Latest Blog Posts
  • Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Cleveland Wheel and Brake Products - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake DivisionParker’s Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division (AWBD) – with its Cleveland Wheels & Brakes product line – has been an industry leader in the design, manufacture, and support of superior braking systems since its founding in 1936. Over that time, AWBD has become one of the world’s most experienced, best-known, and most respected wheel and brake manufacturers. The division’s commitment to safe and sure landings stretches across general, business, and agricultural aviation; civil helicopters; plus military helicopters, trainers, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). 
     
     
    1918: the Parker Appliance Company
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Arthur Parker - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake DivisionThe story truly begins in 1918 in Cleveland, Ohio, when a 33-year-old engineer named Arthur Parker founded the Parker Appliance Company to develop his unique braking system for trucks and buses, giving birth to today’s preeminent motion and control technology company. As a supply truck driver in World War I, Art saw that vehicles had poor braking systems, often locking up and creating accidents. A pneumatic brake booster system was developed using compressed air to help trucks stop safely. 
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake -Charles Lindberg - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake DivisionParker’s business expanded into the aviation industry, and in 1927 Parker fuel fittings made the first transatlantic flight with Charles Lindbergh on the Spirit of St. Louis, proving the reliability of Parker equipment in critical aviation applications. In the 1970s, Parker would go on to play a prominent role in the expansion of an aircraft wheel and brake builder that will be started in 1936. 
     
     
    1936 to 1950: Cleveland Aircraft Products rolls out
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Elmer VanSickle - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake DivisionElmer VanSickle, a professional pilot and Cleveland-area businessman, started the Cleveland Aircraft Products Company — also known as VanSickle Industries — in 1936, producing aircraft wheel and brake equipment. Cleveland began supplying main wheels, tail wheels, and drum brakes for aircraft such as the military Aeronca L-3 and civilian Piper Tri-Pacer.
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Aeronca L-3 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
       

     

      1951 to 1970: OEM’s choice, disc brake innovation, strategic acquisition
    By the 1950s, Cleveland wheels and brakes were gaining the recognition of aircraft manufacturers as the premier equipment for their aircraft, offering reliable stops and long life. “Clevelands” became standard equipment on such legendary airplanes as the Piper Super Cub, Mooney M20/M20A, Piper Apache and Comanche, Lake Aircraft LA-4, and Cessna 150 and 172. 
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake -Piper Super Cub - Cessna 172 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
    A 1956 innovation brought the introduction of Cleveland’s caliper-type external disc brakes. Within a decade, caliper-type brakes became the preferred design in the general aviation category.
     
    The Cleveland product portfolio expanded in 1969 with the acquisition of Syncro Devices, Inc., a maker of hydraulic valves, shimmy dampers, check valves, power packs, and landing gear actuators. The new product line grew Cleveland’s offerings to include comprehensive aviation braking systems.
     
     
    1971 to 1980: conversion kits, line expansion, Parker acquires VanSickle Industries
    Considered the gold standard by pilots and mechanics alike, Cleveland Wheels & Brakes began offering conversion kits, allowing aircraft owners to replace their OEM equipment with reliable Clevelands. Among the first conversion kits available were those for the Beechcraft Bonanza, Cessna 210, and Ayres Thrush. 
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Beechcraft Bonanza - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Further diversifying its product line in 1977, VanSickle Industries acquired Gerdes Products Company, a producer of master cylinders and parking brake valves. Cleveland was named OEM supplier for the Piper Arrow and Cherokee, Beechcraft Baron, and Gulfstream commander.
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Piper Cherokee - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    After more than 40 years of growth and innovation, VanSickle Industries and Cleveland Wheels & Brakes were acquired by Parker Hannifin Corporation, resulting in the formation of Parker’s Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division (AWBD) in 1978.
     
