Electrification remains one of the primary trends in the automotive sector, as vehicle makers push hard to introduce cleaner technologies which result in lower emissions.
According to a recent report from global professional services company PwC, over 55% of all new car sales could be fully electrified by 2030. Cars of the future will be electrified, autonomous, shared, connected and yearly updated, it says, in what represents a new era of flexible mobility.
This trend towards electrification isn’t restricted to the passenger car market. Construction and mining vehicles, city buses and refuse trucks have all been developed with hybrid electric powertrains, as authorities look to reduce pollution by introducing more stringent environmental regulations.
But technological progression doesn’t come overnight. The shift to electrification needs to be viewed as an evolution rather than a revolution, delivered through the continued refinement of a broad range of on-board systems and components. These incremental achievements allow the industry to manufacture greener vehicles without having to compromise in areas such as performance and reliability.A high-power density motor for traction applications
Here at Parker, our global teams of scientists and engineers are supporting these environmental efforts, designing and developing new systems that accelerate the pace of electrification. For instance, we recently extended our Global Vehicle Motor family of high-power density, permanent magnet AC motors with the GVM310, which comes with a 310mm square frame. This new product provides a traction solution for a broad range of on-road and off-road commercial electric and hybrid electric vehicles.
So, let’s look at some of the benefits that GVM310 brings to the market. Primarily, when used in conjunction with Parker’s hydraulic pumps, the GVM family helps customers realise electro-hydraulic pump solutions that allow the electrification of formerly purely hydraulic applications.Higher performance motors for your electric or hybrid vehicles
The high efficiency / lower energy consumption of the motor helps vehicle makers comply with stringent emerging energy legislation. It reduces CO2 footprints, is extremely quiet, and its high reliability results in reduced maintenance and downtime for operators. Options with peak power values ranging from 147 kW to 409 kW are available – with high power density meaning the size and weight of overall solutions can be minimised easing design-in for customers.
In addition to operating as a high-power motor, the GVM310 can also be run as a generator enabling effective battery management, longer duty cycles and energy savings of up to 30% compared to induction technologies. Availability as low-flux versions for high-speed applications, or high-flux derivatives for high torque applications enhances versatility.
Furthermore, the GVM family incorporates a wide range of technical features that improve performance. These include a new thinner lamination design to reduce losses, a patented cooling system and a clean, oil-free design.
The introduction of the GVM310 is an example of how Parker is providing the building blocks for electrification, developing turnkey technologies that cut time to market while reducing supply chain complexity. It offers the industry with an optimized solution for the on-road and off-road commercial electric and hybrid electric vehicles of tomorrow.
Article contributed by Bruno Jouffrey, market development manager - Mobile, Electromechanical and Drives Division Europe, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
Connectors might not always receive the attention they deserve. Often times the specification of fittings and tubing is secondary to the attention paid to larger components. Design engineers may not anticipate system leaks. Even if pneumatic fittings and tubing are the last components to be specified in typical food and beverage packaging equipment, they still merit close consideration. Improperly specified connectors contribute to early component deterioration causing leaky connections and even pressure drop. Properly specified fittings and tubing will help to ensure that food and beverage packaging systems perform at levels end-users expect.
In the food and beverage industry, there are a number of packaging processes driven by pneumatic power carried through tubing and fittings that connect pneumatic valves, actuators and FRLs (filters, regulators, lubricators). The components may power any number of processes, such as the filling and sealing of bags of tortilla chips; the folding, filling and sealing of milk cartons; or the packaging of hamburgers and steaks. Regardless of the application, when pneumatic connections aren’t specified correctly, systems can end up with untimely air leaks and pressure drops.
To reduce the chance of leaks and flow restrictions, here are some tips for specifying, plumbing and routing pneumatic connections in food and beverage packaging builds:
1. Select fittings carefully based on each application
While most pneumatically controlled food and beverage processes use push-to-connect fittings over other styles, such as compression and flare, push-to-connect fittings also come in different materials for specific reasons. There are higher-end FDA-compliant fittings, such as Parker’s Prestolok PLM electroless nickel-plated brass fittings and Prestolok PLS stainless steel fittings, made for applications where the fittings may come in contact with foods and beverages.
For processes where foods and beverages don’t come in contact with fittings, such as secondary packaging operations, OEMs can opt for more economical push-to-connect fittings, such as Prestolok PLP metal fittings and Prestolok PLP composite fittings.
Fitting material type becomes important for applications that receive high heat or caustic washdowns, which could quickly compromise fitting integrity depending on the material.
Say the fittings will be installed throughout a dairy filling application where they will receive frequent and potentially caustic washdowns. In this case, Michael points out, all-stainless steel fittings are made to withstand these harsh conditions and keep processes leak-free and running. That’s in contrast to a tortilla chip packaging process, where the fittings might come in contact with foods, but don’t receive frequent caustic washdowns. Here, OEMs might choose Parker’s FDA-compliant PLM fittings. General industrial-purpose fittings, meanwhile, are likely to fit the bill for fittings mounted on automated box folding machines erecting outer packaging containers.
