With an increased focus on strengthening United States military capabilities for the 21st century, Parker Aerospace takes pride in having a long history supporting the country’s defense endeavors around the world with flight-critical components. One of Parker’s most essential product lines for military aircraft is its aerial refueling equipment.
In-flight refueling couplers, nozzles, receptacles, and test kits from Parker Aerospace’s Fluid Systems Division represent today’s leading edge in design, performance, and durability.
The division produces two standard systems for aerial refueling:
• Boom nozzle and receptacle system
• Probe-and-drogue system
The boom nozzle and receptacle are the interface traditionally adapted for Air Force applications including strike aircraft, tankers and transports, while the probe-and-drogue are traditionally adapted for Navy/Marine strike aircraft and military trainers.
Staying on target non-stop
Aerial refueling is the process by which an aircraft is loaded with fuel mid-air while still in flight. The crucial operation allows military craft to fly prolonged maneuvers and reconnaissance missions. In some cases, our inflight refueling equipment has been incorporated into platforms derived from commercial aircraft. One noteworthy example is the Boeing 747-200 used for Air Force One.
Parker’s development of in-flight refueling equipment began more than 55 years ago with Lockheed Martin’s reconnaissance aircraft, the SR71 Blackbird (1964). Parker designed the aerial refueling receptacle for this historic aircraft. After advancing early variants of a universal aerial refueling receptacle slipway installation (UARRSI) for the development of the Rockwell B-1 Lancer and the Fairchild A-10 Thunderbolt, Parker’s expertise was again put to use on the refueling receptacle for another U.S. fighter jet. In those early days of evolving aerial refueling solutions, Parker augmented its knowledge base through the strategic acquisition of Schultz Tool and Manufacturing in 1971 a company that had designed receptacles for the F-111 Aardvark, the C-5 Galaxy, and the A-7 Corsair II.
In 1997, Parker again advanced its air-to-air offerings and necessary ground test equipment by acquiring the aerial refueling product line from XAR Industries in California. The company had previously provided aerial refueling product designs for Lockheed Martin’s F-16, F-117, and F-22 as well as Universal Aerial Refueling Receptacle (UARRSI) variants.
Building on the technologies and applications from Parker, Shultz and XAR, our teams developed a unique receptacle and slipway assembly for the B-2 program. Since this time, Parker has subsequently designed multiple derivatives of the UARRSI and application-specific receptacles for several programs including the F-22 and F-35 programs.
Utah Air National Guard members from the 191st Air Refueling Squadron execute an air refueling mission from a KC-135 Stratotanker. A B-2 Spirit from the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman AFB, Missouri participated during this training mission. Video by Staff Sgt. Erin Mills.
The multi-purpose UARRSI convenience and adaptability
In 1976, Parker introduced an improved universal aerial refueling receptacle slipway installation (UARRSI) which has proven to be Parker’s most versatile piece of aerial refueling equipment. UARRSI adapts to aircraft that require a nozzle and receptacle-type apparatus. The unit features a lighted slipway and voice command functionality to facilitate the fuel transferring process. UARRSIs are used on military aircraft including the Boeing C-17, McDonnell Douglas KC-10, the Airbus A330 MRTT, and the Boeing GTTA, P-8A, and the 737 AEW&C E-7 Wedgetail.
Parker’s aerial refueling ground test kits are used to evaluate at the aircraft or component levels, along with the voice inter-communication capability. This testing function allows engineers to assess specific status modes (connect and disconnect), as well as alignment and engagement states of the equipment. Parker’s product line conforms to original equipment manufacturing (OEM) specifications, U.S. military standards, and additional requirements developed by the Aerial Refueling Systems Advisory Group (ARSAG) and other like agencies.
The future of in-flight refueling technology is now taking off in innovative directions, with a renewed emphasis on safety and efficiency. Aerial refueling for helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is also an active field of development. As the technology evolves, customers may see updated offerings from Parker based on our extensive pedigree, and our always-advancing capabilities.
This blog was contributed by the engineering team from the Fluid Systems Division of Parker Aerospace.
A ParkerStore is many things to many people. To put it simply, it’s your go-to local source for system solutions, complete hydraulic services and expert advice on a wide range of quality Parker components and applications.
