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Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - aircraft worker - Parker AerospaceFor decades, futurists have been dreaming of “flying cars” that are easier and nimbler to operate than a helicopter and accessible to everyone. Today, many aerospace technologies are coming together helping numerous companies develop small passenger electric aircraft as soon as 2023.

It’s no secret that Advanced Air Mobility (AAM) is going to be a hotly contested market with legacy aircraft builders, nimble startups, and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) systems providers clarifying their vision of the future. This new market aims to transport passengers and cargo at lower altitudes through urban, suburban, and regional landscapes. Aircraft that will meet these needs will utilize more- or all-electric technologies. 


Vast possibilities, by any measure

Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Flying Taxi - Parker AerospaceAccording to a 2020 Roland Berger study on Urban Air Mobility (UAM), a submarket of AAM, “the passenger UAM industry will generate revenues of almost $90 billion a year, with 160,000 commercial passenger drones plying the skies.” Further, Morgan Stanley Research projects that the UAM market could grow to $1.5 trillion by 2040. 

Even the most conservative forecasts indicate the AAM market has huge potential as evidenced by the hundreds of vehicles in development.


AAM is evolving toward reality

In early 2021, Air One, the world’s first airport for electric aircraft, was launched in Coventry, England by Urban Air Port, a subsidiary of sustainable tech company small (Six Miles Across London Limited) in partnership with Hyundai Motor Company, Coventry City Council, and the UK government. 

As technology evolves, infrastructure is built, and the regulatory/certification requirements established, AAM vehicles will take different forms:

  • Hybrid electric vehicles will be using on-board electrical generating equipment, such as hydrogen power plants or small gas turbines, to generate the electricity needed for propulsion as well as for other systems like flight controls, environmental controls, accessories, and electric braking. Hybrid aircraft may be tasked with shorter regional routes – as opposed to short-hop intra-urban routes – and could be fixed-wing types that take off and land traditionally, or those that takeoff and land vertically. Such hybrid vehicles, which have the potential of significantly reducing emissions, are bridging the gap between today’s conventionally powered aircraft and all-electric ones.
  • All-electric vehicles will primarily utilize rechargeable battery packs for flight energy. These aircraft will likely be of the electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) type, using distributed electric propulsion systems where the propulsive motors are distributed around the vehicle in proximity to the rotors that provide lift, forward motion, and flight control.

MEA: a pathway to an all-electric future

Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - UAM - Parker AerospaceMore-electric aircraft (MEA), which have been in production for over a decade, utilize electric power for all non-propulsive systems. The trend toward more-electric aircraft has been driven by the desire for improvements in aircraft weight, fuel efficiency, emissions, life-cycle costs, maintainability, and reliability.

Technology advancements in the areas of electric motors, motor controllers and inverters, electromechanical actuators (EMAs), and thermal management equipment are providing the building blocks that enable development of systems for more-electric aircraft.


Technologies for more-electric and all-electric aircraft

Parker Aerospace, via its dedicated AAM systems team, offers a broad range of products and systems expertise for present-day applications as well as future-state aircraft:

  • Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Cockpit Controls - Parker AerospaceCockpit controls – Parker Aerospace cockpit controls provide functional and ergonomic interfaces between pilots and aircraft fly-by-wire systems. Compact and lightweight, these solutions can be seamlessly integrated into cockpit designs, including sidestick or yoke-based cockpit layouts.
     
  • Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Electro-mechanical actuators - Parker AerospaceElectro-mechanical actuators –These types of actuators are used for primary, secondary (flap/high lift/electronically synchronized), utility, stabilizer trim, and more. Of note is Parker’s development of patented jam-tolerant EMAs.
     
  • Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Electric motors and controllers - Parker AerospaceElectric motors and controllers – Motor and controller technology is at the core of many Parker solutions for more-electric and all-electric aircraft. Parker is developing families of motors and controllers to reduce cost and development time, while also looking at the newer high-power market needs for motors and controllers/inverters.
     
  • Electric braking development – Applying its broad and deep experience in hydraulic aircraft braking systems, Parker is developing advanced electric braking systems for next-generation hybrid and all-electric aircraft.
     
  • Integrated power management systems – These higher-voltage solid-state electric power distribution systems are required by the AAM market to address the higher-voltage power architectures noted below.  
     
  • High-voltage power architectures – AAM vehicle builders are looking for high-voltage system architectures on the order of 500, 700, and even 1,000 volts and higher. These types of systems enable electronic equipment OEMs to design products that are much smaller and lighter-weight than the systems currently in use on commercial aircraft.
     
  • Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Advanced Thermal Management - Parker AerospaceAdvanced thermal management solutions – Parker’s offering includes thermal management for electric motors and battery systems utilizing cooling pumps (ePumps), reservoirs, heat exchangers, valves, conveyance equipment, and more. This recent blog article explores the challenges and solutions available for eVTOL thermal management.

     
  • Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Vibration Attenuation - Parker AerospaceVibration attenuation and motion control – Technologies that safely and securely attach the propulsion system and airframe equipment, while mitigating the effects of vibration, shock, and sound disturbances, providing longer equipment life and noise reduction.

     
  • Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Localized hydraulic powerpack solutions  - Parker AerospaceLocalized hydraulic powerpack solutions – When electric power solutions may not yet be feasible – flight controls for larger aircraft, for example – hydraulic powerpacks offer a robust, compact, and lighter-weight answer. This blog article provides a deeper dive into the benefits of hydraulic powerpacks.

 

Certification: where concepts meet reality

The AAM market is dynamic and changing rapidly. New ideas for platforms, infrastructure, and the technologies that make this exciting segment possible are surfacing daily.

Amid this excitement, these aircraft must be certified for their intended purpose, as do the systems and components that enable the platforms to execute their missions. Regulatory agencies such as the FAA and EASA are presently establishing the parameters under which AAM vehicles can be approved to fly.

Platform builders need to know that their partners have the engineering muscle and experience to not only design an innovative solution that meets requirements, but to also produce a solution that can be certified. This is where an experienced aerospace technology partner is crucial.

Over decades, Parker Aerospace has built thousands of certifiable components and systems for commercial and military aircraft. All Parker equipment is conceived and engineered to offer redundancy, safety, and reliability with the certification process in mind. Contributing to Parker’s track record of certification success is its state-of-the-art simulation capabilities, advanced test equipment, and thorough knowledge of global regulatory requirements.


Helping customers seize opportunity

As the market continues to ascend, Parker Aerospace and its AAM team are actively innovating to help customers take full advantage of these new and fast-changing opportunities. 

To learn more about how Parker Aerospace innovation is shaping the AAM market, email the team at airmobility@parker.com.

 

Making the world a better place is in our DNA  

Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Parker Purpose - Parker AerospaceAs a trusted partner, Parker's team members work alongside customers to enable technology breakthroughs that change the world for the better. We help our customers and distribution partners meet the newest standards for safety or emissions, reduce power usage, improve efficiency, and move faster to optimize resources. Parker's Purpose is at the core of everything we do. Watch the introduction video with Parker's CEO Tom Williams.

 

 


Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity - Author - Parker AerospaceThis blog was contributed by Chris Frazer key account manager and UAM/eVTOL/AAM business development lead of Parker Aerospace. 

 

 

 

 

 

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Advanced Air Mobility Market Outlook Charged with Opportunity

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Solid-State Power Controller Empowers Future Aircraft - conventional vs more electric aircraft - Parker AerospaceThe future of air travel is evolving beyond fossil fuels with hybrid electric and all-electric aircraft leading the way. The growing need for low emissions and carbon neutrality has created a new focus on more electric aircraft (MEA), as aircraft original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) look to satisfy the growing needs of travelers while achieving the environmental goals being mandated around the world.

Power for all systems on conventional aircraft today is derived primarily from jet engines, fueled, of course, by fossil fuels. Engine gearbox-driven generators provide power for standard electrical equipment like avionics, lighting, and general cabin power. High-pressure engine bleed air is used to drive pneumatic systems such as cabin pressurization, anti-icing, and air conditioning. The engine gear box also drives hydraulic pumps for flight controls, landing gear, braking systems and door actuation as well as mechanical systems such as oil and fuel pumps. Parker Aerospace has a deep pedigree stretching back decades with sub-systems and components in conventional engines. 

 

Solid-State Power Controller Empowers Future Aircraft - conventional aircraft engine - Parker Aerospace


Moving towards more electric aircraft

The evolution to MEA changes the way these systems are implemented. Whether it’s a more electric aircraft with jet engines, a hybrid electric, or a fully electric aircraft, mechanically-driven pumps for hydraulics, pneumatics, oil, and fuel will be replaced with fully electric pumps and actuators for everything including flight surface controls, environmental systems, and braking. 

Initially, gas-powered engines will still drive the electric generators for these systems. Ultimately, gas turbine engines may be replaced entirely with fully electric motors and batteries. This migration will start small, with commuter transports and urban air mobility platforms first reaching the market.

Solid-State Power Controller Empowers Future Aircraft - More Electric Aircraft Engine - Parker Aerospace

Migration from hydraulic and pneumatic energy to electric energy requires improved power-handling capability and efficiency. System voltages for MEA will climb from 28VDC and 115VAC to upwards of 1,000VDC. This power will be delivered by a complex combination of generators and batteries and requires a highly advanced and flexible electrical distribution system capable of managing system needs.


Developing improved solutions for new demands

Along with the increase in demand and capacity, the potential for significant damage during short or overload conditions must be recognized. For example, a 270V Li-Ion battery can deliver more than 2,000 amps into a short in a matter of microseconds. The typical electrical interfaces on today’s aircraft consist of mechanical relays and contactors, which are not fast enough to prevent fault propagation, and may even fuse during a fault event. This drives a need for an effective solution for high voltage, high-power buses with enhanced capability.