2. Select the fittings and tubing based on how they will be routed
Fittings come in many configurations that allow for effective routing of pneumatic connections. In many food packaging applications, OEMs mount valve manifolds and actuators on machines and then determine what fitting configurations will work best for connecting those ports. It is the last piece of the puzzle and where a design engineer decides to use, for example, an elbow fitting instead of straight or tee fitting. It’s all dependent on where the line is going to be installed in relation to the pneumatic components.
Routing questions also arise in situations calling for tubing to take a tight bend, leading machinery designers to weigh the benefits of using fittings instead of tubing to accommodate the turns. Often a complex decision, this can depend on the tubing material too, as using tubing with a high bend radius can allow for more turns, but also might put side-load on fittings.
If tubing is bent too close to the fitting, it could pull the tubing away from the fitting seal, creating the potential for a leak.
Another factor is the tubing diameter tolerance, or how much its outer diameter could vary from one manufacturing run to another. Tubing manufactured to a looser tolerance level could cause fit issues allowing fittings to leak or to blow off of tubing.
Parker tubing and fittings are tested and designed to work together. Parker Parflex tubing holds the tubing to a certain tolerance range, which helps in terms of fitting performance because tubing tolerance is so critical to working well with a push-to-connect fitting.
Customers should reference Parker’s Tubing Compatibility Chart (found in Parker Hannifin catalog 3501E) to be sure they choose the proper tubing for each fitting type.
3. Avoid unnecessary fitting connections
Finally, another problem area is extra fitting connections installed where they don’t belong. Every fitting is a potential leak point, so if the number of connections can be reduced so to can the chance of leaks. Each fitting in a pneumatic circuit also adds a flow restriction, as compressed air is forced to move through another orifice, which can hamper motive power.
One of the more common issues is using multiple fittings in place of one or two, as a way to adapt one fitting or tube type to another. It can happen when the OEM or end-user doesn’t have the proper fitting shape or type on hand to adapt to a certain thread system or port size required by the valve or cylinder. While the adaptation may function, it can also restrict airflow and add the potential for leakage.
OEMs can avoid the problem entirely by choosing the appropriate adapter. Parker offers hundreds of tube fittings and adaptors made to join different tube sizes and thread types, such as NPT to BSPT, BSPP or metric. Rather than trying to build a makeshift adapter out of two or three pneumatic fittings, using a single adapter fitting allows technicians or engineers to make the connection in one step, preventing unnecessary flow restrictions and reducing the risk of leakage.
With these suggestions, many connector issues like adapting to different sizes or standards, or accommodating system designs, need not lead to system slowdowns. With the right pneumatic fittings, adaptors and tubing materials, OEMs and end-users will be equipped to keep airlines flowing.
To learn more about specifying these components, locate a distributor near you.
This article was contributed by John Duba and Michael Nick, product sales managers, Parker Hannifin's Fluid System Connectors Division.
Glenn O. Hawbaker, Inc. brings over 60 years of experience to the highway, commercial and residential fields throughout central Pennsylvania. They continue to grow their business by expanding their reputation for safety, quality, service and reliability. That's one of the reasons Glenn O. Hawbaker purchased their first PowerTilt Tilting Coupler and continued to purchase several more for their entire backhoe loader fleet. PowerTilt has changed the way they've approached their grading and excavating business while at the same time positively impacting their bottom line and overall customer satisfaction.Life before PowerTilt
Prior to using PowerTilt, Glenn O. Hawbaker faced two challenges on the job site. Genn O. Hawbaker was using large and expensive Gradall specialty machines to grade and slope and spent extra man-hours to swap these machines in and out of job sites.The large rubber tires on the specialty machines often caused the Gradalls to slide or operators to spin around when a rock was hooked, making for an unstable work environment. With PowerTilt, Hawbaker could keep just one machine on the job site without the expense or logistics involved in scheduling the Gradall excavators between the different job sites.
The Hawbaker crew was also having difficulty with the outriggers on their specialty excavator and backhoe fleet - they had to take their hands off of the controls to tilt the outriggers and move the machine at different angles around the job site. When the outriggers were tilted at an awkward angle, the operators felt uncomfortable and unsafe. When they added the PowerTilts to their existing CASE backhoes, they kept just one machine on the job site to tilt their bucket or attachment instead of moving the entire machine to get the right angle.
“Now with PowerTilt, we’re doing everything on the fly - we tilt and grade at the same time."
Paul Peters, backhoe operator for Glenn O. HawbakerMultiple benefits from a single attachment
By switching to PowerTilt, Glenn O. Hawbaker and its customers received a wide range of expected and unexpected benefits.
“We saved on labor, got tasks done faster and safer, and increased the appearance of the end product. What's more, we had the unexpected benefit of people asking us what tool we were using, and how we were getting more work done with less hand work," stated Peters.
The benefits of switching to PowerTilt were:
Glenn O. Hawbaker uses their PowerTilts on their entire fleet of backhoes to perform a wide range of tasks throughout the construction process, ranging from site preparation, earth excavation, sub-grade placement and grading, utility installation, site concrete, site clean-up and landscaping. Ninety-five percent of the time they use a grading bucket with PowerTilt, whereas five percent of the time they use other attachments.