Right around the corner and all around the world, over 3,700 independently owned Industrial Retail™ locations are ready to help you. Your local store's knowledgeable staff has one goal: to improve your productivity and profitability by providing everything you need for your motion and control related applications in one place.Our retail experience
You will find your local ParkerStore is designed with retail aisles, making it easy to find and select products. Products are stocked in easy-to-access bins, so you can readily pick them up and compare them. Related products are grouped together, and market-specific or seasonal products are highlighted to make them easy to identify and evaluate. Fabrication workshops, most visible, allow you to watch your custom hose and/or tube being cut, crimped, cleaned and assembled. And, while you're waiting, enjoy a beverage and/or snacks at the hospitality station.Products
Your local ParkerStore provides a complete line of Parker hydraulic and pneumatic inventory including hydraulic hose, hydraulic fittings, air hose, chemical hose, water hose, tube fittings, stainless fittings, brass fittings, metric fittings, thermoplastic tubing, thermoplastic couplings, hydraulic filters, air filter regulator and lubricator products and more. Hose assemblies are custom made to your exact specifications and can be made quickly when you’re experiencing system and labor downtime.Services
Beyond reliable products; each location is operated by a distributor with a commitment to your local area. Knowledgeable associates can answer all your questions, provide tailored advice and 24-hour field services. Services include, but are not limited to:ParkerStore HOSE DOCTOR®
Some locations offer the ParkerStore HOSE DOCTOR service. A technician will come to you for onsite maintenance or emergency services. Each vehicle is equipped with the Parker components and tools needed to provide a hose replacement, troubleshoot a system issue and even perform preventative maintenance. Find out more.Fluid Analysis and Condition Monitoring Services
Dedicated to the overall health of your fluid systems, your local ParkerStore offers innovative services that cover system diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive needs. These comprehensive services will improve operational efficiency, productivity, and reliability. Read more about how an ounce of prevention could save you thousands.
Designed to ensure efficient and accurate repairs, your local ParkerStore offers you PTS. A Web-based application, PTS generates a unique identification code for each hose assembly which is printed on a durable barcode or RFID label. Fast and accurate product identification speeds up replacement regardless of where the original assembly was made. The hose assembly can be replaced with only the PTS ID number, eliminating the need to remove hoses prior to replacement - this can provide critical machine uptime and enable a more conveniently scheduled repair.ParkerStore Rental Program
Through the ParkerStore Rental Program, you can utilize specialty tools and equipment without having to buy them. It’s perfect for those tools or equipment you only use occasionally, can’t afford to purchase right away or just want to try before you make a significant investment.
Rental equipment includes (varies by ParkerStore):
Hydraulic hose crimpers
Tube fabrication equipment (benders, cut-off saws, tube flanging & flaring machines
Designed to make renting equipment easy; a ParkerStore representative will help you identify the best equipment for your job and provide the training necessary to use it.
And if all that wasn’t enough, you can get rewarded for visiting/shopping with the Rewards Plus loyalty program, available at participating ParkerStores across the United States. It’s easy to get started, plus it’s simple: no purchase necessary, the more you visit, the more punches you get, the more rewards available. Visit your local ParkerStore and ask to join their Rewards Plus Loyalty program today.
Post contributed by: MRO Authority - ParkerStore Team, Parker Hannifin
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With today's demands of increased industrial production and tighter emission controls, dust collectors can be pushed beyond their design limits. If they fail to keep up, production and profitability suffer.
Pleated filters and cartridges pack a lot of filtration surface into a small space. This results in narrow gas passages that get clogged by sticky dust. Optimizing pleat geometry to balance filtration area, gas velocities, and dust release is key to the Advanced Airflow Technology that keeps airflow passages free of dust accumulation in the new BHA® TotalPleat™ filters. Dust doesn’t get trapped!
It's in the design
Parker Hannifin engineers applied extensive computational fluid dynamics modeling during the research and design of TotalPleat™ to analyze the effects of the cleaning pulse as it strikes the filter’s top face. The cleaning pulse of the collector strikes the back half of the filter at an angle and typically is intended to flow unaided toward the front half. For more cleaning power, BHA® TotalPleat™ is designed with an inclined, louvered grid that deflects a portion of the cleaning pulse toward the front of the filter to evenly distribute it across the entire filter.
The Parker Hannifin BHA® TotalPleat™ aftermarket replacement filter is a cost-effective alternative to the PowerCore® filter pack for the Donaldson PowerCore® CP dust collector. Parker Hannifin’s proprietary MERV 15 TotalPleat™ filter provides significant advantages over the PowerCore® design; specifically, customers report longer filter life.
BHA® TotalPleat™ delivers long filter life. Learn for yourself with our handy infographic or download the white paper and Learn more about the engineering behind BHA TotalPleat.
TotalPleat™ was specifically developed to fit Donaldson PowerCore® CP dust collectors, part numbers P032358-016-340 and P280356-016-340. This new filter features an innovative design that minimizes pressure drop, provides meaningful energy savings and results in extended useful filter life.
This blog was contributed the Filtration Team, Parker Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division.