To answer that call, Parker Aerospace’s Fluid Systems Division has been developing a modular solid-state power controller (SSPC) for use as a standalone unit that is an electronic replacement for a relay or contactor. As part of a larger electrical distribution system, multiple SSPCs can be configured into a solid-state electrical distribution unit (SSEDU). Think of an SSPC as an individual circuit breaker whereas the SSEDU would be the entire circuit breaker box containing multiple breakers. An SSEDU can be configured with two or more SSPCs, with each SSPC being an individually controlled channel.

Utilizing advanced silicon carbide technology, Parker’s SSPC design is a modular architecture that yields the potential to accommodate multiple platform applications without costly redesigns and qualifications. Some features include:

  • High-speed, high-efficiency, high-power density per channel.
  • High-speed fault mitigation and bus reconfiguration.
  • Programmable I2T fault protection.
  • Inrush current mitigation (for high capacitive input loads).
  • Low RDSon to maximize efficiency.
  • Bi-directional and bi-polar SSPC options.
  • Discrete input or communication bus control.
  • Support for ARINC 429, Mil-Std-1553, CAN bus & others. 

Multiplying the benefit from solid-state power controllers

Solid-State Power Controller Empowers Future Aircraft - First Generation SSPC - Parker AerospaceAn individual SSPC can be programmed and coordinated with other SSPCs to provide staggered power on/off configurations when used in a multi-channel configuration. Power sequencing, source and load isolation, power routing, and bi-directional flow for battery charge/discharge, can all be configured in the same SSEDU. Voltage, current, temperature and other performance and fault data is available for each SSPC.

The Parker Aerospace modular SSPC design provides benefits beyond the technical specifications. The initial concept was to provide the protection and control in a format that would allow scalability and flexibility in an electrical distribution system implementation. Taking advantage of the common SSPC design allows for:

  • Reduced application non-recurring engineering (NRE) and development time
  • Reduced platform certification cost and time.
  • Certification by similarity of sub-components across applications and platforms.
  • Reduced reliance on key components/suppliers.
  • Increased flexibility to integrate new technologies.
  • Ability to use the same part number across multiple applications.

Parker has completed testing of a first-generation, eight-channel SSEDU, with each channel configured for 270VDC and handling loads from 20 amps to 150 amps. The capability demonstrated included programmed and manual switch control, bolted short fault mitigation, startup and operational overcurrent protection, thermal efficiency with continuous loads, and bi-directional power flow on individual channels.

Solid-State Power Controller Empowers Future Aircraft - Second Generation SSPC - Parker AerospaceCurrent development on the second-generation SSPC will culminate with a two-channel unit in a more compact, thermally efficient, and lighter unit. This fully capable demonstrator will provide an example of how the Parker Aerospace SSPC and SSEDU can be utilized for multiple applications and configurations requiring the control, protection, and flexibility required to satisfy the needs of the new generation of more electric aircraft.

 

 

Solid-State Power Controller Empowers Future Aircraft - Andrew Walsh - Parker AerospaceThis blog was contributed by electronics engineering manager Andrew Walsh from the Fluid Systems Division of Parker Aerospace.

 

 

 

 

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Follow Parker Aerospace on LinkedINFollow our Aerospace Technology page and learn more about Parker's products, technologies, and engineering solutions that are advancing the global aerospace fleet.


 

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Exotic Metals Aircraft Services Provides Support Across all Aerospace - EMFAS team member finishing a repair - Parker AerospaceWhen people think of the Exotic Metals Forming Division, a division of Parker Aerospace, most think of manufacturing new parts for commercial and military aircraft programs. Many don’t know what happens to new hardware once it leaves the factory and is installed on new aircraft. For the Exotic Metals Forming Aircraft Services (EMFAS) team members, this is where the story begins.


In an ideal world, components from aerospace manufacturers — like pneumatic ducts, auxiliary power unit mufflers, engine exhaust plugs, nozzles, and other sheet metal parts — would last the lifetime of an airplane. A myriad of things that happen during the daily operation of an aircraft can impact this goal. For example, a baggage cart bangs into the engine exhaust plug. A duct is inadvertently dented during an engine change. A bellows flex joint prematurely wears. Or a technician accidentally damages a part. That’s where aftermarket services are critical to get planes back in the air. And that is one of the reasons Parker Aerospace acquired Exotic Metals in 2019


Serving the world’s airline fleets

Exotic Metals Aircraft Services Provides Support Across all Aerospace - EMFAS team member removing rivets - Parker AerospaceAn idle aircraft is an expensive and complex reality for airlines trying to serve thousands of people. When such an event occurs, the EMFAS team delivers on its mission to serve airline customers and keep their fleet of aircrafts doing what they are designed to do: move people and goods as seamlessly and safely as possible.


Exotic Metals Aircraft Services Provides Support Across all Aerospace - weld repairs on a 737 nozzle - Parker AerospaceEMFAS team members work in a dynamic environment. Every day brings new adventures, issues, customers, and people. These technical experts find it rewarding to help customers solve problems, develop relationships, and work with people from nearly every continent.  

 


When are you likely to recommend?

Exotic Metals Aircraft Services Provides Support Across all Aerospace - Operator removing oxidation from an engine duct - Parker AerospaceMost service businesses are built on relationships. Customers consider a company only as good as its last order. EMFAS views itself as a service business rather than a company that manufactures a product. There are no long-term contracts and no ownership of the intellectual property on the parts they repair so they must perform at the highest level every time. 

How often have you gone to the same restaurant, had a good experience, and then the next time the service and food are terrible? One bad experience might keep you from ever going back. It works the same way with the aircraft services business. One bad experience can cost a customer’s business forever.

 
    
A pedigree of top performance

Exotic Metals Aircraft Services Provides Support Across all Aerospace - Duct midway through the repair process - Parker AerospaceSince 2002, the EMFAS team has had an excellent performance track record with customers. In the first year of operation, EMFAS had five customers; today it has more than 250. EMFAS is a successful team that supports partners internally and externally. With the full support of Parker, EMFAS is just getting started, and the brightest times are ahead.
 

 

 

Chris Capuano of Exotic Metals Forming Division Aircraft Services - Parker AerospaceThis blog was contributed by Chris Capuano of Exotic Metals Forming Division Aircraft Services.

 

 

 

 

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Elevating Flight With Decades-Strong Aerial Refueling Solutions- Aerial Refueling - Parker AerospaceWith an increased focus on strengthening United States military capabilities for the 21st century, Parker Aerospace takes pride in having a long history supporting the country’s defense endeavors around the world with flight-critical components. One of Parker’s most essential product lines for military aircraft is its aerial refueling equipment.  


In-flight refueling couplers, nozzles, receptacles, and test kits from Parker Aerospace’s Fluid Systems Division represent today’s leading edge in design, performance, and durability. 

Elevating Flight With Decades-Strong Aerial Refueling Solutions - Receptacle Stacks - Parker AerospaceThe division produces two standard systems for aerial refueling: 

  • Boom nozzle and receptacle system

  • Probe-and-drogue system

The boom nozzle and receptacle are the interface traditionally adapted for Air Force applications including strike aircraft, tankers and transports, while the probe-and-drogue are traditionally adapted for Navy/Marine strike aircraft and military trainers.

 

Staying on target non-stop

Elevating Flight with Decades Strong Aerial Refueling SolutionsAerial refueling is the process by which an aircraft is loaded with fuel mid-air while still in flight. The crucial operation allows military craft to fly prolonged maneuvers and reconnaissance missions. In some cases, our inflight refueling equipment has been incorporated into platforms derived from commercial aircraft. One noteworthy example is the Boeing 747-200 used for Air Force One.

 


Elevating Flight With Decades-Strong Aerial Refueling Solutions - C5 large transport refueling - Parker AerspaceParker’s development of in-flight refueling equipment began more than 55 years ago with Lockheed Martin’s reconnaissance aircraft, the SR71 Blackbird (1964). Parker designed the aerial refueling receptacle for this historic aircraft. After advancing early variants of a universal aerial refueling receptacle slipway installation (UARRSI) for the development of the Rockwell B-1 Lancer and the Fairchild A-10 Thunderbolt, Parker’s expertise was again put to use on the refueling receptacle for another U.S. fighter jet.  In those early days of evolving aerial refueling solutions, Parker augmented its knowledge base through the strategic acquisition of Schultz Tool and Manufacturing in 1971 a company that had designed receptacles for the F-111 Aardvark, the C-5 Galaxy, and the A-7 Corsair II.  


In 1997, Parker again advanced its air-to-air offerings and necessary ground test equipment by acquiring the aerial refueling product line from XAR Industries in California. The company had previously provided aerial refueling product designs for Lockheed Martin’s F-16, F-117, and F-22 as well as Universal Aerial Refueling Receptacle (UARRSI) variants.


Building on the technologies and applications from Parker, Shultz and XAR, our teams developed a unique receptacle and slipway assembly for the B-2 program. Since this time, Parker has subsequently designed multiple derivatives of the UARRSI and application-specific receptacles for several programs including the F-22 and F-35 programs.

 

Utah Air National Guard members from the 191st Air Refueling Squadron execute an air refueling mission from a KC-135 Stratotanker. A B-2 Spirit from the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman AFB, Missouri participated during this training mission. Video by Staff Sgt. Erin Mills.

 

The multi-purpose UARRSI convenience and adaptability

Elevating Flight With Decades-Strong Aerial Refueling Solutions - universal aerial refueling receptacle - Parker AerospaceIn 1976, Parker introduced an improved universal aerial refueling receptacle slipway installation (UARRSI) which has proven to be Parker’s most versatile piece of aerial refueling equipment. UARRSI adapts to aircraft that require a nozzle and receptacle-type apparatus. The unit features a lighted slipway and voice command functionality to facilitate the fuel transferring process. UARRSIs are used on military aircraft including the Boeing C-17, McDonnell Douglas KC-10, the Airbus A330 MRTT, and the Boeing GTTA, P-8A, and the 737 AEW&C E-7 Wedgetail. 