     
    1981 to 1990: more kits, more firsts, AWBD joins the military rotorcraft market 
    In addition to introducing conversion kits for the Beechcraft King Air, de Havilland Twin Otter, and Cessna Citation I business jet, AWBD landed OEM wheel and brake contracts for the Cessna Caravan, Piper Malibu, Air Tractor 500, and Socata TBM700.
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Cessna Citation I - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
     
    This time period represented a significant leap forward for AWBD, when the division landed its first military OEM application: the rotor brake, main wheels, brakes, and tail wheel for the Bell-McDonnell Douglas-Boeing Apache AH-64. Other military wins included Sikorsky’s UH-60 Black Hawk and VH-60 Presidential helicopter, and Bell Boeing’s V-22 featuring the first carbon brake used in a tilt-rotor application. On the civilian side, the first-ever full braking system from AWBD was installed on the Bell 214ST helicopter.
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Bell Boeing V-22 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    In 1988, Parker acquired McCauley Industrial Corporation, a manufacturer of general aviation wheels and brakes, from Cessna.
     
     
    1991 to 2000: helicopter business goes up, fixed-wing makers name AWBD
    Adding to its helicopter OEM wins, AWBD landed fresh contracts with Sikorsky: the rotor brake, nose wheel, main wheel, and brake for the S-76C and the mainwheel on the CH-53E. Air Tractor designates Parker as its OEM wheel and brake supplier for its 602 and 802 agricultural airplanes, while OEM contracts for the Cessna 172R, Cirrus SR20, and Diamond DA20 general aviation aircraft arrived at AWBD. Beechcraft’s 1900 C&D regional aircraft got a wheel, brake, and brake de-ice manifold conversion kit.
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Sikorsky S-76C - Air Tractor 602 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    2001 to 2010: New century, new opportunities
    General aviation aircraft builder Cirrus named Parker the original equipment wheel and brake provider for its SR22, while Diamond did the same for its DA-40 and DA-42 aircraft. The Pilatus PC-12, a high-performance turboprop single, gets a conversion kit; later in the decade, AWBD is named the OEM wheel and brake supplier for the aircraft. Cessna specs AWBD wheels, brakes, the master cylinder, and parking brake valve for its 162 Sky Catcher.
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Pilatus PC-12 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
    Light jet wins included a significant bill of material on the Eclipse 500, consisting of the nose and main wheels, brakes, master cylinder, parking brake valve, and reservoir. Honda Aircraft Company called on Parker to provide the shut-off valve, master cylinders, and energy parking brake valve for the HondaJet.
     
    Military program support carried on with the main and nose wheels and brake discs for the General Atomics Predator B UAV, and wheels and brakes for the NHIndustries NH-90 helicopter.
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - General Atomics Predator B - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
      2011 to the present: success breeding success
    AWBD military wins resumed formation with the nose wheel for the General Dynamics F-16; the wheels, brakes, and master cylinders for the General Atomics Predator C; and the wheels and brakes for the TAI T-625 helicopter. Leonardo Helicopters selected Parker to supply the wheels and brakes on its AW609 TiltRotor and the wheels, brakes, and hydraulics on the AW169.
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Leonardo AW169 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Diamond taped Parker for the wheels and brakes on its DA62, while two turboprop singles relies on Parker wheels and brakes: the Piper M600 and Textron Denali. The twin-engine Pilatus PC-24 business jet chose Parker wheels and brakes for its aircraft.
     
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Pilatus PC-24 - Textron Denali - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Parker AWBD: building for the next 80
    Though the Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division has defined its past with high quality and rugged hardware that enables safe landings, the division is looking ahead to what the next 80 years hold. That’s why the division, on behalf of its customers, is dedicating itself to ongoing improvement by employing advanced engineering analytics, standardized design and development processes, project management excellence, lean principles, and supply chain enhancements. All to build high-performance  ̶and competitive advantage  ̶ into every Aircraft Wheel & Brake product.
     