Powercore® is a registered trademark of Donaldson Company, Inc.
Nearly every equipment operator has found themselves operating in muddy, mucky conditions whether working on ditches, drainage fields, ponds or other waterlogged environments. Experienced operators know how these harsh conditions can cause wear and tear on their excavator's attachments, shortening the life of their equipment and resulting in costly downtime. For the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (Wisconsin DNR), PowerGrip is just the tool to overcome these job site obstacles. PowerGrip, a versatile, durable multi-purpose bucket with enclosed rotary actuator hinge technology, consistently delivers outstanding performance without suffering the downtime and maintenance issues experienced with cylinder-style buckets.A safer, reliable and durable alternative
Bill Ryan, operations team supervisor at the Wisconsin DNR, has witnessed the durability and reliability of PowerGrip in the field. His skilled team restores miles of fragile trout stream habitat in Wisconsin, which involves bringing back the natural features of the stream that is critical to trout viability such as riffles, pools, meanders and woody debris. The habitat around the stream also must be restored often requiring difficult bank sloping and vegetation removal and replacement. Over a year ago, Wisconsin DNR replaced a cylinder-style jaw bucket on their CAT 320C with a PowerGrip to alleviate the service and maintenance issues they were previously having with the cylinder-style jaw bucket. They also found PowerGrip to be a safer solution as there are fewer external moving parts that they need to contend with, resulting in greater productivity.
"We replaced our cylinder-style jaw bucket with a PowerGrip and couldn’t be happier. Due to the enclosed actuator hinge mechanism, we haven’t had to do anything with it, except complete the tasks on hand. PowerGrip has proved to be safer, more reliable and is extremely durable,”
Bill Ryan, operations team supervisorAn innovative operation design solution
The harsh conditions in and around the stream often wreak havoc on heavy equipment and attachments. PowerGrip is equipped with a durable, enclosed rotary actuator hinge that’s ideally suited for working in muddy, mucky conditions. With the rotary actuator hinge technology offering 120 degrees of jaw movement, there are no exposed cylinders and rods in the bucket shell or clam that can become polluted with debris, leading to attachment malfunctions. The rotating movement is generated by the massive rotating pivot point between the jaw and back of bucket with Parker’s Helac sliding spline operating technology, which converts linear piston motion into powerful shaft rotation. The end caps, seals and bearings work in unison to keep debris and contaminants out of the inner workings of the actuator, prolonging life and reducing required maintenance. High strength, abrasion resistant steel is used throughout for added durability. In over a year, Wisconsin DNR hasn’t had to do any maintenance to PowerGrip, allowing them to get more work done in less time.A versatile tool for multiple tasks
When dealing with the various obstacles inherent in restoring a trout stream, sloping a ditch or building a retention pond, it is imperative to have an adaptable multi-purpose tool that can change jobs on the fly. PowerGrip has been engineered with the flexibility to function as a trenching, grading or clamshell bucket and for gripping and loading. The inherent flexibility of our actuators allows the Wisconsin DNR to keep PowerGrip on their machine 80 to 85 percent of the time, year-round. PowerGrip’s versatility allows operators to accomplish a wide variety of tasks without having to change machines or attachments. When selecting the PowerGrip, the Wisconsin DNR went with the PG-08 product model that’s available for 20-ton machines. PowerGrip buckets are available in three sizes with bucket width ranges from 24 to 48 inches in the trenching profiles and 48 or 60 inches in ditching profiles.Time is precious
Whether you are doing demolition work, road construction, pond building, site-preparation or restoring miles of trout stream; every second counts. Maximizing productivity can prove to be much more than an organizational objective towards profitability, in the case of restoring a fraye trout stream ecosystem - it can prove to be the difference between survival and extinction. PowerGrip increases the tasks a single machine can perform, reducing the number of dedicated-task machines needed on a job site. PowerGrip can do everything a thumb can do, and more. And it’s ready-to-use, pin-on attachment that’s easier to install and operate. There’s no welding, fabrication or in-field measurement needed to install or remove the attachment, saving you valuable time and money.
Learn more about PowerGrip and the wide range of models for excavators and backhoes up to 45,000 pounds by visiting www.parker.com/cylinder
This article was contributed by Jessica Howisey, marketing communications manager and Daniel Morgado, applications engineer, Helac Business Unit, Cylinder Division.