Peters stated, "I hate to take a PowerTilt off the machine. I can perform a broad range of tasks with a PowerTilt, and it keeps me on the job all the time”.
The most common applications for PowerTilt include:
Glenn O. Hawbaker uses PowerTilt with a variety of attachments in addition to their commonly used five-foot grading buckets to improve their machine's versatility. They first learned about PowerTilt when they noticed a local municipality using a T bucket to dig around pipes. Since then, the Hawbaker crew has used PowerTilt for a variety of specialty applications.
They have used PowerTilt with ripper shanks to rip frozen soil in the winter, or to rip rocks and stumps in tough-to-get corners or ditches. Compactors work equally well with PowerTilt when soil needs to be compressed around utilities or on slopes. PowerTilt has even worked well with hydraulic hammers when they needed to dig footers where there's lots of lime stone in the foundation corners.Inside Parker’s Helac rotary actuator technology
PowerTilt uses Parker’s innovative sliding-spline operating technology to convert linear piston motion into powerful shaft rotation. Each actuator is composed of a housing and two moving parts — the central shaft and piston. As hydraulic pressure is applied, the piston is displaced axially, while the helical gearing on the piston OD and housing's ring gear cause the simultaneous rotation of the piston. PowerTilt's end caps, seals and bearings all work in tandem to keep debris and other contaminants out of the inner workings of the actuator, prolonging product life and reducing required maintenance.
To learn more about PowerTilt, visit http://solutions.parker.com/powertilt
This article was contributed by Jessica Howisey, marketing communications manager and Daniel Morgado, applications engineer, Helac Business Unit, Cylinder Division.
While this may look like any car ferry carrying people and vehicles in an estuary on the Norwegian coast, this 80-meter ship, called MV Ampere, had one of the world's first fully powered electric maritime architectures, with virtually zero greenhouse gas emissions and quiet operation for clean transportation.
Launched by Norled Shipping Company in 2015, Ampere represented the beginning of an important trend in hybridization and electrification in the marine industry. Since then, many forward-thinking operators of fishing boats such as trawler, fish farming boat, tugboat and steamer with cars have embraced the new wave represented by green energy and propulsion systems. Since these types of vessels spend most of their time working close to the shore, they are subject to strict legal regulations to reduce harmful air emissions.
World's first all-electric car and passenger ferry
Norwegian ferry the MV Ampere is the world's first all-electric car and passenger ferry, powered by two 450 kW electric motors with 10t lithium-ion batteries.
When one of the leading players in electrification needed an energy efficient cooling circuit for the ferry's racks of batteries, they reached out to Parker's High Pressure Connectors Europe (HPCE) Division in Annemasse, France. Their request was for an innovative solution that would be easy to install and test while offering low maintenance, leak-free and energy efficient performance.
"We proposed a solution with couplings that would not allow any fluid to leak out. We eliminated the tubing and the fittings so it's just couplings, manifold and the connection is done."
Liana Jaskot, product unit manager, Parker High Pressure Connectors Europe
Working directly with the partner's engineering experts, the Parker team developed a proprietary ready-to-use solution that reduced the overall number of components by almost 80%, reduced assembly time for the customer by approximately 90% and completely eliminated the risk of mixing connections and the need for testing.
Parker went from design to manufacture to implementation of the thermal management manifold connector in only six months. During just one year of operation, an electric ferry like the Ampere saves approximately one million liters of diesel fuel, 2,700 metric tons of carbon dioxide and 35 metric tons of nitrogen oxide emissions.
Historically, watercraft were heavily dependent on fossil fuels. Diesel electric ships used an internal combustion engine connected to an electric generator, while power was transferred to the propeller shaft via an AC inverter and electric motor. However, this traditional power and propulsion system began to develop in quite exciting ways. Advances in the field of hybridization and electrification have led to new architectures with some specific performance advantages, especially in the field of energy efficiency.
So what are the options for more environmentally friendly watercraft?
The architecture chosen largely depends on the type of work cycle of the ships concerned. However, there is one fixed factor, regardless of the final choice, ship operators are seeking ways to maximize the overall performance of the ship by achieving maximum energy efficiency in all systems on the ship. This is achieved by the seamless integration of power drive with other technologies, such as hydraulics, which are commonly used to manage steering systems and gearbox lubrication, and to power auxiliary systems such as spring ramps and drive ramps, whether they are serial hybrid, parallel hybrid or full electric.
Overcoming integration challenges There are several points to consider when integrating energy-saving hydraulic systems. For example, switching to battery-powered systems in maritime means that attention should be paid to how to optimize the amount of battery power to be installed. Heavy battery arrays are still very expensive and take up a lot of space on the ship. Therefore, the energy consumption of all built-in systems must be evaluated, up to the coffee machines on the ship.
First of all, traditional hydraulic power units on older stock diesel engine ships traditionally need oversized pumps and engines to provide performance when the system requires the highest duty cycle. However, since energy costs are an ever-increasing problem, and environmental regulations become more stringent, wasted energy and high CO2 emissions are becoming increasingly problematic in marine applications. This requires the transition to more efficient systems where power is adjusted to the needs of specific tasks.