    Moving forward, AWBD is devoting research and development resources to keep pace with the ever-changing aviation industry in order to produce affordable, light-weight, state-of-the-art products that provide value, and reduce the overall cost of operations for our customers in the military and commercial market segments.
     
    To learn more about our aircraft wheels, brakes, and braking systems, please visit our division homepage at parker.com/cleveland.
     
     
    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake - Sandi Schickel - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake DivisionThis post was contributed by Sandi Schickel, eBusiness manager for Parker Aerospace’s Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division.
     
     
     
     
     
     
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    Eighty Years of Innovation at Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake

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  • HVACR Tech Tip: Interchangeable Cartridge Style Thermostatic Expansion Valves Save Time & Money - Q BQ Thermostatic Expansion Valves - Parker Sporlan Division

    Contractors provide service to customers with many different system applications in the field with an even wider variety of capacity requirements. Today, the number of refrigerants that a contractor might encounter is simply never ending! While not every system is fitted with a TEV, there are literally thousands of different TEV variations in the market place.

    Can you imagine how hard-pressed wholesalers are to stock every version of a valve that might be needed for routine service? This is mind-boggling and needless to say, the contractor is even more unlikely to have the right valve on a service truck for that emergency service or repair job.

     

    How does a contractor or wholesaler solve this problem?

    Turn to Sporlan’s interchangeable cartridge style TEV product line, the type Q and BQ. Simply select the thermostatic element, the body and the right sized cartridge for the application and assemble the parts. They are even available with conventional (Q) and balanced port (BQ) construction. These easy to select and assemble valves mean you’re always carrying the right valve for the job.

    Carry the Sporlan Q and BQ valve on your truck and stay on the job…not cruising around looking for parts! You save time and keep customers happy. It is simple. It is easy. It is economical. It just makes sense.

     

    What are the advantages of the Q and BQ thermostatic expansion valves?

    The mix-and-match components of the Q and BQ product line satisfy thousands of applications. With access to these components, you will be able to assemble valves that are just right for most refrigerated cases, coolers, or freezers and even air conditioning applications.

     

    HVACR Tech Tip: Interchangeable Cartridge Style Thermostatic Expansion Valves Save Time & Money - Q BQ Thermostatic Expansion Valves - Parker Sporlan DivisionWhat is involved in the valve assembly?

    It is really very easy. Select the correct thermostatic element, the right body assembly and finally pick the cartridge required to handle the system load and thread them all together. Sporlan has easy to follow graphical instructions and literature.

     

     

     

    What is so special about the way the cartridge is installed in these valves?

    The Q and the BQ valve cartridge is installed through the top of the valve body. This unique design means these valves can use ODF solder or SAE flare fittings. It also means the valve capacity can be changed with a replacement cartridge and the connections can be left undisturbed; simply isolate the valve from system pressure and have at it. No need to remove the Q or BQ valve from the system. 

     

    How do I make sure I have the right sized valve?

    With 7 different cartridge sizes for the type Q valve and 5 different sized cartridges for the balanced port type BQ, including a bleed port option in 4 of the BQ cartridges, you have many options available to put the right valve together for the job. 

     

    What types of refrigerants are compatible with the Q and BQ valves?

    The Q and BQ valves are compatible with the new refrigerants on the market, like R-448A and R-449A. They are also compatible with R-22 and the common replacements such as R-422D, R-407A, R-407C and R-407F. And the BQ with its balanced port construction is perfect for high-pressure refrigerants like R-410A. 

    The replaceable thermostatic element feature increases the flexibility of the Q and BQ thermostatic expansion valves. This allows the thermostatic elements to be replaced during system conversions to a new refrigerant, or for service, without replacing the valve or removing the valve from the system.

     

    Why should I carry a Q and BQ TEV case?

    Carrying a stocked Q or BQ TEV case helps prepare contractors and service technicians for most situations - eliminating costly trips back and forth to the wholesaler and special orders. The case can be customized with the components in the greatest demand. With just the components supplied in the Q or BQ case, you can configure valves to satisfy over 100 unique applications.