Forklift and various material handling lift truck variations are confronting design teams with a number of challenges that are transforming major industrial markets worldwide. When reviewing components the engineering teams need to take into account the scalability of individual components which is critical to cost-effective production. Other challenges include:
Efficiently moving freight
Productivity increases due to user-friendly IoT and telematics
Electrification and alternative fuels
Parker offers the next generation of components and systems that can deliver on these needs including:
Regional manufacturing locations to reduce freight costs and facilitate speedy delivery
Deep knowledge and experience with regulatory standards worldwide
Component identification tagging to ensure accurate and prompt component replacements
An engineering team well-acquainted with the trends driving the forklift industry and capable of partnering with in-house design teams to provide truly customized solutions
Review this handy infographic to keep our safety and maintenance solutions for your forklift truck design top of mind.
Learn more at our Forklift product sector solutions page
Hose, Fittings, and Connectors Over-the-Sheave Hose
Parker's over-the-sheave hoses are designed to withstand the strains of continual flexing over sheaves. Installing a hose with superior abrasion resistance will extend the life of hoses in the application.
Seal-LokTM O-Ring Face Seal
Parker's Seal-Lok O-Ring Face Seal offers a leak-free seal fitting design and rugged construction to make it optimal for use in situations with high-pressure, vibration, and impulse environments.
FEM Series ISO 16028 Non-Spill Coupling
Parker's non-spill quick couplers and nipples are ideal for use across a variety of hydraulic applications where fluid lines require fast and easy connection and disconnection with minimal spillage and limited air inclusion.
The MA180 is a closed center load sense valve developed specifically for the material handling market. The valve is economically designed using a two-section mono-block with stackable auxiliary sections.
500H Series Aluminum Pump
The 500H Series Pump is two-quadrant technology, enabling it to operate as a pump and a motor too in the energy recovery phase typical of new generation forklifts.
Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Inverter
High power Permanent Magnet AC motors (PMAC) offer the best solution to meet the requirements of vehicle duty performance. The high power density and speed capabilities of Parker GVM motors combined with a voltage-matched inverter provide the speed and torque required to achieve breakthrough performance in a variety of vehicle platforms.
Spin-On filter technology provides users with reliable performance in a lightweight, compact, and cost-effective package. These solutions provide protection to critical system components in a variety of low-pressure applications.
Spin-on easily serviceable filter
10 bar operating pressure
Tactile Feedback Device (TFD)
Our diverse portfolio of TFD steering units is used to satisfy a variety of customer requirements. Our portfolio includes devices capable of producing resistive steering torque ranging from 5Nm to 20Nm.
Programmable steering controller
Magnetically Responsive (MR) technology
Displays and Sensors PHD50 Display Module
The PHD display family is focused on mobile machinery markets with full color, touch-capable screens. The PHD50 can both be used as operator interfaces in base machines, providing engine and system information plus backup video camera functionality.
The ADS50 is a 0-5V output, non-contact, analog sensor for mobile hydraulic applications. The sensor is lever-actuated and provides a linear output over 25 mm (1.0 inch) of travel.
Article contributed by our Fluid Gas Handling Team
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For mobile machinery commonly used in the construction, agriculture, mining and forestry industries to work efficiently and safely, maintaining strong connections to the various equipment attachments is paramount. There simply isn’t time for productivity or connectivity problems on a job site where every minute matters.
Hard working excavators, tunnel boring, mining, oil field and forestry equipment typically use a variety of tool attachments that allow them to perform a variety of tasks, all necessary to get the job done quickly and safely. Some of these attachments require multiple connections to the hydraulic lines, depending on their individual function, like digging, scraping, scooping, grabbing, lifting, cutting or other movements.
At the job site, equipment tool attachments might be changed out several times in the process it takes to complete a project. Having the ability to quickly and efficiently swap out attachments saves the machine operator time and effort while also minimizing downtime.
Non-spill couplings for equipment attachments are key in a diverse range of markets like construction, agriculture, forestry and mining. From skid steers and excavators to feller bunchers and loaders to drill rigs, non-spill couplings enhance performance and safety in an environmentally responsible way.Discovering the value of non-spill couplings
These industries are discovering that non-spill couplings reduce hydraulic system breakdowns caused by dirt and other contamination that’s common in harsh working environments.
Parker’s non-spill couplings virtually eliminate hydraulic fluid loss that can happen during disconnection, reduce the risk of contaminating ground and water and decrease exposure of equipment operators and maintenance personnel to potentially dangerous chemicals. These non-spill couplings also minimize the risk of introducing contaminants in the hydraulic fluid.
Our non-spill couplings utilize flush face valves as part of the technology to reduce leaks in demanding conditions in the construction, agriculture, mining and forestry markets where hydraulic lines are subjected to the stress of high-pressure impulses. With several non-spill coupling options, we also offer screw-to-connect couplings providing a secure connection that is resistant to loosening or disconnection caused by vibration.