 
Testing equipment within critical industry standards

Elevating Flight With Decades-Strong Aerial Refueling Solutions - Aerial refueling testers - Parker AerospaceParker’s aerial refueling ground test kits are used to evaluate at the aircraft or component levels, along with the voice inter-communication capability. This testing function allows engineers to assess specific status modes (connect and disconnect), as well as alignment and engagement states of the equipment. Parker’s product line conforms to original equipment manufacturing (OEM) specifications, U.S. military standards, and additional requirements developed by the Aerial Refueling Systems Advisory Group (ARSAG) and other like agencies. 

 


Supporting the next generation of aerial refueling

Elevating Flight With Decades-Strong Aerial Refueling Solutions - next gen aerial refueling - Parker AerospaceThe future of in-flight refueling technology is now taking off in innovative directions, with a renewed emphasis on safety and efficiency. Aerial refueling for helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is also an active field of development. As the technology evolves, customers may see updated offerings from Parker based on our extensive pedigree, and our always-advancing capabilities. 

 

To learn more about the capabilities of Parker's Fluid Systems Division, please visit our website

This blog was contributed by the engineering team from the Fluid Systems Division of Parker Aerospace.

 

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Elevating Flight With Decades-Strong Aerial Refueling Solutions

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Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - Quick Die Changer - Exotic MetalsExotic Metals Forming Division began in 1963 with the creation of titanium sheet metal flanges. Today, the organization continues to be a leader in the forming of specialty metals in the aerospace industry as an expert using titanium and nickel alloys. These high-strength metals are corrosion resistant at high temperatures, making them ideal for aerospace applications. Also, these materials’ characteristics make them difficult to form, requiring specialized infrastructure and innovative proprietary processes. Exotic continues to refine and develop ways to form these alloys using specialized manufacturing processes. 


Engineering philosophy

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - Tool and Die - Exotic MetalsExotic employs a cradle-to-grave engineering philosophy. Engineers take a project from concept to full-rate production and support throughout the product lifecycle. A project begins with the engineering team providing technical leadership in quoting, manufacturing design, process development, and tooling design. Engineers use the latest CAD and simulation software, including Siemens NX and ANSYS. They develop tooling processes and work with our  in-house tool and die shop.

Customer focus and quality are key components of the cradle-to-grave engineering philosophy. Engineer teams work collaboratively in all stages of process development. With forward-thinking, a collaborative mindset, and advanced technology, the engineering teams create manufacturing processes and product design solutions that best match our customers' needs.

The following are examples of the manufacturing technology, equipment, tools, and the process followed to form, trim, and assemble parts today and how Exotic works to advance their technology for the future.  


Manufacturing technology: forming

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - Forming Press - Exotic MetalsExotic first used an axial load bulge in the forming process. Bulge forming seals raw material inside of a die cavity and is pressurized until the raw material takes the shape of the die cavity.
 
Hydroforming uses a pressurized bladder that pushes a flat piece of raw material into a contoured die cavity. The contoured punch is also used to force a flat piece of raw material into the pressurized bladder, forming it to the punch contour.   

 

 

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - Seam Welder - Exotic MetalsExotic uses many other processes to turn raw material into a complete part. Raw material arrives as sheet stock, which may be rolled and welded into tubing using an automated longitudinal seam welder or cut into a dimension blank using a flat pattern laser or waterjet. To form successfully, Exotic has developed welding techniques to optimize the formability of welds.

 

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - superplastic forming - Exotic MetalsSeveral unique forming processes are used at Exotic. One of those processes is superplastic forming. A piece of raw material and die are heated until the raw material is in a superplastic state. One side of the die is then pressurized using gas to force the raw material into the contour on the other half of the die. 

 

Manufacturing technology: material trimming

The teams at Exotic have developed industry-leading capability and knowledge in the area of laser trimming. Primary trimming tools at Exotic are a suite of six-axis laser cutters. The lasers are capable of a high average power output, which allows for quick continuous cuts. These tools are used in trimming formed subassemblies and final processing of assemblies. 

 

Manufacturing technology: assembly 

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - tube planisher - Exotic MetalsA variety of welding processes are used at Exotic to join details to form complete assemblies. The following types of welding processes are used to create complex assemblies; tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding performed manually and automated, seam, laser, and plasma welding.    

Manual riveting is used at Exotic alongside robotic-riveter machines to automatically drill, countersink fastener holes, load, and squeeze rivets for assembly with fasteners.

 

 

Development of technology at Exotic

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - additive print of tensile test samples - Exotic MetalsThe advanced technology and automation team at Exotic is dedicated to developing new technologies to improve manufacturing processes continuously. Examples include retrofitting manual-operated forming equipment with electronic controls; improving the accuracy of forming operations; installing a robotic parts mover to deliver material around facilities without human involvement; and incorporating additive manufacturing into the growing list of capabilities.  

The Exotic engineering and manufacturing teams remain committed to pushing the boundaries of what's possible by developing new processes and technologies to maintain our position as the industry leader in sheet metal assembly fabrication. Exotic celebrates our past, enjoys the present, and looks forward to the future.


Article contributed by members of the Engineering Team at Exotic Metals Forming Division.

 

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Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success

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Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - Quick Die Changer - Exotic MetalsExotic Metals Forming Division began in 1963 with the creation of titanium sheet metal flanges. Today, the organization continues to be a leader in the forming of specialty metals in the aerospace industry as an expert using titanium and nickel alloys. These high-strength metals are corrosion resistant at high temperatures, making them ideal for aerospace applications. Also, these materials’ characteristics make them difficult to form, requiring specialized infrastructure and innovative proprietary processes. Exotic continues to refine and develop ways to form these alloys using specialized manufacturing processes. 


Engineering philosophy

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - Tool and Die - Exotic MetalsExotic employs a cradle-to-grave engineering philosophy. Engineers take a project from concept to full-rate production and support throughout the product lifecycle. A project begins with the engineering team providing technical leadership in quoting, manufacturing design, process development, and tooling design. Engineers use the latest CAD and simulation software, including Siemens NX and ANSYS. They develop tooling processes and work with our  in-house tool and die shop.

Customer focus and quality are key components of the cradle-to-grave engineering philosophy. Engineer teams work collaboratively in all stages of process development. With forward-thinking, a collaborative mindset, and advanced technology, the engineering teams create manufacturing processes and product design solutions that best match our customers' needs.

The following are examples of the manufacturing technology, equipment, tools, and the process followed to form, trim, and assemble parts today and how Exotic works to advance their technology for the future.  


Manufacturing technology: forming

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - Forming Press - Exotic MetalsExotic first used an axial load bulge in the forming process. Bulge forming seals raw material inside of a die cavity and is pressurized until the raw material takes the shape of the die cavity.
 
Hydroforming uses a pressurized bladder that pushes a flat piece of raw material into a contoured die cavity. The contoured punch is also used to force a flat piece of raw material into the pressurized bladder, forming it to the punch contour.   

 

 

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - Seam Welder - Exotic MetalsExotic uses many other processes to turn raw material into a complete part. Raw material arrives as sheet stock, which may be rolled and welded into tubing using an automated longitudinal seam welder or cut into a dimension blank using a flat pattern laser or waterjet. To form successfully, Exotic has developed welding techniques to optimize the formability of welds.

 

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - superplastic forming - Exotic MetalsSeveral unique forming processes are used at Exotic. One of those processes is superplastic forming. A piece of raw material and die are heated until the raw material is in a superplastic state. One side of the die is then pressurized using gas to force the raw material into the contour on the other half of the die. 

 

Manufacturing technology: material trimming

The teams at Exotic have developed industry-leading capability and knowledge in the area of laser trimming. Primary trimming tools at Exotic are a suite of six-axis laser cutters. The lasers are capable of a high average power output, which allows for quick continuous cuts. These tools are used in trimming formed subassemblies and final processing of assemblies. 

 

Manufacturing technology: assembly 

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - tube planisher - Exotic MetalsA variety of welding processes are used at Exotic to join details to form complete assemblies. The following types of welding processes are used to create complex assemblies; tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding performed manually and automated, seam, laser, and plasma welding.    

Manual riveting is used at Exotic alongside robotic-riveter machines to automatically drill, countersink fastener holes, load, and squeeze rivets for assembly with fasteners.

 

 

Development of technology at Exotic

Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success - additive print of tensile test samples - Exotic MetalsThe advanced technology and automation team at Exotic is dedicated to developing new technologies to improve manufacturing processes continuously. Examples include retrofitting manual-operated forming equipment with electronic controls; improving the accuracy of forming operations; installing a robotic parts mover to deliver material around facilities without human involvement; and incorporating additive manufacturing into the growing list of capabilities.  

The Exotic engineering and manufacturing teams remain committed to pushing the boundaries of what's possible by developing new processes and technologies to maintain our position as the industry leader in sheet metal assembly fabrication. Exotic celebrates our past, enjoys the present, and looks forward to the future.


Article contributed by members of the Engineering Team at Exotic Metals Forming Division.

 

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Defining Our Unique Contribution to the World

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Engineering Philosophy + Manufacturing Technology = Success

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Reducing Lead Times by Half Earns Praise from Customer GA-ASI - 030228-F-4928T-149 - Parker AerospaceWhat do you do when your production and maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) teams are faced with unscheduled demand for new equipment and overhaul/repair services from a customer supporting the United States military? Especially when you are required to cut lead times in half? 

The answer: collaborate with your customer, thoroughly analyze data, sharpen lean processes, and get creative with supply chain strategy to hit the target. Then, in this case, the customer recognizes the success of your efforts.

 

GA-ASI MQ-9, Avenger, and Gray Eagle increasing landing cycles

Reducing Lead Times by Half Earns Praise from Customer GA-ASI - GA-ASI MQ-9, Avenger, and Gray Eagle - Parker AerospaceThe Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division (AWBD) of Parker Aerospace is the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of wheels and brakes for the MQ-9, Avenger, and Gray Eagle remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) built by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI). Parker has enjoyed a long relationship with GA-ASI, providing not only OEM equipment but also overhaul and maintenance services for the fielded product. 