As a result, new technologies such as drive-controlled pump systems offer a more synergistic approach, in which hydraulic power units, frequency drives, electric motors and hydraulic pumps are successfully integrated to meet every local load demand in a hydraulic system. Specifically, variable frequency drives provide the precise, variable pressure and flow required in the machine or at any point in the duty cycle by managing the working torque and speed of the electric motor. Drive control; It is guided using field-tested control algorithms designed to provide reliable, standardized and customizable hydraulic functions.
These technical challenges have encouraged traditional hydraulic component suppliers to keep up with the age and become motion control experts who can understand the complex connection between a range of electrohydraulic technologies and control systems. Our response as Parker was to combine hydraulic, pneumatic and electromechanical sections to create a special Motion Systems Group with technical expertise in maritime environments.
Electrification provides advantages in connection The trend towards energy efficiency in hybrid and electric watercraft has not stopped with the establishment of state-of-the-art modern motion systems such as drive-controlled pump solutions. With the advent of the Internet of Things, it is now possible to use versatile digital ecosystems in watercraft, which enable the electronic control hardware and software to be reliably connected to the cloud. This link provides many benefits by providing ship operators with real-time access to many (many) data parameters.
The digital integration implemented with the use of mobile IoT can provide valuable insights into the instantaneous state of the hydraulic equipment, which makes it possible to continuously monitor a number of variables such as engine revolutions, torque and other motion system parameters. The ability to share this data by assigning multi-tiered user types and permissions means maintenance is more predictable; this improves service time and supports more efficient work. As a result, mobile IoT brings a more cost-effective, energy-saving and environmentally friendly way of working as a groundbreaking element in marine environments.
Looking ahead, the widespread use of 5G wireless systems promises even higher connectivity levels, enabling much higher levels of data transmission with lower latency. This will likely result in a new IoT-enabled way of working in the maritime industry, especially in port logistics and route planning where energy will be used more efficiently.
Technologies such as 5G will also support increased use of automation on smarter ships of the future. Automating onboard operations is seen as a valuable way to save time and money while reducing the need for crew onboard will also reduce the risk of accidents and injuries. These days, most major maritime organizations are investing heavily in IoT / automation research, and ship autonomy has become a global trend.
It is clear that more environmentally friendly ways of working in maritime settings offer many opportunities for technical improvement. Boats such as trolleys and workboats are becoming more environmentally friendly and more efficient, which makes the maximum use of the power installed on the ship. Electrification also brings advanced connectivity possibilities, giving operators real-time information about the performance of basic equipment such as hydraulics. In short, greener ships are better ones, and this will benefit everyone.
This revolutionary vessel not only represents an early success in electrification for clean transportation within the marine industry, it is a huge opportunity in the fast growing thermal management market. It's a beacon of purpose—and what can happen when Parker partners with customers to apply its core technologies to make a positive impact on the world.
Written By: Jari Rantanen, Application Development Manager - Industrial Growth Team - Motion Systems Group Europe, Parker Hannifin
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The growing connected vehicle and electric car markets are currently driving up demand for IP-rated (Ingress Protection rating) and EMI protection. Even standard road vehicle electronics need to be increasingly protected environmentally and electrically.
Vehicle functionality is being taken over by sophisticated electronics and these systems need protection against EMI and environmental elements such as dust, dirt, and water to operate efficiently.
This trend is also seen in the defense industry and today more than 20% of vehicle designers (commercial and military) who approach Parker Chomerics, need a solution for both EMI and environmental protection.
What does IP rating mean?
The IP code, or Ingress Protection rating, is an international standard EN/IEC 60529 which is used to define the level of sealing effectiveness of an electrical enclosure or mechanical casing against intrusion from environmental elements. In addition, international standard ISO 20653 is used for IP degrees of protection specifically for road vehicles. Parker Chomerics offers a range of EMI shielding gaskets and seals that are being used to meet this growing IP rated environmental exposure demand.
Some of the most common IP ratings required by vehicle manufacturers include IP65, IP66, IP67 and IP69.IP rating codes explained
The IP rating can be identified by the letters IP, followed by two numbers such as 65 (IP65). The first number refers to the amount of projection the enclosure has against a specific solid element, in this case ‘6’, indicates full protection against dust. The enclosure is dust tight. The second number defines the level of protection against liquids - see below.
IP65 – The enclosure is dust tight and protected against jets of water. Parker Chomerics CHO-SEAL® Co-Extruded gasket profiles LD55 and LH10, when used as elastomer gaskets in a groove, are an ideal solution.
IP66 – The enclosure is dust tight and protected against strong jets of water.
IP67 – The enclosure is dust tight and provides protection against temporary immersion for up to 30 minutes at depths between 15cm and 1 meter. Again, a CHO-SEAL® Co-Extruded gasket in a groove creates an effective all-round solution to this meet this requirement.
IP68 – Is not applicable in vehicle applications as it relates to protection against continuous immersion.
IP69 – The enclosure is dust tight and is protected against both high-pressure and high-temperature jets of water.
IP69K – Provides the same protection as IP69 but with additional resistance to wash-down and steam-cleaning procedures. This rating is most often seen in specific road vehicle applications.