Here is a summary of how our couplings benefit the various applications that rely on mobile equipment to get the job done efficiently and safely.Agriculture
We understand the needs of farmers to simplify installation and equipment service. Our coupling solutions enable farmers to improve efficiency, reduce operating costs, meet durability and safety needs and comply with industry regulations, so they can focus on their critical role in society.
Our quick connect couplings are designed with farmers in mind, providing solutions that are robust and performance-tested to keep up with the high degree of use needed on the farm.
With the widest selection of couplings on the market, we offer a wide range of quick couplings for almost every farming application. With extensive knowledge of the hydraulic and pneumatic needs of agricultural equipment and machines, Parker leads the globe in coupling technology and innovation.Forestry
We offer heavy duty quick couplings for all forestry applications, from heavy mobile equipment to small hand tools. These couplings allow the hydraulic lines between the equipment and the tool attachments to be quickly disconnected and reconnected without extensive downtime.
Our non-spill couplings can be used on feller-bunchers, forwarders and loaders equipment, including brush cutters, mulchers and log-splitters. Quick couplers for excavators and other heavy-duty equipment save time and improve efficiency by allowing operators to quickly and easily disconnect and reconnect hydraulic lines when switching out the tools or attachments.Construction
Our non-spill couplings work well for skid steer attachments and compact tractors’ diggers, buckets and backhoes used in construction. Quick connect couplers allow loaders to use multiple attachments on a job site and allow users easily switch between attachments.
Loader attachments can be used on wheel loaders, tool carriers, telehandlers, skid steer and compact track loaders, and backhoe loaders. Hydraulic couplings can be used from within the cab, adding a safety benefit.Mining
Whether it’s long haul, surface mining, or continuous mining (coal), controlling operating costs and maximizing performance and longevity under harsh conditions is an increasing challenge for the mining industry. Our quick couplings consistently deliver value and performance and increasingly flexible solutions for mining applications. No one knows surface or underground mining like our staff of innovative application and design engineers.
For equipment that works outside, specifying and installing non-spill couplings for equipment attachments is insurance against downtime and key in preventing the accidental introduction of toxic chemicals that can cause harm to the environment and cost a lot in cleanup time and money.Cost of spills and contamination
Hydraulic fluid spills and contamination are a top priority for all these markets. The introduction of toxic, flammable material to the ground and water can cause harm to wildlife, fish, plants and drinking water. Spills often result in restricted work activities while job sites’ cleanup is complete.
The cost of fines and penalties, manpower, fuel, special equipment and the removal and containment of contaminated materials adds up to millions of dollars for individual companies and billions of dollars around the world.
Parker engineers have developed a deep understanding of the value of non-spill couplings for equipment attachments and designed products that pay off big time in the fight to keep the environment clean, people safe and equipment in tip-top operating condition.
The risk of wear-and-tear harm to equipment is greatly increased when contamination enters hydraulic systems. Known as “ingressed contamination,” dirt and water can enter a hydraulic system when a hose is disconnected or fluid is filled. Dirt can cause wear of hydraulic pump impellers, shafts, pistons and cylinders. Water can cause corrosion, dilute and alter the hydraulic fluid itself and lead to friction that creates damaging heat resulting in equipment failure and even fire.
Pump repairs and replacement are costly and waste time on the job where equipment uptime translates into more productivity and thus profitability.Working hard in tough environments
Because they are employed in outdoor applications that present a wide range of conditions from weather and terrain to dust and water and extremes in heat and cold, workhorses such as skid steers, tractors, snow plows, backhoes and other equipment often require servicing in challenging situations.
Non-spill couplings for equipment attachments have proved to be invaluable. Our high-end products feature corrosion-resistant zinc-nickel plating on push-to-connect couplings that can be connected or disconnected with one hand. Attachment and detachment are quick and easy. No tools are required.
The locking mechanism and critical sealing areas are protected by flush-face valving. Non-spill couplings for equipment attachments’ connections between hoses, pumps and pistons remain cleaner. They are easily cleaned should debris accumulate.Slim design, heavy-duty durability
Non-spill couplings from Parker’s Quick Couplings Division feature a slim design and profiles with a 90-degree option that allows for connection in tight spaces. The 90-degree couplings eliminate the need for additional fittings and reduce the number of potential leak points. They also present great safety advantages for operators and maintenance personnel as they can be connected and disconnected within an arm’s reach and require no tools.
Learn more about the features, benefits and impact of Parker's non-spill quick connect couplings.
Contributed by Lori Aus, senior product sales manager, Quick Coupling Division, Parker HannifinRecent Related Posts
Parker Chomerics has recently released THERM-A-GAP™ GEL 75, a 7.5 W/m-K thermal conductivity, single-component, dispensable thermal interface material. THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 is the latest from the THERM-A-GAP family of dispensable thermal materials from Parker Chomerics to be released to the market.