As the GA-ASI aircraft have been called to fly more missions for the United States Air Force and Army, the number of aircraft landing and braking cycles and demand for new aircraft has grown. This growth led to a surge in order requirements which required AWBD to respond quickly and decisively to deliver in an aggressive time frame.

 

Leaning forward to reduce production lead times

Reducing Lead Times by Half Earns Praise from Customer GA-ASI - GA-wheel_1 - Parker AerospaceAs deployment of remotely-piloted aircraft grew, the need for new production wheels and brakes increased. Customer GA-ASI asked Parker to initially double, and ultimately triple, the number of deliveries per month to meet this requirement. 

Lead times for new complex production orders, including the manufacture of forged and machined components plus assembly and testing, can take many months. Though not an uncommon reality for highly engineered products, the customer can encounter unscheduled demand due the aircraft’s success in the field. It was calculated that the greater need could only be met by cutting lead times by at least 50 percent.

With this increase in demand and the timeframe required, it became apparent that a key impediment to success was the procurement of long-lead components, especially forged parts. Traditionally, the AWBD team would order forged parts when an order requiring them was in-house; this usually added weeks to the lead time. In the case with GA-ASI, AWBD’s supply chain team was able to adjust their forecast model and commit to carrying inventory for a number of long-lead parts, saving critical time.

 

Using Lean principles to improve in-service support

Reducing Lead Times by Half Earns Praise from Customer GA-ASI - MQ1 PREDATOR PREPARES FOR TAKEOFF - Parker AerospaceThe Parker team has continued to refine every aspect of its support to consistently meet customer expectations. With increased sorties comes increased demand for support, which is where Parker’s culture of continuous improvement can ensure operational capability and capacity. To keep up with increased demand, AWBD developed a prioritized overhaul schedule that was cost effective and ensured that necessary repairs were done on time. Additional AWBD kaizen events have yielded improved product flow through the repair station and cut turnaround times by nearly 70 percent.

 

Collaboration key to improving lead time

In both new production and field support, gaining a clear understanding of the hurdles to meet customer objectives was paramount to implementing change. And that took a concerted effort between the Parker and GA-ASI teams. Starting with forecasting data from the customer, the teams expanded their insight into which wheel and brake components needed to be ordered in advance and which would require repair or replacement. 


 Reducing Lead Times by Half Earns Praise from Customer GA-ASI- GA-ASI_Predator-B_Morning - Parker Aerospace“When we were faced with the need to shrink lead times and improve turnaround time for GA-ASI repairs, we naturally opened dialogue with the customer. We saw an opportunity for the Parker and customer teams to examine a broad range of data and meaningfully engage, aligning our systems while optimizing what we do and how we do it.”
– Mark Harbison, key account manager, Parker Aerospace


 

Sign of success: AWBD team acknowledged for its efforts

In recognition of their commitment and work required to support increasing demand over multiple years, GA-ASI recognized Parker AWBD for its outstanding support. The Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake team was presented with a banner from GA-ASI that thanked them for the outstanding support. The banner proudly hangs in the AWBD facility as a reminder of a job well done and the value in providing premier customer service.

 Reducing Lead Times by Half Earns Praise from Customer GA-ASI- GA-ASI_AWBD Team - Parker Aerospace
 


Reducing Lead Times by Half Earns Praise from Customer GA-ASI - Justin Hodges, business development manager - Parker AerospaceThis post was contributed by Justin Hodges, business development manager, Parker Aerospace, Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division.

 

 

 

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Follow Parker's Aerospace Technology Page on LinkedInFollow our Aerospace Technology page and learn more about Parker's products, technologies, and engineering solutions that are advancing the global aerospace fleet.

 

 

Reducing Lead Times by Half Earns Praise from Customer GA-ASI

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Inspiring Women from Parker's Exotic Metals Forming Division - Women working at Exotic Metals Forming Division - Exotic Metals Forming DivisionWomen have been a part of the Exotic Metals Forming Division from the inception of the organization. In the company’s 50+ year history, women have and continue to serve in manufacturing, engineering, operations, leadership, and executive-level positions. Exotic's commitment to a diverse and inclusive workplace creates an environment that fosters innovation and delivers on the promise of the best solution for customers.

 

Women's History Month and International Women's Day 

March is Women's History Month, a celebration of women's contributions to history, culture, and society. International Women's Day is a global celebration of women's economic, political, and social achievements observed annually on March 8.

Exotic is celebrating the achievements and contributions of women by highlighting narratives from employees about a woman who inspires them. These are powerful messages of inspiration that we want to share with the world for International Women's Day.


Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Bekka - Exotic Metals Forming Division"Amelia Earhart. She was the first woman in history to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. Her accomplishments were built off hard work, dreams, and a solid passion." 

— Bekka, assembler, when asked which woman in cultural history most inspires her. 
 

 

Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Tandi - Exotic Metals Forming Division

 

"It's challenging, but it’s made me a better person in a lot of different ways. That’s what I love most about what I do – experiencing my own growth as well as the growth of the people around me."

— Tandi, supervisor, her thoughts on being a woman in a leadership role. 

 

Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Linh - Exotic Metals Forming Division"I'm inspired by my mother. She taught me that hard times can be overcome and losing battles can be won. She taught me the value of helping myself."

— Linh, assembler, remembering her mother who continues to inspire her today.
 

 


Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Ernie - Exotic Metals Forming Division"The conversations are still real today to help our daughters and the women around us know that the boxes may be there, but they should still push, they should still grow, they should still lean into the calling to fulfill their potential and do what only they can do in the community around them."

— Ernie, general manager, on breaking through barriers.




Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Heidi - Exotic Metals Forming Division"During a one on one with a supervisor a few years back, he said, 'Do you know that you have knocked down walls and inspired others to want to do more?'  and I said 'Really? I guess I never thought of it like that.'"

— Heidi, machine operator, reflecting on the realization that she can inspire other women in the industry.  
 

 

Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Margaret - Exotic Metals Forming Division
"The Suffragettes. Because they moved us forward."

— Margaret, human resources, sharing her appreciation for the activist organization that fought for women’s right to vote in public elections. 
 

 


Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Teri - Exotic Metals Forming Division"I've been absolutely terrified every moment of my life - and I've never let it keep me from doing a single thing I wanted to do." — Georgia O'Keefe."

"When I consider that statement in the context of the barriers she faced, it is even more powerful to me, and a great inspiration to us all."

— Teri, training director, sharing a quote from her cultural history icon. 


Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Michelle - Exotic Metals Forming Division"I chose this path for my profession because it was something I could take pride in. Knowing that I can program my machine to check any given tool is a great feeling of accomplishment."

— Michelle, CMM operator, reflecting on her path to becoming a CMM operator.
 

 


Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Shasta - Exotic Metals Forming Division"It's exciting to look back and see powerful women blazing trails. It's something that will continue to inspire my girls and propel them into a future where they can do whatever they put their minds to."

— Shasta, safety manager, reflecting on influential women who have helped pave a strong future for young women.  
 


Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Sunshine - Exotic Metals Forming Division

 

"My advice to other women is: Never let success get to your head and never let failure get to your heart. You are your own limit."

— Sunshine, welder, giving advice to other women aspiring to be in her field.
 

 

Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Damon - Exotic Metals Forming Division"My daughter has continued to be the one inspiring me rather than the other way around. I could easily write a novel about what my daughter means to me, what she has accomplished, and continues to accomplish. Now I get the joy of watching her blossom into an independent young lady."

— Damon, supervisor, reflecting on being a father to a daughter in today's world.
 

 

Women and Exotic Metals Forming Division - Jenny - Exotic Metals Forming Division"I often think about what I would tell my younger self. I would say 'you are enough, you can accomplish your dreams and anything you set your mind to.'"

— Jenny, lean engineer, reflecting on advice she shares on being a woman in today's society.  
  


Peer W 

In 2015, Parker Hannifin launched its first business resource group to assist in changing the representation and inclusion of women in the company's workforce. Named Peer W, the group supports the recruitment, development, and retention of women at Parker. Peer W has chapters throughout the globe and more to come.
 

Peer W

Exotic and Parker are proud to celebrate Women’s History Month, International Women’s Day, and recognize the women whose contributions built a solid foundation, the present-day achievements, and the women of tomorrow who will build future success.

Inspiring Women from Parker's Exotic Metals Forming Division

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eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - EVOT aircraft - Parker Aerospace There is growing, perhaps booming, commercial investment in electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) vehicles that will serve the new urban air mobility (UAM) aerospace market. Upstart and established companies are in a race to develop platforms that can bring about an age of civilian, commercial, and military mobility that enables users to break free of terrestrial limitations and move freely about the sky.

Many aircraft for the new UAM market are in development independently, with large and small aerospace companies reaching out to our experts. Thermal management is a specific technology in demand where Parker Aerospace has deep experience and is now helping multiple UAM companies. 


Accelerating takeoff

eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - EVTOL aircraft - Parker Aerospace The United States Air Force recently launched the Agility Prime program, a “a non-traditional program seeking to accelerate the commercial market for advanced air mobility vehicles.” The program will enable the more rapid development, testing, and certification of eVTOL platforms – which Agility Prime calls “orbs” – for both civil and military use. The applications that Agility Prime cites for orbs include logistics and sustainment, medical evacuation, firefighting, disaster relief, search and rescue, and humanitarian relief operations.

eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - Multi-model-EVOT aircraft - Parker Aerospace Going beyond its car-based ride-sharing beginnings, Uber is engaged in the civilian and commercial side of developing eVTOL aircraft – and the required infrastructure for aerial ride sharing – through its Uber Elevate team. Its aircraft development efforts are underpinned by strategic partnerships with several leading aircraft manufacturers. Recently Uber Elevate was acquired by competitor Joby Aviation with a goal to leverage the work of both companies.

Further, eVTOL aircraft development is independently underway with a number of the world’s biggest names in aerospace.

