either SIMULINK or Amesym for our engine customers, who in turn use this model within their larger engine control system model.
By working with our engine customers and aircraft operators, Parker FSD engineers have turned lessons learned into bankable savings for our end-use customers. The valves are designed for maintainability with the goal of lower removal and installation times on wing while achieving optimum repair and overhaul times. Put very simply, Parker valves offer lower total-lifecycle cost proposition for our customers.
The extensively tested and proven technology of Parker’s turbine clearance control valves allows aircraft engine manufacturers to achieve their desired engine performance, including extended service life while reducing fuel consumption (lower specific fuel consumption) and fuel emissions. By helping airlines meet more stringent international standards for CO2 emissions, Parker and its engine manufacturing partners become part of a global commitment to ensure an environmentally responsible future for aviation.
This post was contributed by Sanjay Bhat, new business development manager for Parker Aerospace’s Fluid Systems Division.
New Optical-Based System Will Transform Aircraft Fuel Measurement
Innovations Drive Weight and Emission Reductions for Aircraft Engines
Keeping Aircraft Fleets Healthy Around the Clock and Around the Globe
New Milestone Reached for Aircraft Inerting Systems
Evolution of Fuel Tank Inerting for the Aerospace Industry
Parker Aerospace’s Fluid Systems Division has developed critical fuel-vent and line static dissipating tubes in collaboration with OEM customers to safeguard today’s modern composite aircraft from the risk of fuel-tank ignition and serious safety incidents.
Once used only for light structural pieces or cabin components, carbon composites are now being utilized for wing and fuselage skins, engine components, and landing gear. Lightweight and strong, composites reduce weight and increase fuel efficiency while being easy to handle, design, shape, and repair. They also offer improved reliability and durability while reducing the number of heavy fasteners and joints in an aircraft, which are potential failure points.1
Aircraft manufacturers have been attracted by the advantages of composites. New aircraft using composite wings provide lower fuel use per passenger than comparable aircraft.2 Carbon composites have been portrayed as the perfect aircraft material – except for in the way that they handle lightning strikes.
According to an article in Scientific American, “What happens when lightning strikes an airplane,” each U.S. commercial aircraft is struck by lightning more than once every year, usually attaching first to an extremity like nose or wing tip3.
Aircraft with an aluminum fuselage and wings can readily conduct the charge from a lightning strike, allowing the current to move along the skin and pass back into the atmosphere. However, composites are significantly less conductive than aluminum.
On composite structures, the current from a lightning strike does not have a highly conductive pathway that allows the electricity to transfer back into the atmosphere. Without dissipation, the lightning currents could ignite the fuel in the fuel tanks, fuel lines, and fuel vents. That’s why our fuel vent and line static isolating tubes are so valuable.
Composite wings need isolating and dissipating tubes to slowly dispel the static charge from a lightning strike, thereby preventing arcing in the system. Installed in-line with the fuel lines and fuel vents, the tubes resist electrical energy and eliminate its transfer across the tube. This protects the fuel lines and the rest of the fuel system from possible combustion.
Our fuel and vent line static isolating tubes are tested and proven. The components are currently installed on all HondaJet business aircraft as well as Northrop Grumman Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicles. Available in multiple diameters, including 1/2-, 3/4-, 1.0-, 1.25-, 1.5-, 1.75-, 2.0-, 2.5-, 3.0-, 3.5-, and 4.0-inch inner diameter, the tubes are available with ferrules on each end and tubes with a flange mid span to meet most installation requirements.
The growing use of composites in aircraft manufacturing will increase the need for technologies that maximize the advantages of composites while minimizing their limitations. Our fuel-vent and line static isolating tubes will continue to play a critical role in keeping more-composite aircraft safe from ever-present lightning strikes.
This post was contributed by Glen Kukla, engineering team leader, Parker Aerospace, Fluid Systems Division
Quiet Aircraft Initiative is Turning Down the Cabin Volume
Aircraft Lightning Protection Rises to New Heights
For over 40 years, the Fluid Systems Division (FSD) of Parker Aerospace has been designing and building aircraft fuel boost and transfer pumps at its Elyria, Ohio, facility located just southwest of Cleveland. Parker, as a leader in the aerospace industry, is committed to supporting all aircraft manufacturing segments including general aviation, commercial, and military. Parker FSD is proud of its legacy and reputation in the industry and continues to work toward advancing fuel pump products through innovative technology that meets today’s advanced safety regulations while improving operating efficiency.
Fuel pumps are an integral component of any aircraft fuel system. Parker builds two types of pumps that are an integral part of the fuel delivery system: fuel boost pumps and fuel transfer pumps.
Fuel boost pumps are designed to deliver the fuel from the primary tanks to the aircraft engine. Fuel transfer pumps are designed to move fuel from one tank to another to keep the primary tanks filled while maintaining the aircraft’s center of gravity.
Fuel boost and transfer pumps come in numerous sizes and shapes based upon the application. Each pump is custom designed to optimize the efficiency of the fuel system and fit within the allocated installation envelope. Discharge pressures can reach 60 psig and flow rates can be as low as 0.5 gpm up to 250 gpm. Several electric drive options are also available, using DC or AC power.
Parker offers its customers a broad line of proven fuel pumps that have undergone extensive qualification testing plus significant operational field experience. These factors, combined with the expertise of Parker’s engineering team, translates into low-risk, cost-effective solutions for both civilian and military aircraft. While Parker offers off-the-shelf fuel pumps from their product catalog, each application has unique specifications and can be fully customized to meet virtually any new or retrofit application. Parker is continually evaluating ways to ensure aircraft fuel systems operate as efficiently and safely as possible under all operating conditions.
The Fluid Systems Division has provided both fuel boost and transfer pumps for some key global aerospace programs, spanning the general aviation, rotor, commercial, and military markets. Some of the programs include:
The Parker Aerospace Fluid Systems Division offers customers a full scope of fuel pump design, development, and manufacturing capability, strengthened by rigorous in-house testing capabilities. A dedicated testing laboratory includes numerous test facilities to verify pump performance using the guidelines of RTCA DO-160 and MIL-STD-810.
Pump performance variation due to thermal, mechanical, and electrical variation is measured while testing in actual jet fuel. Rigorous design verification testing is performed at stages of development and production to ensure the optimum performance and long life of each Parker fuel pump.
Parker Aerospace fuel pump laboratory capabilities include:
Focused on advancing the science of motor technology, the Parker Motor Design Center (PMDC) allows FSD customers to achieve lower costs by incorporating proven design methods and manufacturing capabilities, in conjunction with rapid prototyping to produce a working motor in as little as six weeks. PMDC engineers have developed a proprietary motor design tool that optimizes motor geometry using magnetic finite element analysis (FEA), system simulation, and thermal analysis.
The Fluid Systems Division is an industry leader in developing pump designs to meet FAR 25.981 safety guidelines for prevention of ignition sources inside fuel tanks. Parker is directly involved in industry committees that produce standards for both pump design and safety to contribute to improving the acceptance criteria used to evaluate today’s new aircraft.
This post was contributed by Bill Heilman, senior principal engineer, Parker Aerospace Fluid Systems Division.
F-35 Lightning II Fuel and Inerting System Powered by Parker Aerospace