When applied to a heat generating component, THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 provides minimal stress and pressure due to its low compression force. It is form stable in horizontal or vertical applications and allows for lower assembly costs when compared to multiple thermal gap pads in higher volume applications.3x faster flow rate, highest thermal conductivity
THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 represents the highest thermal conductivity dispensable available from Parker Chomerics. With a flow rate of 30 grams per second, it is nearly 3x faster than the next closest performing material in the THERM-A-GAP family.
The gel-like consistency enables superior performance and long-term thermal stability and is designed to be dispensed in applications requiring low compressive forces and minimal thermal resistance for maximal thermal performance.Superior, reliable performance in the field
Parker Chomerics has conducted a detailed examination of the thermal reliability of this high-performance gap filler after being subjected to long-term environmental aging under dry heat, heat and humidity conditions, and temperature cycling from -40°C to 125°C.
The thermal performance of THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 was examined, and the findings were reported in the THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 Reliability Report TR1104. After being subjected to multiple environmental stress tests, the thermal impedance of the aged samples did not experience a significant increase after any of the treatments studied.
After a 1,000-hour dwell at 125°C, 1,000 hours at 85°C/85% relative humidity, and 1,000 temperature cycles from -40°C to 125°C, there was no statistically significant increase in impedance according to one-way ANOVA with the Tukey method for multiple comparisons.NASA outgassing results
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) criteria for low-volatility materials limits the total mass loss (TML) to 1.0% and collected volatile condensable material (CVCM) to 0.10%. Outgassing results for GEL 75 are 0.18% TML and 0.05% CVCM. Independent laboratory results indicate THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 passes the NASA outgassing criteria for low-volatility material.
Based on these results, THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 demonstrates the ability to withstand long-term aging without a reduction in thermal performance. THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 is best suited for high volume, automated production, specifically found in telecommunication applications, base stations, power supplies, and memory and power modules.
Learn more about THERM-A-GAP GEL 75 and receive a free product sample.
This blog post was contributed by Jarrod Cohen, marketing communications for Parker Chomerics.
In the Oil & Gas industry, the need for elastomers to seal higher pressures for sustained periods of time with minimal damage is abounding. Applications such as drilling tools, completions equipment, blow out preventers, and subsea pressure control systems now routinely require or exceed 15,000 psi with both liquid and gas media for functional testing and qualification. Parker meets this challenge, providing a best-in-class extrusion and rapid gas decompression resistant hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR) compound called KB292.Background
One of the most common failure modes for seals utilized in high pressure applications is known as extrusion or nibbling. This failure method emerges when the seal material is forced into a clearance gap that is present between the mating substrates and gradually can be cut, nicked, or chewed away. Typical applications which can see this transpire include dynamic reciprocating cylinders and/or vessels where pressure fluctuations cause clearance gap to open and close trapping the seal between mating surfaces. The higher the pressure or the larger the clearance gap that is present, the more likely extrusion or nibbling is to occur. Once a mass of the material is removed from the seal geometry it is inevitable that a leak will eventually form which normally results in failure of the system. Section 10 of the Parker O-Ring Handbook highlights extrusion and nibbling as well as includes several suggestions for prevention.
Another failure mode which can be seen for high pressure gaseous applications is known as Rapid Gas Decompression (RGD), also referred to as Explosive Decompression (ED). This damage arises after a period of service under high pressure gas, when pressure is reduced too rapidly, the gas trapped within the internal structure of the seal expands rapidly, causing small ruptures or fissures to develop. There are many Oil and Gas industry standard tests which have been developed to determine whether compounds are RGD resistant. Parker routinely tests and acquires certificates for these standards which can be supplied upon request for end user documentation. Our Oil & Gas Reference Guide outlines our numerous materials, temperature ranges, recommended uses, and a list of approved certifications by material.
To combat seal damage and the typical failures in high pressure applications, Parker has developed material KB292. This hydrogenated nitrile (HNBR) based material has been formulated with physical properties which allow it to withstand exposure to the highest-pressure environments with extreme extrusion resistance. With hardness of 95 +/- 5 Shore A points, KB292 is one of the hardest elastomers in the Parker OES material offering. The extreme extrusion resistance is also identified with a modulus value of 2500psi at 50% elongation as well as excellent abrasion and tear resistance. The material offers good compression set and chemical resistance that is expected from all Parker HNBR’s used in the O&G industry. Additionally, Parker's KB292 has been tested to and passes the requirements of ISO 23936-2 RGD which shows excellent resistance to explosive decompression for high pressure gas applications.