Transporting people with these vehicles creates a new mode of transportation that will connect between commercial air travel and automobiles. Yet moving goods with eVTOL vehicles, even with unmanned drones, may have a larger impact on our society. Cargo delivery drones require the same engineering and the same regulatory conditions, without people, however with the conventions needed and infrastructure to support regular flight. Widespread implementation of delivery drones will prove the systems and processes needed for like vehicle power management, communication, landing locations, and support infrastructure.  


Distributed electric propulsion (DEP) is the system for eVTOL  

eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - eVTOL-diagram- Parker Aerospace Among the propulsion systems being considered for eVTOL applications, distributed electric propulsion (DEP) has emerged as the likely configuration for UAM applications. DEP relies on multiple electric motor-driven rotor-type propulsors distributed across the aircraft to provide vertical lift, thrust, and flight control.

Though DEP system-equipped vehicles will take advantage of the maneuverability afforded them by the technology, DEP systems pose unique challenges for the heat management of the electric motors, electric controllers, and battery packs necessary for their operation.

The electric motors that drive the multiple rotors are arrayed around the aircraft, located in proximity to the rotors. These motors variably generate heat as they perform their propulsive duties, creating a need for effective thermal management to ensure optimal efficiency and motor life. Reducing weight is an important benefit of electric motors. Besides being environmentally friendly, the system for an electric motor has a dramatic weight reduction compared to traditional hydraulic motor systems. Lighter aircraft changes the flight profile and how the aircraft flies, allows for more passengers/cargo and provides more flexibility for other aircraft systems. 

Electronic controllers are required to provide the digital commands that govern rotor speed and position, which enable an eVTOL’s ability to climb, descend, and navigate in airspace. These digital controllers take full advantage of the ongoing advancements in semiconductor manufacturing that permit more and more computational power in smaller footprints, giving rise to higher heat levels and heat densities that must, in turn, be removed from the controllers themselves.

The battery packs that provide the electricity needed to power the motors generate heat as energy is released for use by the aircraft. There is significantly higher power demand placed on the batteries at takeoff and landing, which results in a variable thermal management requirement across the vehicle’s flight profile. The aircraft’s thermal management system must be responsive to this variability.

 

Systems approach to eVTOL thermal management

The key to successfully managing the heat generated by DEPs lies with a thermal management system (TMS) with the ability to collect heat in one location then transport it to a place where it can be safely rejected or dissipated. Such systems consist of three major elements:

eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - Heat Collection - Parker Aerospace Heat collection components – such as liquid flow through cold plates or liquid-cooled enclosures    

 

 


eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - Complex Tube Assemblies - Parker Aerospace Transport components – consisting of pipes, hose, connectors, and pumps  

 

 


eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - Heat Rejection - Parker Aerospace Heat rejection/dissipation equipment – Heat rejection or dissipation equipment, or heat exchangers    

 

 


eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - EVOT circuit - Parker Aerospace Controllers to coordinate and manage the system entire thermal dissipation of the system    
   
 

Designing an efficient and size, weight, and power (SWaP) solution requires access to a wide-ranging portfolio of components and subject matter experts experienced in fluid and thermal management. A previous blog article from the Parker Aerospace Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division’s thermal management team details the criteria for selecting a thermal management system supplier.
 

“Because SWAP is such a key challenge with an airborne end use, thermal management needs to be a common design feature of every component and sub-system in electric or hybrid-electric aircraft.”

Michael Humphrey, business development manager for thermal management solutions, Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division of Parker Aerospace


Challenges that can be met by an experienced thermal management systems provider

It should be noted that heat density and precise location that needs to be the primary focus when assessing an entire thermal management system. Frequently, heat “spreading” – or a reduction in thermal density – is the first stage of creating a solution. Many materials and control components are capable of operating efficiently at extreme temperatures. Thus, reducing thermal density may allow a passive solution, such as heat dissipating into a large thermal mass, to be employed. Other TMS challenges include:

  • Multiple point sources of heat throughout the platform, each with heat densities or heat loads that vary over the operating cycle – Solutions range from copper/diamond composites that rapidly spread heat from a point source to large, complex cold plates utilizing single-phase and two-phase coolants for heat collection that is then transferred to a liquid- or vapor-to-air heat exchanger
  • Pathways through which heat moves require highly reliable connection points – Repair and maintenance demands frequently require high-pressure fluid connections capable of quick release without leakage. 
  • Out-of-the-ordinary location of heat sources – Safe and efficient rejection of heat may involve the unconventional utilization of structural elements of the platform. For example, Macrolaminate™ heat exchangers can facilitate transport of heated fluid or vapor close to an exterior surface that is adjacent to cold air. 

Thermal management has widespread impact across these vehicles, integral with other technologies such as:

  • Universal low-cost motor controllers for electric propulsion, cooling, braking, flight control
  • Tailored motor solutions leveraging Parker global vehicle motor (GVM) technology 
  • Hydraulic power packs specialized for UAM requirements
  • Electric braking and mobility 
  • Power management via our integrated power management system (IPMS) technology  
  • Electrical mechanical actuation (EMA)  
  • Cockpit controls 

The Parker advantage: proven system-level TMS capability

The thermal management team at the Parker Aerospace Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division offers proven thermal management system-level experience developing solutions for demanding environments, including applications for advanced defense and intelligence gathering systems employing technologies that create exceptional thermal density challenges.
 

“With the DNA of an engineering-focused problem-solving culture, Parker’s TMS team offers the ability to optimize system performance with SWaP-focused solutions while maintaining aircraft safety, applying Parker’s full understanding of the needs of the regulatory authorities. Contributing further to this is Parker’s corporation-wide strength in the areas of materials – including composites – and the availability of subject matter experts to address any aspect of engineering at the component and sub-assembly level.”

— Michael Humphrey, business development manager for thermal management solutions
 

eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - Cold Plate - Parker Aerospace As the development, testing, and certification of eVTOL platforms accelerates, so too will the demands placed on the thermal management systems needed for these exciting vehicles. As a proven TMS solutions provider, Parker is looking forward to assisting its customers in meeting these coming challenges, helping to bring about a new age of civilian, commercial, and military air mobility.


Making the world a better place is in our DNA  

eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - Parkers Purpose Statement - Parker Aerospace As a trusted partner, Parker's team members work alongside customers to enable technology breakthroughs that change the world for the better. We help our customers and distribution partners meet the newest standards for safety or emissions, reduce power usage, improve efficiency, and move faster to optimize resources. Parker's Purpose is at the core of everything we do. Watch the introduction video with Parker's CEO Tom Williams

 

 


eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - TMS Website - Parker Aerospace To learn more about Parker Aerospace thermal management capabilities and solutions, visit this website.

 

 

 

 

 

eVTOL aircraft require comprehensive system-level thermal management - Jeff Melzak - Parker Aerospace This blog was contributed by Jeff Melzak, engineering manager for thermal management solutions, Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division of Parker Aerospace.

 

 

     
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Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes - Training-Tidbit - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division

There are many types of bearing greases for aviation wheel assemblies. Here, we will examine the four main types of bearing grease used by Parker's Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division, an industry leader in the design, manufacture, and support of superior braking systems since its founding in 1936.

 


 

Safety is the first step


Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes - safety step 1 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division1. Be sure to always use eye protection and rubber gloves when cleaning repacking or handling bearings.

 

 


 

 


Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes - safety step 2 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division2. Also remember to never mix any two bearing greases together because it may result in premature failure of the bearing.

 

 


 

 

 

Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes - safety step 3 - Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division3. Always replace bearings as a set cup and cone.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Types of greases

The four types of bearing greases used by Parker Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division are:

  • SHC 100 Mobil aviation grease
  • Aeroshell grease 22 
  • HCF grease P/N 605 (amphibious)
  • OMNIi waterproof grease number 2 (amphibious)


Cleveland Wheel and Brake technicians and service guides and general maintenance manual calls out to specifications mill PRF81322 and D O D G245088.

 

SHC 100 Mobil aviation grease

Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes - SHC 100 Mobil - Parker AerospaceThe first of the four greases we will explore is SHC 100 Mobil aviation grease. This grease is synthetic and provides a high dropping point. It has excellent resistance to water wash, and it is an outstanding protector against wear corrosion and high temperature, which can be damaging. And finally, it is red in color.

 

 

 

Aeroshell grease 22

Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes - Aero Shell Grease 22 - Parker AerospaceThe Aeroshell grease 22 is a versatile multi-purpose grease for aircraft wheel bearings. It is recommended for general anti-friction bearings operating at high speed and at high or low temperatures, this grease is brown in color.

 

 

 

 

HCF grease P/N 605 (amphibious)

Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes - HCF Grease P/N 605 - Parker AerospaceThe HCF grease P/N 605 is an amphibious grease. It provides protection against the corrosive action of fresh water, salt, water, and chemical fumes. It maintains lubricating film under adverse conditions of load and torque, and it is dark brown in color.

 

      OMNI waterproof grease number 2 (amphibious)

Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes - HCF Grease P/N 605 - Parker AerospaceThe fourth grease is the OMNI waterproof grease number two, which is also an amphibious grease. This grease acts as a rust preventative protecting bearings seals and open gears against costly wear. It repels fresh or salt waters. This grease is green in color.

 

 

 

Now, watch the training video

 

For more information on greases and other topics like this, please visit our website.

 

This blog was contributed by the Aerospace Technology Team, Parker Wheel & Brake Division.

 

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Grease Selection for Aviation Wheels and Brakes

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 Exotic Metals Forming founder, Don Lindsey, had overheard a conversation in the Boeing lobby regarding the failure of titanium sheet metal flanges on the 727 aircraft. Being the consummate salesman, he recognized this as an opportunity to utilize a manufacturing process that would revolutionize the forming of sheet metal parts. As a result, the process of axial-load bulge forming, which began out of Mr. Lindsey’s garage in 1963, has led to nearly one million square feet of manufacturing and a long-standing history as a world leader in the manufacture of sophisticated sheet metal fabrications. 