As outlined above, there is similarity between EN/IEC 60529 and ISO 20653. The EN/IEC 60529 standard was updated to include the IPX9 water ingress test. This test is essentially identical to the IP69K test from ISO 20653. The “K” tests specify special requirements for road vehicles.Design for IP requirements
The design engineer must consider any EMI shielding and environmental requirements at the conceptual stage of a project in order to protect and extend the lifetime of the electronic system. The customer would benefit from partnering with a reputable EMI shielding technology specialist such as Parker Chomerics, as EMI shielding and sealing materials can be developed and designed specifically for the customer's application.
With such a marked customer-driven trend, it is important to specify the optimum IP rating required for an EMI shielding gasket or seal. However, the rating depends very much on where the EMI shield will be located on the vehicle, and to what elements it will be exposed. For example, typical vehicle applications range from automotive control boxes through to a multitude of requirements in the engine and undercarriage, all which will be particularly demanding from an environmental perspective.
In an application such as a car door, the door itself will deflect most of the water pressure encountered during road use, with the rubber seal being secondary (jets of water will not come into direct contact with the gasket). However, this does not mean the seal is of secondary consideration. Elastomer gaskets with deflection characteristics, along with appropriate mechanical design factors, are recommended to meet IP69 and IP69K requirements.Cost effective solutions
For applications where a cost-effective solution is required, a well sized – preferably 3mm solid O-section that is galvanically paired with the mating surface, would deliver protection against both EMI and water. Galvanic compatibility is vital in applications where the gasket might be in contact with a component such as an aluminum surface, as conductivity factors come into play and compatibility between metals must be ensured.
Aside from dust and water, there are many other factors to consider when specifying a suitable gasket/seal. For example, road vehicle applications could be exposed to extreme temperatures during the summer and winter months and in some applications, fire retardant and chemical resistant materials are required.
No matter how challenging, there is a solution for every application requiring EMI and environmental protection and by working closely with a specialist such as Parker Chomerics, customers can benefit from testing services that are application specific and in line with the customer requirements.
This blog was contributed by Melanie French, marketing communications manager, Parker Chomerics Europe.
In any compressed air system, properly treating the generated air prior to use is essential, but oftentimes picking the right air treatment equipment can be overwhelming. To select the right air treatment equipment, you first need to understand your application, environment and requirements. Knowing the system pressure, operating temperature, airflow, port sizes, etc will ensure you select the right air treatment equipment for the application. You also need to determine what class of air will be required. If the facility requires a more stringent ISO class of air, the quantity and sophistication of the air treatment equipment will change. As a general rule of thumb, always choose parts that have been thoroughly tested and designed to withstand the toughest operation, vibration and impact conditions.
Compressed air treatment
In a properly designed compressed air system, air treatment takes place in the compressor room (right after generation and before drying and right after drying) and at the point of use. Point of use air treatment units are commonly referred to as FRLs, which stands for Filter, Regulator and Lubricator. FRLs provide point of use filtration, management, and treatment for compressed air. In most applications, this point of use control is imperative for maintaining the health of your production equipment. Keep reading for an overview of the available types of FRLs.
Parker offers the following FRLs for use with a Transair aluminum piping compressed air system:
Keep in mind, that not every system will require all five of these FRLs, but EVERY system needs at least some basic level of filtration to prevent piping and/or machinery failure. As previously stated, knowing your application and requirements will determine the appropriate mix of Filters, regulators, and lubricators.
A particulate filter will remove solid particles, as well as bulk liquids. These types of filters are ideal for removing pipe scale, rust, pipe dope and other solid particles or debris that may break free upstream and travel downstream to the point where the filter is installed. All generated compressed air should pass through a dryer being used, but a particulate filter can provide extra protection from water and oil entering the machinery. Particulate filters are designed to capture particles down to 5 microns. For a size comparison, a human red blood cell is 8 microns. When installing filters, particulate filters can be used as stand-alone elements, or as a pre-filter for coalescing filters.Coalescing filters
A coalescing filter will remove liquid aerosols as well as sub-micron particles. The main goal of a coalescing filter is to remove 99.9% of the water and oil aerosols that might be present in the compressed air system. This filter will not remove vapors, only liquid aerosols and sub-microns particles. The filter element in a coalescing filter removes particles down to 0.01 microns. For a size comparison, the average bacteria cell is 2 microns! Due to the sensitivity of the filter element, a coalescing filter should never be used on its own, For proper filtration, a particulate filter should be used a pre-filter to a coalescing filter.
A pressure regulator controls the outlet pressure at the desired location in a compressed air system. The pressure is controlled by dialing in the desired pressure then an internal control spring will either raise or lower the flow of air which then raises or lowers the pressure in the pipe. Regulators are used in applications where the pressure needs to be heavily controlled for energy conservations, personal safety, or process control. A pressure regulator can also be used to transform a volatile supply of air into a controlled, constant supply.
A filter / regulator combines the functions of a pressure regulator with a particulate filter. This combined unit is ideal for installations with space constraints that require filters, controlled compressed air. This combination unit uses the same 5 micron filter element found in Parker's stand-alone particulate filters. This unit does not compromise performance for its compact footprint.