Nathaniel Sowder, business development engineer, Parker Hannifin O-Ring & Engineered Seals Division
The increased reliance on renewable forms of energy makes it more important than ever to identify energy sources that can efficiently supplement the variable output and available peak load capacities of such renewable sources like wind and solar power generation. Of the various options, reciprocating internal combustion engines are an ideal choice because they represent a decentralized, flexible, and reliable source for power generation. Reciprocating engines represent one of the more mature technologies used for power generation and play a critical role in numerous other industrial, commercial, and institutional applications. Originally developed in the 19th century, the most significant improvements occurred in the past three decades, driven by economic and environmental pressures for power density improvements (more output per unit of engine displacement), increased fuel efficiency, and reduced emissions.
Reciprocating engines have proven especially beneficial in producing peaking power to supplement renewable sources, such as wind and solar energy, during high demand periods. In today’s dynamic energy industry, there is a greater need for flexible, efficient electricity generation. No longer can we predict peak demand patterns. As wind and solar energy sources achieve greater market penetration, their intermittent energy supplies present challenges to operators trying to balance loads and maintain frequencies.
Download our white paper Reciprocating Engines: A Mature Technology that Is Proving Especially Relevant in Today’s Energy Environment to learn why reciprocating engines are the optimal peak power producers and best practices for maintaining performance.
Critical attributes for power generation
Reciprocating engine plants are well suited for flexible peaking and intermediate generation needs in the 20-300 MW output range. They offer competitive heat rates and multi-shaft reliability to compete in energy markets, plus industry-leading ramp rates and startup times to compete in ancillary services markets. These are critical attributes since these engines when powered by diesel fuel, are increasingly being used for emergency standby or limited duty-cycle service because of tighter emission standards and the relatively higher cost of fuel. Dual-fuel and gas-fueled reciprocating engines represent the engines of choice for the higher duty cycle stationary power market.
Ongoing improvements in efficiency, cost, emissions reduction, and usage of advanced fuel and/or hydrogen will ensure that reciprocating engines continue to remain viable and competitive with newer technologies such as fuel cells and microturbines in the distributed generation market. Their increased usage is also a result of newer configurations, involving the installation of multiple large engines, which make them competitive even in power generation applications of 200 MW or more.
Reaping the rewards of a preferred intermittent power source
There are several reasons why reciprocating engines are the ideal peak power producers, including:
Reliability- When operated and maintained according to manufacturer recommendations, modern reciprocating engines commonly exhibit availability factors of 95% or better.
Quick response- Reciprocating engines can start-up and ramp load more quickly than most gas turbines.
Efficiency- Reciprocating engines are very efficient, especially when incorporated into combined heat and power schemes (CHP) over a wide range of loads.
Versatility- These units can adapt to many industries and can be run on a variety of liquid and gaseous fuels, biofuels, and biogases, as well as carbon-neutral synthetic fuels.
Low water usage- Power plants using internal combustion engines tend to require significantly less water than similarly sized combined-cycle or simple-cycle natural gas turbine plants, resulting in cost savings.
Despite all their benefits, reciprocating engines are not without their disadvantages. Work is ongoing to help overcome specific challenges regarding environmental impact and efficiency. Reciprocating engines have improved significantly over the last two decades in terms of increased efficiency and reduced emissions. Electronic engine control and improved combustion chamber design, including the use of pre-combustion chambers, allow engines to operate on leaner fuel mixtures. Improvements in materials and design have allowed engines to operate at higher speeds and power densities while still maintaining long life.
“The primary challenge today is being environmentally friendly. Reciprocating engine manufacturers are being asked by customers and regulations to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and hydrogen.”
Jeff Pappalardo, market development manager for gas turbines and reciprocating engines, Parker Hannifin
Although natural gas burns much cleaner than diesel, it is not a 100% clean option. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs – unburned, non-methane hydrocarbons) are the primary environmental concerns with reciprocating engines operating on natural gas.
Noise pollution is another concern with reciprocating engines because they generate more noise than turbines. With newer environmental regulations addressing the problem of noise pollution, there is more focus by manufacturers and engineers to change and enhance designs so as to minimize noise.
Although reciprocating engines have a comparatively high reliability rate, regulations and competitive pressures are driving engine manufacturers to continue performance and efficiency improvements.
Adjusting for changing loads
Weather conditions and times of day influence the amount of renewable power generation being fed to the grids. An ongoing challenge is that most existing thermal plants are designed for continuous high loads. This contrasts with the fact that reciprocating engines today are more often providing stand-by or intermittent power, which results in highly fluctuating load requirements. Although reciprocating engines can start up and reach full load capacity quickly and can withstand dramatic changes in load with many starts and stops, that is not to say such less-than-ideal situations don’t take their toll on equipment performance and service life.