Beginning with Boeing

 The humble beginnings of Exotic were founded on a relationship with The Boeing Company. Exotic soon realized that diversification would be the key to growth and longevity in a rapidly changing industry. The first military endeavor came in 1972 with the Teledyne Harpoon parts. As the economy began to improve, the 1980s showed great promise; yielding contracts for the B-2 Stealth Bomber Exhaust Liner, various other military work, and Exotic’s first exposure to what would become another foundational relationship in Pratt & Whitney Aircraft.

The end of the 80s introduced a major production line project with the award of the Boeing 757 environmental control systems (ECS) program in 1988. Continued growth with Boeing into the early 1990s would include major programs such as Vacuum Waste Tubes, 777 Plug & Nozzle, and the development of the process to manufacture Exotic’s own titanium tubing; all programs and methodologies which are still in production today.

 

 In 1994, Exotic forged a new relationship with the acquisition of Parker Metal Bellows. This relationship came full circle through Parker Hannifin Corporation’s acquisition of Exotic in 2019. Today there continues to be original Parker employees with Exotic from the 1994 acquisition, demonstrating a legacy of dedication and long-lasting leadership.


Awards acknowledge a winning culture

 The longevity of Exotic in the Aerospace and Defense industry has been highlighted by numerous accolades. With multiple Boeing Company Chairman’s awards for Supplier of the Year, Exotic was the first-ever three-time consecutive recipient of this award. Additional awards include Airbus Aerostructures Supplier of the Year and the United States SBA Supplier of the Year. Exotic was the first company awarded the Pratt & Whitney Gold Supplier status, which has been held continually since 2004.

With all the achievements Exotic has accomplished, none of this would be possible without the employees and the culture which has stood the test of time. With the passing of Don Lindsey in 2001, Bill Binder took the reigns and continued to make the employees and the atmosphere in which they work the central guiding force of the growth which would continue for nearly two more decades.


Dynamic manufacturing excellence

 Advancements in technology and methodologies have placed Exotic Metals on some of the most competitive programs in both commercial and military work. Defense programs such as advanced military fighters, along with various other military programs, have diversified Exotic into the lasting aerospace manufacturer that exists today.

At Exotic, there is great pride in the fact that everyone in the Exotic family strives to be the best at what they do every day; working as a collaborative team to stretch the bounds of creative thinking and provide quality products to our customers around the globe. While Exotic had many suitors throughout the years, it was Parker Hannifin Corporation which proved to be the best fit for the employees and the culture within Exotic. In July 2019, the acquisition of Exotic was announced and a new relationship of building for the future has begun.


This blog was contributed by the leadership team at Exotic Metals Forming Division

 

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Aerospace technology has been applied to demanding industrial applications in order to gain performance improvement, increased efficiency, and longer life. Parker's technology innovation and development apply to check valves, manifolds, and switches for accurate control of flaps, rudders, and flight control surfaces in aviation. Applying the latest advancement to motion and control for gas turbine design within Power Generation plants, such as combined-cycle units, is helping to keep equipment running longer and more reliably. One example is electrohydraulic servovalves (EHSV). The advancement of EHSVs took off in the 1950s, largely due to the adoption of permanent magnet torque motors as the first stage (as opposed to solenoids). This resulted in greatly improved response times and a reduction in power used to control the valves. Parker Hannifin purchased Denison International and their Abex product line in 2003 to support our  EHSV product solutions. 

 

Why use JET-PIPE™ electrohydraulic servovalves on gas turbines

Power plant gas and steam turbine applications require precise control of their “fuel”, whether this is natural gas, fuel oil, or steam. These engines may also have a need for the actuation of inlet guide vanes (IGV) and fuel blending stop/ratio valves. Electrohydraulic servovalves enable a control signal to be converted to the precise movement of an actuator, which in turn will control the fuel valves or IGV.

One of the initial design objectives for servovalves was electrohydraulic control of flight control surfaces on aircraft. These demanding, critical applications resulted in designs that were close to fail-safe, with redundant coils

 For the turbine system, the fuel gas control valve on an actuator is the primary interface between a complex control system and the mechanical part of the plant. Maintaining that link is a cornerstone for producing power. 

  How an electrohydraulic servovalve works

The servovalve is comprised of two major parts: the valve, which is a precision, close tolerance, matched spool and sleeve; and the electrical force motor called a torque motor. Combining an electrical device (torque motor) with a mechanical device (spool and sleeve)  with a mechanical feedback spring results in a servovalve that provides an output flow precisely proportional to the input current.

To achieve high precision in performance, exacting levels of manufacturing are required to assure the proper size and fit of the valve components. In service, the valve components must maintain their relative positions and condition to assure continued operation within requirements. Electrohydraulic servovalves as seen in the schematic below are two-stage, with a servo control portion on top and a hydraulic portion below. The control portion on top is the electrical actuation that moves the jet-pipe within the servo. The bottom portion or second stage is the hydraulic control which manages the downstream actuator position and opening/closing of the gas or steam valves, inlet guide vane position, or stop/ratio valve.

A contemporary four-way servovalve is illustrated in Figure 1 This unit is shown in the neutral or null position. Supply pressure is applied to the pressure port and to the jet-pipe (usually one common supply connection). Jet-pipe flow is directed into a flow divider or receiver. In the null position, flows and pressures are equal in the passageways leading to the ends of the spool, thus there is no net force pushing the spool in either direction.

Upon application of an electrical signal to the torque motor, the armature deflects (as shown in Figure 2), causing the jet-pipe to displace and direct the jet flow into only one of the two receiver ports. The flow into one receiver passageway acts upon one end of the spool, causing the spool to move. The spool movement results in one cylinder port being opened to the supply port and the other cylinder port being opened to the return port.

As the spool moves it acts upon the feedback spring, which in turn pulls the jet-pipe back over the receiver null position (illustrated in Figure 2). This balance between input current, spool position, and feedback spring force results in a particular flow to be passed for each particular input signal to the servovalve. When the polarity of the input signal changes, Flow from the other cylinder port results.

Servovalves are used to accomplish many tasks. Most commonly they are mounted on linear or rotary actuators so that they will transform the electrical command signal into linear or rotary motion output of the actuator. Quite often this concept is used for position control of a machine platform.

  A clean system can prolong servovalve life

Current trends in power plant utilization often demand numerous starts and stops of the turbines, and maintenance intervals are being extended as long as possible. These operating parameters have resulted in electrohydraulic control system oil contamination (particulate and varnish formation). Dirty EHC system oil may then cause critical use servos to become sluggish and even fail, tripping the plant off-line.  

Parker’s JET-PIPE™ servovalve design offers performance advantages over traditional “flapper style” servos. With only one larger 0.008” diameter control orifice when compared with a flapper servos five 0.002” orifices, the Parker servovalve orifice is more difficult to plug with contaminated oil. The JET-PIPE™ servo, if plugged, will not fail in a manner that results in the downstream actuator fully extending or retracting. This type of uncontrolled movement of the turbines control valves would result in a trip or even damage to the engine.

Like most hydraulic system components, all servovalves like to be used with a fluid free of excessive particle contamination as well as a reasonable chemical composition to avoid chemical erosion. It is difficult to generalize in describing how clean a system should be due to the great variance between requirements with different applications.

One guide that can be generally used is document AS4059, published by SAE International. This document, titled Aerospace Fluid Power - Cleanliness Classification for Hydraulic Fluids, classifies varying levels of contamination. Servovalves have been found to operate quite satisfactorily in systems with a contamination level equal to, or below AS4059, Class 7, which corresponds to the following:

In terms of filtration, a well-maintained system with filtration of 10-micron nominal and 25-micron absolute has been found to be satisfactory in most applications. Fluid chemical composition should be monitored as well as the fluid and system manufacturer recommendations followed to maintain the proper chemical composition.

Two other areas should receive particular attention.

  • On new system start-up, flush the system thoroughly prior to the installation of servovalves. Defective servovalves with very low operating time are sometimes returned after having been installed in a new system. These units are often found with jammed spools due to trapped chips, weld slag, plastic tape, etc. This system contamination was built into the system between the filtration and servovalve and probably could have been removed by prior flushing.

  • When an element of the system has a failure that is suspected to have caused the generation of contamination, flush the system and service the filtration system.

 

Making the case at Marcus Hook Energy Center

 Premature failures of electrohydraulic servovalves (EHSV) on fuel control valves were causing headaches and consuming maintenance budgets for the team at Marcus Hook Energy Center. Originally owned by NextEra and operated by Florida Power & Light, the fleet manager of this 790 MW combined cycle operation reached out to Parker for help in finding a solution. 

Each of the three GE 7FA.03 turbines was running 6,200 hours per year on average with 210 starts. The expected service life of the OEM-supplied fuel control servos was 32,000 hours but they were failing every six months (3,100 hours) and cleaned, repaired, or replaced at every other outage. The flapper style EHSV's were supplied as OEM equipment from GE.

 

 

Leading with aerospace technology solutions

 Parker’s JET-PIPE™ electrohydraulic servovalve with decades of success in flight control systems for commercial passenger planes and military fighter aircraft was selected for a side-by-side test and evaluation. A total of twelve Parker JET-PIPE™ electrohydraulic servovalves were installed. 

  • Improves turbine availability and reliability while extending the service life of servos on critical engine control applications

  • Contamination resistant, erosion-tolerant, designed to last

  • GE Specification 312A6077

 

  Dirty hydraulic fluid and varnish

 Dirty hydraulic fluid and varnish are two primary enemies of EHSV’s. GE's Lube Oil Recommendation Document GEK32568K discusses lube oil varnish formation and the negative impact on turbine availability and reliability.

Particulate (dirt) contamination in an oil system is the result of the oil physically breaking down, wear of components that are exposed to the oil stream, or external contaminants that wind up in the oil. Particulate formation in a hydraulic system that supports servovalves is a concern, as servos have very small internal orifices, as well as extremely tight tolerances between the hydraulic spool and sleeve (sometimes as tight at 0.00004”).