A lubricator provides a fine mist of lubrication oil for downstream applications. Lubricators can be set to deliver just the right amount of oil to lubricate pneumatic tools, air motors, and other pneumatic equipment while avoiding flooding the system with oil mist. A lubricator should only be used for applications that require trace amounts of oil in the compressed air system. These unit should be installed after the filters and close to the point of use to ensure the oil mist reaches its desired location.
The Parker advantage
Parker offers a complete line of air preparation (FRL) options for use with our Transair aluminum piping for compressed air systems. Transair offers stand-alone units such as filters, regulators, lubricators, filter/regulators as well as two or three piece combination units. Our combination units combine a filter/regulator and lubricator (two-piece) or a filter, regulator, and lubricator (three-piece). The choice between our combination units depends on space constraints and personal preference. For more information on Transair aluminum piping and our FRL offering, please visit www.parker.com/transair.
This post was contributed by Jim Tuma, marketing services manager, Parker Fluid System Connectors Division.
You are a world-class manufacturer of your goods. Why then is your competition so close at your heels, or worse, beating you? What do they know that you don’t?
The key to manufacturing success is gaining that last bit of efficiency; making the most of your equipment, tooling, labor, and maintenance activities. You do this by analyzing the important data associated with everything you do in the manufacturing process. Note that this is different from collecting every known drop of data and creating a data lake.
Data Driven Manufacturing (DDM)
Instead, this is the process of Data Driven Manufacturing (DDM). DDM has been around for quite some time, but many don’t know what it is or how to use it. It is the discipline of collecting data, analyzing it to create valuable information leading to decisions based on facts to improve manufacturing processes. By “listening” to your processes and equipment, you will discover where you can improve your efficiency.
Production Monitoring DDM
Production Monitoring DDM is the acquisition and analysis of machine and unit-level production data. This is where Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is calculated. By understanding machine conditions like blocked, starved, out-of-automatic-mode, and offline, improvements can be made to the flow of units through the plant. If there are parallel processes and they are not equally utilized, there are efficiencies to be gained in their transport or in the proceeding or subsequent operations. Similarly, comparing machines for out-of-automatic-mode will lead to improvements in preventative, predictive, and prescriptive maintenance.
Process Monitoring DDM
Process Monitoring DDM is undertaken primarily for the improvement of quality and consistency. Every process is based on physics and has an underlying transfer function (The output Y is a function of the input x’s). As the inputs are monitored and controlled to desired values, the quality of the product improves. Consider a process where energy absorption is required to change a characteristic of a material surface. It is known that to create an acceptable transformation the energy level must be consistent. However, the base material has an impact on the absorptivity and varies from lot to lot. By monitoring, the energy supply can be adjusted via a feedback loop to minimize the variation in the final product. This strategy works very well on both discrete and continuous processes, which can have a “human in the loop” or be fully autonomous.
Condition Monitoring DDM
Condition Monitoring DDM speaks to the machine and tooling aspects of the business. By listening to signals from the equipment; machine life can be extended, unintended downtime can be avoided, and necessary maintenance planned. Tool life also can be extended to the practical limit while avoiding breakage and machine crashes. Monitor the appropriate temperatures, flows, torques, forces, vibrations, etc., and understand their roles in the transfer functions of healthy equipment and tooling. As this valuable information (transformed from the data) progresses in a direction known to be unhealthy, changes and corrections can be made to avoid undesirable situations. Additionally, by monitoring machine conditions and then calling for a person to intervene (if not done automatically), labor is minimized by not performing scheduled checks of all the equipment in the plant.
The top challenges in decision making for plant management and engineering are
the lack of accessible data
the response time of analysis
Data on paper makes real-time analytics all but impossible. Historical analysis and product tracking information, although possible, is seldom undertaken due to the time and effort required and is often hampered by the lack of visualization.
Many companies are popping up who are more than willing to take your money to put overarching systems into your factories. But be conscious of the fact that no one knows your processes better than you. As a trusted partner, Parker works alongside customers to enable technology breakthroughs that change the world for the better.
"At Parker Hannifin, we employ our own sensors and “Voice of the Machine” products to gain the desired data. We have found that intelligent yet simple implementations are often the best approach forward. They will provide quick wins with fast return on investment AND increase your staff’s understanding so that you can later tackle bigger and bigger implementations."
Paul Susalla, corporate manufacturing technology advancement director, Parker Hannifin
Taking manufacturing to the next level
DDM is a proven method to take manufacturing to the next level of efficiency. It is also harmonious with Lean and Six Sigma principles, Kaizen activities, and Shikumi (holistic system-based Lean transformation). What better way to gain the insight and knowledge needed to direct activities and then confirm improvement? Make the strides in quality, cost, and delivery by listening to your process to know the information necessary to make the right decisions. Listen! Your equipment and process are full of ways to improve your business.
Article contributed by Paul C. Susalla, corporate manufacturing technology advancement director, Parker Hannifin. Originally published in CIOReview.
Related posts for you on advanced manufacturing and Industry 4.0:
These days, mobile machines used in a broad range of markets such as agriculture, construction, forestry, material handling and transportation are exceptionally sophisticated pieces of equipment. Industry megatrends such as automation, connectivity and electrification have converged to ensure that excavators, loaders and other hydraulic mobile machines have more functional capability than ever before.