    Learn more about Parker Sporlan Q and BQ thermostatic expansion valves:

    Bulletin 10-10 - Sporlan Thermostatic Expansion Valves

    Bulletin 210-10-19 - Sporlan BQ Cross Reference

    Form 10-165 - Sporlan Type Q and BQ - Interchangable Cartridge TEVs

    SD-240 - Parker Sporlan Q and BQ Thermostatic Expansion Valve installation instructions

     

    For more information on Parker Sporlan products please visit our website.

     

    HVACR Tech Tip: Interchangeable Cartridge Style Thermostatic Expansion Valves Save Time & Money - Jim Jansen, Senior Application Engineer - Parker Sporlan Division

    Article contributed by Jim Jansen, senior application engineer, Sporlan Division of Parker Hannifin

     

     

     

     

     

    Additional resources on HVACR Tech Tips:

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    HVACR Tech Tip: Interchangeable Cartridge Style Thermostatic Expansion Valves Save Time & ...

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  • EMI Shielding Gaskets: Spliced Gaskets vs. Molded Gaskets, Chomerics Division, Extruded EMI GasketEMI shielding gaskets such as conductive elastomer gaskets come in many different materials and almost a limitless number of shapes and sizes.

    They are most commonly made of a base material of silicone or fluorosilicone with added conductive fillers such as silver, silver-plated aluminum, nickel-plated graphite, and others. Conductive elastomers represent one of the most versatile products in the category of EMI shielding gaskets.

    From a manufacturing perspective, there are two key processes used to create these gaskets: splicing and molding. Check out the detailed list below for information about choosing the process that makes the most sense for you.

    Conductive elastomer gasket splicing

    Conductive elastomer gaskets are often extruded in long strips, available in bulk or cut to specific lengths. To create custom sized O-rings, the extrusions are cut to the proper length and the ends are adhered (fused) together. Known as splicing, this process utilizes a proprietary adhesive to create an immensely strong bond.

    EMI Shielding Gaskets: Spliced Gaskets vs. Molded Gaskets, Chomerics Division, Conductive Elastomer Splicing Advantages and Disadvantages

    Splicing advantages
    • Bulk material relatively easy to extrude in long lengths, splicing is a process that can allow for quicker turnaround.
    • Hundreds of standard extrusion profiles made to match almost any current design requirements.
    • When O-ring sizes or design requirements change, splicing can accommodate these changes usually without significant lead time or cost.
    • Requires very little or no tooling, meaning low upfront capital investment.
    • Can be used with hollow cross-section profiles, creating parts that can accommodate low compression force enclosures.
    Splicing disadvantages
    • Limited in their complexity to singular “loops”.
    • Will not retain their shapes like molded O-rings.
    • Will not hold to tight tolerances that are common in molded parts.
    • There is a limit to how small, in length, gaskets can be spliced.
    Conductive elastomer gasket molding

    Molding involves compressing uncured conductive elastomer material into a specially designed mold. The material takes the shape of the mold and retains this shape when cured.

    EMI Shielding Gaskets: Spliced Gaskets vs. Molded Gaskets, Chomerics Division, Conductive Elastomer Gasket Molding Advantages and Disadvantages

    Molding advantages
    • Allows for a great deal of complexity in parts which can include multiple joints and variability in cross sections across a single part.
    • Hold tolerances to within a few thousandths of an inch.
    • Will retain the shape in which they were molded.
    • In high volumes, molded gaskets can cost less than spliced gaskets as the manual labor is minimized and the process is optimized.
    • Can be made in very small o-rings and parts.
    Molding disadvantages
    • Unless molded gaskets match industry standard gaskets that are commonly available, each new gasket will require a new mold.
    • Not compatible with hollow gaskets – molded gaskets cannot have hollow cross sections like spliced extrusions.
    • Very large diameters, in length, are not economical.