Varnish formation, as a result of moisture, acid formation, thermal and chemical degradation, can also greatly affect the operation of servovalves. Varnish can clog supply pressure filter, build up in low flow areas of the servo, and slow or stop the second stage spool from moving when commanded.

The condition of system fluid at Marcus Hook is especially demanding. A fluid analysis was not allowed but visual inspection of oil from an open port in the image above shows signs of contamination.

 

Design prevents clogging

Parker JET-PIPE™ technology is far less prone to contamination, a key advantage in power generation “dirty” environments. Parker EHSVs offer a first to second stage gap that is four times larger than that of the nearest competitor. The unique jet construction enables most designs to receive and pass particles as large as 500 microns without malfunction. By allowing larger particulates to pass through the system, Parker EHSVs can then use a coarser filter that helps prevent clogging of the filter assembly in a dirty fluid environment. Plus Parker EHSVs offer 75 percent pressure recovery and neutral fail-safe capability.

Parker JET-PIPE™ servos are also designed with strong resistance to varnish and pollutants and have the unique ability of "failure return to zero" and "fault safe." Meaning that it is trip resistant as the valve will move to a null position rather than a hard-over failure.

 

Three years of operation without incident save thousands of $

After 19,000 fired hours, 520 starts, and nearly three years of operation without incident, a single Parker JET-PIPE™ servovalve was removed for testing and analysis. Laboratory results document that the Parker JET-PIPE™ was within new performance requirements. 

NOTE: The OEM valve had to be serviced six times. 

As of December 2019, the Parker JET-PIPE™ EHSV’s have over 60,000 hours of trouble-free operation and no signs of weakening. 

Marcus Hook Energy Center has saved thousands in repair costs and hundreds of man-hours in avoided maintenance. 

The Parker JET-PIPE™ is fully approved by GE for heavy-duty gas turbines and has been added to GE specification 312A6077 under a long term agreement with Parker.

Made in the USA at the Parker Aerospace Control Systems Division in Dublin, Georgia, JET-PIPE™ is a “drop-in” replacement for existing OEM EHSV on fuel control valves making changeouts quick and simple.

 

Article contributed by

Jim Hoke, market development manager, Parker Hannifin, Power Generation, North American Power Generation new construction business development. Works with plant/project owners, as well as associated Engineering / Procurement / Construction companies on technical and commercial topics.


 

 

 

 

Wind Turbine Blade Pitch Control Upgrade Delivers on Reliability and Capacity  - Tom Ulery - Parker HannifinTom Ulery, business development manager, Energy Team Parker Hannifin, North America Wind industry. He has many years of experience in hydraulic valves, as the applications manager for Hydraulic Valve Division

 

 

 

 

Eliminate Maintenance Concerns  on Gas Turbine Fuel Control Valve - Tim Bryarly, project engineer, Parker HannifinTim Bryarly. project engineer, EHSV project engineer, working in EHSV design, new product development and product support, Parker Aerospace, MFCD.  

 

 

 

 

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 The America’s Cup is the oldest trophy in international sports and the highest prize in sailing. Although it has a colorful history dating to 1851, America’s Cup wind-powered racing yachts certainly aren’t old school: the boats use advanced light-weight materials, the latest in nautical design, and aerospace control technology to skim across the ocean’s surface at speeds approaching 50 knots. That’s 55-plus miles-per-hour for landlubbers and the ultimate challenge for the 11-sailor crews that navigate the sophisticated yachts.

 

Parker is no stranger to the high-pressure competition that fuels the America’s Cup, having supported U.S. teams as an official partner during the last America’s Cup and supplying parts for decades. Following the announcement on January 7, 2019, Parker Hannifin is teaming with a New York Yacht Club-backed entry from the United States called “American Magic.” Parker is the official control systems partner to bring the trophy home to America’s shore in the 36th America’s Cup in 2021. Parker and the American Magic Team will work together to develop and implement state-of-the-art systems for the team’s racing boats. Leveraging a portfolio of proven aerospace and industrial technologies, these systems will enable the advanced yachts with precise control of the lifting surfaces and the wing required to produce optimum performance.

 "Parker is honored to be a part of the American Magic team and to build on our long history with the America's Cup. The motion and control challenges that are presented by this latest generation of foiling yachts are significant and relevant to those that we see in our core business. The opportunity to partner with some of the most talented engineers and athletes on the planet in the crucible of a world-class competition is a recipe for technology advancement, and hopefully some American magic."

— Craig Maxwell, former vice president and chief technology and innovation officer for Parker

 

New monohull design developed under AC75 Class Rule

 Teams will be racing a monohull boat designed under the AC75 Class Rule, which defines the parameters within which teams can design a yacht eligible to compete for the 36th America’s Cup. In addition to shared weight, mast, and sail specifications, the AC75 boats will feature a 75-foot monohull with a T-foil rudder and twin canting T-foils. The objective of this design is to allow the boats to accelerate sufficiently that their foils elevate the hulls from the water to navigate above the ocean’s surface, reducing drag and increasing speed.

The AC75 is a “one-design” vessel, meaning that all teams’ boats use the same design for the main structural elements. The teams can innovate and gain advantage at the system levels of the boats. That’s where Parker Aerospace comes in.

 

Parker motion controls to optimize American Magic’s performance

Putting 100-plus years of engineering expertise to work and applying a broad range of core technologies, Parker will integrate its controls, hydraulics, and actuators into a key motion and control system that helps American Magic boats achieve stability as each lift onto its foils and accelerates.

According to Mark Czaja, vice president  and chief technology and innovation officer for Parkers, a wide range of Parker products and system-level expertise will help the American Magic boat perform at its highest level. 

“Working with the team's Official Innovation Partner, Airbus – with whom Parker already works closely on several commercial and military aircraft platforms – we are bringing advanced control technologies to the American Magic boats, refining the design of the control system and its components for the rigors of saltwater competition.”

— Mark Czaja, vice president and chief technology and innovation officer for Parker

 

Half-scale boat tested on the water in Pensacola, Florida

 The New York Yacht Club American Magic team has built a boat to half-scale of a race-ready AC75 design. The 38-foot boat—known as “the Mule” to its sailors, designers, and shore crew—has undergone testing in the waters of Pensacola, Florida. The shakedown runs serve to train the crew and provide system-level data that will influence the building of the first full-scale American Magic boat. The first AC75 yacht should be in the water by the end of August of 2019. Data gathered from the first boat will inform construction of a second one; either of the two boats can be used in the Challenger selection events and, ultimately, the America’s Cup.

 

Challenger selection events to determine who will face Defender Team Emirates New Zealand

 The 36th America’s Cup match will take place in Auckland, New Zealand, in March of 2021. Prior to the America’s Cup, American Magic will compete in the America’s Cup World Series (April 23-26, 2020) and the Prada Cup Challenger series starting in January 2021. These races build toward the 36th America’s Cup over March 6-21, when the competition leader will earn the right to face current cup defender, Team Emirates New Zealand. But there is much to do before that for American Magic—and Parker—to prepare for the next edition of the America’s Cup.

We’ll be blogging throughout the run-up to the America’s Cup race in 2021, keeping readers posted on Parker and American Magic progress toward winning the cup for America.

 

 

To learn more about the New York Yacht Club American Magic 36th America’s Cup efforts, please visit the website


 This post was contributed by Zack Cody, project lead and a member of the Parker Aerospace central engineering department. 

 

 

 

 

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Continuous Improvement Earns Aerospace Top Scores for Customer Service - Worldwide Support - Parker AerospaceFor over a century Parker Aerospace has been an aerospace industry leader both as an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and provider of aftermarket repair, maintenance, and overhaul (MRO) services. Within Parker’s Aerospace Group, Customer Support Operations (CSO) provides centralized support for aftermarket business on behalf of the other eight aerospace divisions. CSO is dedicated to keeping aircraft fleets continuously healthy, around the clock and around the globe. 

For decades CSO has earned recognition for providing systems-level expertise and engineering insight with high-quality components and industry-leading service. This is made possible through CSO’s dynamic culture of smart, ethical, and dedicated people serving aircraft operators daily. In recent decades this work has become increasingly digital and CSO’s efforts have been recognized by customers with great approval. 

Responding to the needs of aircraft operators, CSO key offerings include: 

  • Repair and hold programs
  • Advance exchange & core repair services at fixed rates
  • Inventory leasing packages
  • Serviceable material outright sale or to replace BER
  • Flexible conditional and fixed repair prices

Digital tools improving customer experience  

Since aircraft manufacturers and operators have established procedures over the last century, there has been concern about transitioning from manual to digital interactions without interrupting operations. Parker Hannifin offers digital ordering through our proprietary tool, PHconnect as well as other systems or aftermarket platforms. With the industry moving towards digital B2B interaction, the impact of COVID-19 highlights the need for more digital collaboration.

-In February, CSO launched a Repair Location Finder to expedite the repair process. This platform has been well received and future upgrades are planned. For the next step in the process, CSO is working with Parker Hannifin and the other aerospace divisions to provide an upgraded order status system that communicates with customers during the repair process. 

This past spring, CSO launched a warranty claims process where airlines can submit online claims for repairs. 

 

Top scores in customer service from the aerospace MRO market 

In July, the findings from the third annual Air Transport Aftermarket Customer Satisfaction Survey identified Parker Aerospace as receiving the top score in airline customer satisfaction among maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) mechanical and electrical suppliers worldwide. The Satisfaction Survey is independently from Parker, conducted by Inside MRO, Air Transport World, and AeroDynamic Advisory

Of the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) ranked, only seven logged strong satisfaction scores. On a scale of 0-10, with 10 being the highest, those OEMs are:

  • CFM (7.5)
  • Airbus (7.3)
  • Boeing (7.2)
  • GE Aviation (engines, 7.1)
  • Pratt & Whitney (APUs, 7.1) 
  • Parker Aerospace (7.0)
  • BAE Systems (7.0)

Continuous Improvement Earns Aerospace Top Scores for Customer Service - Survey Results - Parker Aerospace

The complete survey results and winners can be found in a recent webinar, Aviation Reset: Flight Path Forward, featuring MRO Top Performers: Strategies for Leading Customer Satisfaction. The panelists will discuss the increasing importance of customer engagement, how that is changing as airlines prioritize cost savings and efficiency, and maintaining excellent customer relations through mergers, acquisitions, and industry consolidation. Register here to view the webinar.