In this digitally driven environment, the demand for innovation is relentless. That provides a real challenge for OEMs, who are expected to work faster and smarter to come up with new features that deliver a competitive advantage.
For engineers, this means developing and prototyping new electrohydraulic systems in the shortest time possible. One means of achieving efficiency in product development is through the use of more high-level graphical design tools to design, simulate and deploy innovations at speed.The power of partnership
That was the inspiration for a collaboration between motion and control technologies specialist Parker Hannifin and computer software giant MathWorks® on IQANdesign 6TM – a new software package with MATLAB® Simulink® integration that has been developed to speed innovation in electronic controls for mobile machines. IQANdesign 6 features an IQAN toolbox for Simulink that can streamline the model-based design, simulation and deployment of electronic controls – a significant development which is expected to transform work that involves the creation or improvement of mobile machine functions.
Historically, engineers and scientists around the globe have benefitted from the IQAN and Simulink product families, accelerating the pace of discovery, innovation and development in sectors that extend from automotive to electronics. Integrating the two software environments reduces development time with a more efficient and convenient tool chain, offering users an unprecedented way to rapidly deploy code on production-ready hardware in real-time applications.
But what does that mean in terms of functionality for the design engineer faced with the competitive pressure of bringing new electronic controls for mobile machines to market?
Firstly, the seamless integration of Simulink models within the IQAN ecosystem enables automatic generation of real-time applications from Simulink models targeting IQAN-MC4x controllers. Concurrent execution of multiple models with individual time bases and priorities are also supported.
Also, Simulink models are executed in a dedicated real-time kernel, with Inports and Outports available in IQANdesign application logic. Using IQANdesign, users can view and navigate Simulink models, which are also included within system simulations provided by IQANsimulate. In addition, Simulink Testpoints are visible and measurable in IQANdesign/IQANrun.
More streamlined working
In short, the collaboration between Parker and MathWorks is about removing time and resource obstacles for research and development teams. It provides the perfect solution for businesses coming under increasing pressure to innovate at a time when mobile machines will get smarter than ever before. Learn more about IQAN products, or contact us for more information.
This article was contributed by Johan Lidén, product manager IQAN Electronics, Electronic Controls Business Unit, Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB.
From the time a fledgling IT maven first installed multiple servers close to one another, it became clear that thermal management, and the choice between air and liquid cooling, would be the ongoing challenge. Initially, air-based cooling systems did an adequate job of dissipating heat, but these proved to be inadequate in the age of high-density data centers, some extending beyond a whopping 10mW in size.
Today’s server racks and supercomputers require a cooling system that exceeds efficiency, effectiveness, and safety standards. The closed-loop liquid cooling system meets those requirements.
For optimal performance, a closed-loop system must remain free of contaminants. The introduction of such contaminants such as dust, dirt, debris, or even air can cause system malfunctions.Mitigating the risk of contamination
Contaminates can be introduced into the system in a variety of ways. When specifying the components of the liquid cooling system, the highest quality construction, materials, and installation procedures must be considered.
To lessen the risks of introducing contaminates into your cooling system, here are the four main areas to consider.
1.Careful installation of components
Installation is one time that poses a risk of contaminants being introduced into the liquid cooling system. Without precise adherence to a safe cooling line installation process, contaminants, such as those from elastomeric components, can be introduced into a closed-loop system. Developing an installation process and training staff on the procedures is key to a successful installation.2. Planning for disconnections
When a server goes down, a 'hot-swap' replacement is required. This procedure requires disconnecting the cooling line coupling without disconnecting additional servers—a delicate operation mandating well-planned, meticulously executed protocols.
For this change-out to go smoothly (i.e., no leaks, spills, or contaminants introduced in the system), a plan of action must be in place. Of course, advanced training of personnel in the methods and precautions are paramount. Ongoing 'dry-run' sessions should be a standard component of this training, allowing technicians to sharpen their skills for the next 'real thing,' whether it be of the scheduled or on-demand variety.3. Choosing appropriate components
Reducing the risk of line contamination begins before the system installation date has been circled on the calendar; this means choosing the appropriate components for the job.
First and foremost, a flush-faced valve design is a must. Its construction must be durable and robust to reduce air inclusion and function reliably across various temperatures. Additionally, it must be designed specifically for low-pressure applications.
Of particular note is that many coupling designs are not intended for use in cooling applications. Therefore, the importance of selecting metal couplings designed specifically for liquid cooling cannot be underestimated.
The materials used in the coupler's assembly should be examined closely as well before making a purchase decision. To prevent the chipping associated with plastic components, high-quality stainless steel is the way to go to prevent debris from breaking off and entering the system.
Evaluating couplings based on robustness, valves, seal compounds, and materials compatibility can help ensure trouble-free serviceability and long-term performance.4. Choosing manufacturers that prioritize clean components
Liquid cooling system manufacturers and data center operators understand that a closed-loop rack cooling system's integrity is only as reliable as the system's components. With the vital role these systems play in protecting servers and supercomputers, the manufacturer must meet the highest production and testing standards available.