    Between molding and splicing, there is virtually an endless number of profiles and shapes that can be developed. For more information on choosing and designing an EMI shielding gasket, check out the Conductive Elastomer Handbook below.

    Conductive Elastomer Engineering Handbook

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Ben Nudelman, EMI Shielding Gaskets: Spliced Gaskets vs. Molded Gaskets, Chomerics Division

    Scott Casper, EMI Shielding Gaskets: Spliced Gaskets vs. Molded Gaskets, Chomerics Division 

    This blog post was contributed by Ben Nudelman, market development engineer, and Scott Casper, applications engineer, Chomerics Division.

     

     

     

     

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  • It's Time to Recognise Integral Ended Connections on Instrument Manifolds - Offshore Rig - Parker Hannifin, Instrumentation Products DivisionSecuring leak-free connection of impulse lines to manifolds for applications that use differential pressure flowmeters is a subject that has taxed instrumentation engineers for more than a century. Back in 1910, when the very first orifice plate installations made an appearance, they involved 33 connections and 16 lengths of tubing! Thanks to the development of highly integrated manifolds, today’s installations often only require just two tube connections. However, ensuring the long-term integrity of these connections remains a contentious issue.

    The first manifolds on the market used NPT taper threads for their tube connections. Despite being the bane of installers’ lives, this type of technology continues to enjoy widespread use today, with most manifold manufacturers still offering it as an option. But much better tube connector technologies are now available.

    What’s wrong with taper threads?

    Unlike compression type tube fittings with one or more ferrules, taper thread fittings rely on the threads themselves to provide the seal. During make-up, progressively larger diameter threads on the fitting are compressed into progressively small diameter threads on the manifold, until eventually there is no clearance left between the crests and roots of the threads and they effectively form a metal-to-metal seal.

    NPT taper thread fittings are popular because they are relatively inexpensive, but they also have distinct disadvantages. The fittings cannot easily be installed with a specific torque, which makes it all too easy to crack or distort the female part by applying too much torque, or to apply too little, resulting in potential leak paths due to incorrect thread cling. There is also always some thread clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, which means that if the fitting is not tightened to the point where thread deformation creates a metal-to-metal seal, there is a spiral leak path. Furthermore, the upper and lower machining limits of NPT taper threads mean that there might only be two turns of thread engagement in an assembled connection; the most reliable means of preventing this is to use, if possible, a matched pair of male and female parts produced by the same manufacturer.

    It's Time to Recognise Integral Ended Connections on Instrument Manifolds, Taper thread fitting, Parker Hannifin Instrumentation Products DivisionTaper thread can suffer from limited thread engagement

    Another major disadvantage of NPT fittings is that their radial orientation cannot easily be adjusted without compromising connection integrity.

    Most installers of NPT fittings elect to use some form of thread sealant to help prevent leaks. This usually comprises a fluid carrier which transfers a filler compound into the threads and then cures. Unfortunately, not all sealants act as lubricants and they are also very easy to misapply. Too much sealant can cause system contamination, which can result in unseated valves or blocked lines, while too little can allow the threads to gall (cold weld) during installation, requiring replacement of the entire manifold and tubing system. A further problem is that the fitting cannot be adjusted once the sealant has cured.

    A popular alternative approach is to use PTFE tape as a sealant. This additionally acts as a lubricant during assembly and facilitates tighter connection of taper thread fittings – although it can lead to over-torquing. Another issue with PTFE tape is that it has a tendency to shred and cause system contamination. For this reason, its use is often prohibited in sensitive instrumentation systems.

    Parker now offers two manifold connection solutions – PTFree connect and inverted A-LOK – which completely eliminate the need for taper threads, PTFE tape and thread sealant.