Maintaining performance and efficiency
As is the case with most engines, a reciprocating engine is only as good as its maintenance. Engines need to be regularly inspected and maintained to keep peak performance. This is especially true given the demanding, corrosive environments in which most reciprocating engines operate.
Corrosion can affect an array of components so the use of advanced materials is important for those engines used in corrosive environments. Proper sealing is critical because leaks will shorten part lives and reduce engine efficiency. For example, if leaks occur in the combustion system, fuel flooding can occur thus damaging the piston rings. This will greatly reduce the combustion efficiency of the engine.
There are several preventative actions that should be taken to ensure that internal combustion engines are running at peak performance and not subject to added wear and tear. Ongoing monitoring will improve performance, reduce maintenance costs, and avoid unexpected failures, all of which lead to greater reliability, more efficient operations, and reduced fuel consumption and emissions. Unplanned outages are expensive, giving rise to the increased focus on predictive maintenance programs.
Understanding how you can make the most of new technologies
Reciprocating engine manufacturers continue to develop technologies that enable engines to operate with more fuel flexibility, allowing the engines to run on traditional fossil fuels, natural gas, and hydrogen. That’s good news, but it also means that users need to fully understand the increased component requirements that accompany these advanced technologies.
Download our white paper Reciprocating Engines: A Mature Technology that Is Proving Especially Relevant in Today’s Energy Environment to ensure your power generation plant is realizing the full potential of the latest reciprocating engine technologies and real-time system monitoring.
Article contributed by Jeff Pappalardo, market development manager
Engin Cekic, global account manager, power generation reciprocating engines
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Using a frameless kit motor can have huge appeal for engineers working on e-mobility drivetrain programs who are often seeking greater design flexibility in ways that allow them to reduce the vehicle size and weight.What is a GVK?
Designated as the Global Vehicle Kit (GVK) motor range, the ‘kit’ form of Parker's Global Vehicle Motors (GVM) including only the active magnetic parts of the GVM motor. With the scalable nature of the GVM product family, we can provide solutions from 3kw continuous to 225kw continuous at voltages up to 800VDC
Assembled into the vehicle sub-component by integrating only the active magnetics, and patented cooling, it can simplify mechanical, electrical and cooling interfaces. This reduces space claim, number of parts and failure modes.
Frameless kit motors guarantee the same performance as standard GVM motors and can be the ideal solution for high-volume vehicle sub-components that require high performance in small spaces.
The frameless approach offers many advantages over traditional technologies, thanks to a more seamless mechanical and electrical adaptation to the application requirements. This can lead to a highly efficient and dynamic design. It can, for instance, offer some real benefits in terms of compact sizing, allowing integration in the same space with the gearbox. There are also weight and complexity reduction advantages that are achieved by eliminating the motor frame as well.Parker GVM310250 225kw continuous full motor assembly When to use GVK?
“Kit” or frameless motors are the ideal solution to meet light weighting objectives, especially for high-volume applications. Examples include integration into drive train assemblies like transmissions, axles, for truck, bus, construction and mining vehicles. Kit motors are also great solutions for smaller autonomous vehicles used in warehouses and last-mile delivery vehicles
Light weighting is an important design process used by automotive engineers that is especially important to employ in all on-highway and off-highway hybrid and electric vehicles to increase range, performance, productivity and reliability, while reducing space and weight.
Once the OEM chooses the specific solution the more integrated nature of the design means it is easier to mount the motor, and more compact than using equivalent fully housed motors. The reduction in the number of components used means they can deliver lower overall design costs.
GVK is a flexible design solution, leveraging our proven high-power density, high efficiency magnetic and cooling designs, flexible manufacturing processes, that will reduce design risk and time to market.Conclusion
Crucially, Parker works closely with customers to ensure that the right PMAC motor is selected for a specific application’s needs. This collaborative approach involves taking an informed view from the outset on how the main elements – the stator and rotor – can be seamlessly integrated into the broader vehicle platform.
This solution offers inherent advantages for the end-user, just like the GVM, that include reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions, quieter operation and a downsizing of the power system.
Overall, direct drive motion construction gives equipment designers the advantages of lower costs, increased reliability and better performing vehicle that is closely aligned to the specific needs of the greener vehicles of tomorrow.
Do you have a project in mind? Reach to our team to discuss your project feasibility and learn more about what is inside the motor.
Article contributed by Giulia Seri, product manager - electric motors, Electric Motion & Pneumatic Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
and by Eric Hendrickson, business development manager - vehicle electrification, Hydraulic Pump and Power Systems Division NA, Parker Hannifin Corporation