Survey insights

This survey was conducted from mid-February to mid-May, with 185 qualified responses, including 62 unique airlines from around the world. OEMs were ranked in the following categories: ease of doing business, product reliability, technical support, parts cost, parts availability, aircraft-on-ground (AOG) support, OEM repair cost, OEM service center performance, overall satisfaction, and likelihood of recommending them to a peer or colleague. 

Continuous Improvement Earns Aerospace Top Scores for Customer Service - CSO - Parker AerospaceParker Aerospace improved year-over-year scores in ease of doing business, technical support, OEM repair cost and OEM service center performance while also receiving the highest overall satisfaction score for mechanical/electrical suppliers in 2020. Most of the industry continues to show low net promoter scores (NPS) scores, like overall satisfaction, and Parker’s NPS score has remained high among peers.

 

“Parker Hannifin has been putting a premium on customer service in the last several years, which seems to resonate with its customer base. It has expanded its in-region support—including inventory pooling centers in the Middle East, Europe, and Asia as well as repair capabilities. It also opened 24/7 customer response centers in Irvine, Calif. and Singapore.”

— Lee Ann Shay, chief editor MRO, Aviation Week Network, July issue of Inside MRO


Continually improving customer experience

Continuous Improvement Earns Aerospace Top Scores for Customer Service - FSD repair - Parker AerospaceThe survey report also explains that Parker Hannifin Chairman and CEO Tom Williams established a net promoter score index called likelihood to recommend (LTR). 
 

“Customers are asked about their experience after every significant business transaction. Customers who have good experiences hold a greater appreciation for the overall value offered by Parker and actively promote our brand. They are more likely to have a strong interest in new product offerings and product improvements, and to consider broadening their business with Parker.” 

— Austin Major, group vice president for business development & customer support, Parker Aerospace

 

Parker’s leaders and business units are measured on the LTR scores, which Major says have steadily increased every year since the program’s inception. Parker Aerospace has a division dedicated to serving aftermarket customers, called Customer Support Operations (CSO), which represents all of the aerospace technologies across Parker’s Aerospace Group. Customers are surveyed with transactions that are manual and digital, plus an overall relationship survey, so that issues can be quickly identified and resolved.  


Maintaining aircraft fleets globallyParker360

Known as a systems provider with more than 100 years of experience on nearly every major aircraft that has flown, Parker Aerospace is uniquely qualified to provide aftermarket aircraft support. Parker360 is the promise from CSO to keep fleets continuously healthy, around the clock and around the globe. 

 

The division’s global Customer Response Center is waiting to help 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and our support network is ready to help aircraft anywhere in the world. Parker CSO assists customers using intelligence and analysis to maximize the health of aircraft anywhere and in every time zone.
 

 

How aerospace elevates Parker’s Purpose 

Parker Aerospace and CSO maintain a strong cultural philosophy that Arthur Parker, founder of Parker Hannifinoriginated with Art Parker himself as detailed in a 1930’s speech to employees. 

 

“Our success is founded on fair dealing, hard work, coordination of effort,
and quality products.” 
— Arthur L. Parker, Parker founder (1917)

 

In this respect, the CSO division is an excellent example of Parker’s Purpose brought to life every day. The organization employs some of the most experienced people in the industry who are trustworthy, accountable, ethical, dedicated, and individually have impressive pedigrees working on specific aircraft platforms. 

The scope of technologies and the quality of products from Parker Aerospace is unmatched in the industry. As a trusted partner, Parker's CSO team members work alongside customers to enable technology breakthroughs that change the world for the better.


Continuous Improvement Earns Aerospace Top Scores for Customer Service - Victor Jorcyk - Parker Aerospace Customer Support Operations
This article was contributed by Victor Jorcyk, vice president of commercial aftermarket, Parker Aerospace Customer Support Operations.

 

 


 
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Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - Helicopter - Parker AerospaceIn the last decade, fuel tank inerting systems have transcended from a niche market of military aircraft into wide scale proliferation on commercial airliners. In fact, almost all commercial airliners have a fuel tank inerting system onboard, many of which include systems and components supplied by Parker Aerospace. These systems reduce the flammability risk inside the fuel tank by supplying an inert gas into the space above the liquid fuel. These systems rely on a source of pressurized air, typically engine bleed air, to provide the feed stock for the inert gas.  


As the airframers of commercial airliners move away from bleed air systems and toward more electric aircraft in the future, an opportunity is presented for a fuel tank inerting technology that does not rely on high pressure air. Moreover, this same inerting technology could be applied to other aircraft in which bleed air is in limited supply or unavailable altogether, such as military rotorcraft, small commercial transports, and business jets.


Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - Early Catalytic Inerting Model - Parker AerospaceThis opportunity is setting the stage for the next evolution in fuel tank inerting systems: catalytic inerting. In 2016, Parker Aerospace and Phyre Technologies, Inc. signed an exclusive agreement to develop Phyre’s patented ullage-recirculating catalytic inerting technology for aerospace applications. Since that time, Parker has been actively developing the system and its components for high performance, high durability, and low weight. Significant advancements have been made in the development of the catalytic reactor, condenser and other components. At the same time, Parker has grown its testing infrastructure and analytical capabilities to support a full-scale program.


Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - Air Separation Module- Parker AerospaceFuel tank inerting systems perform the critical function of reducing the flammability potential of the mixture of gases in the ullage space above the fuel in aircraft fuel tanks. Catalytic inerting advances fuel tank inerting technology beyond the current applications, in which inert nitrogen gas is generated from high-pressure engine bleed air inside of an air separation module (ASM). 


Read our previous blog post that discusses how catalytic inerting technology differs from today’s traditional ASM-based method.


The need for bleed

Most contemporary commercial airliners use engine bleed air for many purposes ranging from cabin pressurization and environmental control systems (ECS) to anti-icing, water and hydraulic system pressurization, and ASM-based fuel tank inerting. While an ASM-based inerting system uses far less bleed air than the ECS and anti-ice systems, the extraction of bleed air from the engine results in decreased engine efficiency. The larger engines of a typical commercial aircraft have the capacity to supply bleed air for these subsystems; but other aircraft types – helicopters, turboprop-powered transports, business jets, and newer more-electric aircraft – have less bleed air to spare.


Catalytic fuel tank inerting systems offer improved efficiency

A primary benefit offered by catalytic inerting technology is that it requires no engine bleed air. Circulation of ullage gas through the system and back to the fuel tank is provided by a low-power consumption electric blower.

Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - Circulation of Ullage Air- Parker Aerospace

The blowers and other electrically powered components in the closed-loop catalytic fuel inerting system call for only a modest amount of electricity. Although the electrical power required by the system is supplied by the engine generator, the relatively low power consumption of the catalytic inerting system results in less parasitic power loss to the engine than ASM inerting systems. This is a principal reason why catalytic inerting is ideally suited for aircraft applications where there is little or no engine bleed air available, especially rotary wing aircraft and more-electric commercial aircraft.


A big benefit for rotorcraft

The demanding missions that helicopters fly – whether military or commercial – require the aircraft to have available as much power as possible. By eliminating the need for engine bleed air to drive fuel tank inerting, catalytic systems directly support the need for greater range as well as higher payload and takeoff weight.

Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - Catalytic Unit with Fuel Tanks - Parker AerospaceA catalytic fuel inerting system is largely self-contained and can occupy a smaller envelope than its ASM-based counterpart. These features enable a catalytic inerting system to be neatly packaged as a line-replaceable unit (LRU) and facilitate ready integration within the airframes of both new helicopter platforms and existing ones. Furthermore, the general shape and positioning of helicopter fuel tanks enables close coupling of the catalytic inerting system with minimal external plumbing and structure.


The future of vertical lift fuel tank inerting

Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - FARA finalist concepts - Parker AerospaceAs part of its future vertical lift (FVL) modernization efforts, the United States Army is developing its Future Attack and Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) and Future Long-Range Assault Aircraft (FLRAA) programs, targeted to be operational before 2030. Parker’s catalytic fuel inerting systems is ideally suited to such applications.

 

“Our development program for catalytic fuel inerting systems is proving that the technology will be a viable option for future aircraft programs, especially vertical lift platforms. We are looking at all options to successfully bring this technology to the marketplace.”
— John Hayden, business development director, Parker Aerospace Fluid Systems Division (FSD)

 

Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - FLRAA finalist concepts - Parker AerospaceParker Aerospace engineers have been maturing catalytic fuel inerting by iteratively proving and improving the technology. The Parker team is working to reduce system complexity, increase component durability, and fine-tune the catalytic reactor for maximum performance and life - all while keeping a close eye on procurement and maintenance cost targets.

Stay tuned to the aerospace blog for updates to the Parker Aerospace vision of the future for aircraft fuel tank inerting systems.

 

Leading with purpose

After more than a century of experience serving our customers, Parker is often called to the table for the collaborations that help to solve the most complex engineering challenges. We help them bring their ideas to light. We are a trusted partner, working alongside our customers to enable technology breakthroughs that change the world for the better. 


Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - Follow Parker Aerospace on LinkedIn - Parker AerospaceFollow Parker Aerospace on LinkedIn and keep up with the latest products and technologies Parker is developing for flight control, hydraulic, fuel, fluid conveyance, lubrication, and pneumatic systems.
 

 

Catalytic Fuel Tank Inerting: Removing the Need for Engine Bleed Air - Brian Jensen - Parker AerospaceThis article contributed by Bryan Jensen, senior principal engineer, Parker Fluid Systems Division.

 

 

 

 

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