    PTFree connect™

    Our PTFree connect system provides a simple means of connecting impulse lines to manifolds without involving the use of taper threads, PTFE tape or thread sealant. Available as an option for every type of manifold valve block that Parker produces, PTFree connect offers different versions that accommodate metric tube sizes from 6 to 12 mm and imperial sizes from 1/4 to 1/2 inch.

     

    It's Time to Recognise Integral Ended Connections on Instrument Manifolds, Manifold with PTFree connect system, Parker Hannifin Instrumentation Products DivisionIt's Time to Recognise Integral Ended Connections on Instrument Manifolds, Manifold with PTFree connect system, Parker Hannifin, Instrumentation Products Division    

    Parker’s PTFree connect system is available on all types of manifold

    Manifolds fitted with the PTFree connect system are exactly the same as their standard counterparts, except that their inlet/outlet and drain/test ports can be factory fitted with male adapters, supplied complete with a preassembled nut and ferrule(s). The (parallel) thread on the male adaptor is screwed into the manifold and uses the same type of stainless steel sealing washer as the valve heads, to provide a high-pressure leakproof and bubble-tight connection. The adaptor is securely locked by a cam or locking plate mechanism. We have used this connection principle well over a million times, so you can be confident that it’s a tried and trusted system.

    Installation of PTFree connect manifolds is simple. A variety of connection bodies can be used – including straights, elbows and tees – and all angled components can be freely swivelled to facilitate secure positioning. And if anything does go wrong during installation, the sacrificial element is the male adapter – not the manifold – so the cost of remedial action is considerably less than with any other type of connection.

    Inverted A-LOK fittings

    More recently, we developed inverted A-LOK fittings, designed specifically for connecting impulse lines directly to manifolds. Like our PTFree connect system, these also eliminate taper threads and the need for PTFE tape or thread sealant, but they do not involve the use of adapters – the tube is fitted directly to the manifold. Each of the two manifold ports forms the female half of a connector and is machined with a cone-shaped orifice and a standard parallel (non-tapered) thread. Each male part comprises a tube and an inverted nut, with threads on its outside surface, which drives two ferrules forward during assembly; the pressure seal is provided by the front ferrule – not the threads of the connector.

    It's Time to Recognise Integral Ended Connections on Instrument Manifolds, Inverted A-LOK fitting, Parker Hannifin Instrumentation Products DivisionInverted A-LOK fittings facilitate direct-to-manifold connections

    A key advantage of our inverted A-LOK fittings is that the tube is not twisted during installation – all make and remake motion is transmitted axially to the tubing. Since there is no radial movement of the tubing, it is not stressed and its mechanical integrity is not compromised. These fittings are suitable for both thin wall and thick wall tubing, can be used with a wide variety of tubing materials and accommodate repeated disassembly and remake. However, they still require careful installation. If the internal cone becomes damaged, the manifold block will need to be replaced. And due to cross-hole drilling in the block, the technology is not available on all types of manifolds.

     

    It's Time to Recognise Integral Ended Connections on Instrument Manifolds, Spencer Nicholson, manifolds product manager, Parker Hannifin, Instrumentation Products DivisionSpencer Nicholson, product manager, instrument manifolds, Instrumentation Products Division Europe.

     

     

     

     

     

     

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  • Parker Global Blog

    Parker Global publishes news from inside the company that focuses on our efforts to be a good corporate citizen around the world and illustrate our commitment to deliver on our brand promise to partner with our customers to increase their productivity and profitability.

    ParkerStore MRO Authority

    ParkerStore MRO Authority is your resource for the Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul space. Our goal is to improve your productivity and profitability with information on ParkerStore Service Points nearest you, Parker product and Technology Centers (Hydraulic, Pneumatic, Seal) updates, expert tips, troubleshooting, how-to articles and the latest industry news. We're ready to help you; not just with critical replacement parts, but solutions. And it's important those solutions are available where you are - onsite and off. If you know us already, you know that getting you back to work is our "thing". If you're not working with your local Distributor and ParkerStore, please read more.