Parker's long-standing commitment to producing the cleanest components possible is apparent along every step of the manufacturing process:
• Materials: It all begins with material selection. Parker uses stainless steel that is less likely to chip and burr. Only high-integrity elastomers are used in the manufacturing of seals and O-rings. These materials, if of lower quality, could potentially cause problems, causing debris to potentially get into the cooling system.
• Cleaning: After machining, every piece of every component is thoroughly cleaned to remove particles and debris.
• Assembly: Parker's assembly process takes place in a 'clean-room' setting, ensuring that each part is protected from manufacturing residue or other environmental contaminants.
• Testing: Parker employs one of the most rigorous leak-testing protocols in the industry. 100% of the completed couplings are helium-leak checked to ensure integrity. Why helium? Because a helium molecule is significantly smaller than a water molecule.
• Packaging: Once tested, the finished components remain in Parker's sanitary packaging room to be prepared for shipping. Even our product caps and shipping bags are specially designed to prevent impurities from tainting the couplers' integrity.Parker: Maximum performance and reliability
Offering a variety of couplings and seals, Parker's liquid cooling couplings combine a compact design with robust components built to resist mechanical stresses and avoid any fluid loss. Each design features non-spill valving, higher flow rates, and low-pressure drop capabilities to ensure reliable thermal management cooling.
For the critical needs of data centers, compromise is not an option. Parker understands that these facilities must continuously stay ahead of the game to deal with the ever-rising temperatures that new technologies generate effectively. Parker is committed to meeting these challenges by delivering liquid cooling solutions that protect a company's significant investment in hardware and contribute significantly to its profitability.
Visit Parker’s virtual booth at SC20. This virtual trade show runs from November 17 to 19, 2020.
This article was contributed by Todd Lambert, market sales manager, Parker Hannifin's Quick Coupling Division.
As we introduced our Parker Sporlan webinar series we realized that we couldn't possibly answer all the questions in that short amount of time. We decided to create Climate Control blogs to answer some of the more pressing questions. This is the third of three blogs answering questions from our Supermarket Seminar Series: Metering Devices, TEVs.
Q: What is the minimum pressure difference across the TEV?
A: The existence of pressure-drop helps to facilitate flow through the thermostatic expansion valve or TEV. At some point, flow won’t occur if the pressure drop is too low. Manufacturers will typically provide ratings for expansion valves with a minimum pressure drop of 30 psid across the TEV. This does not include the pressure drop that would occur across the distributor if present in the system and the pressure drop across the evaporator.
Q: The pressure drop across TEV in the Correction Factor table ranges widely, 30 to 275 psig. How does a TXV with a widely varying condensing pressure act, say a freezer that condenses from 150 psig winter to 250 psig summer?
A: The ratings in the capacity tables for Sporlan TEVs are in accordance with ANSI/ARI Standard Number 750. The proper valve selection is critical to offering a good balance of control over the varying conditions. The TEV will ultimately attempt to control superheat at the bulb location even under varying conditions. As conditions vary, a situation may occur that is beyond the ability of the TEV to control superheat at the bulb location. Adjustment or replacement of the TEV may be required. In more extreme cases, there may exist a need for the hot gas bypass to control low side pressures and a head pressure control system to control high side pressures in order to stabilize system conditions. You stack the odds in favor of the TEV being able to control superheat with stable conditions. We recommend using our Virtual Engineer program to properly select valves based on those varying conditions.
Q: We need a TEV rated for R449A, but we don't have it in stock. Could we use a similar TEV rated for R22 as a replacement?
A: The mass flow rate for R449A is 7 to 10% higher compared to R22 depending upon system conditions. The Net Refrigerating Effect (NRE) of R22 is slightly higher compared to R449A as expected. In general, the existing R22 TEV will serve as a suitable replacement for the R449A application; however, this is no guarantee. It is good practice to evaluate the existing components with appropriate selection software or ratings tables using the new system conditions.
Q: In the age of energy savings and reduced head pressure during cool weather conditions, what should we watch out for? How would we detect a problem with the TXV?
A: The TEV is intended to control superheat at the sensing bulb location. Determining the superheat at the bulb location is one way to determine if something is amiss. Careful product selection and system commissioning is ever important today. System monitoring during various conditions is key with these new reductions in head pressure (walk-in coolers, etc.). There are many system parameters that should trigger an alarm condition and ultimately indicate some control problem has occurred. Low or High superheat at the bulb location would be one such condition. Unfortunately, a problem may not be detected until the case is warm and the product has been lost. Utilization of Sporlan’s Virtual Engineer program can assist with proper valve selection and help get things started correctly.
Q: On the MOP charge migration concern, wouldn’t heating the element affect valve function?
A: Yes, it will but in a good way. If the thermostatic charge constituents have all migrated to the diaphragm housing, the TEV will not be operational and it will not be controlling superheat at the bulb location. By warming the diaphragm housing or element, the charge constituents will be forced back into the bulb, once again making the TEV operational. A warm rag on the diaphragm housing can be used to determine if charge migration has occurred. The diaphragm housing should always be warmer than the bulb, especially with MOP-style thermostatic charges.
Q: If hot gas for capacity control is being utilized and introduced before the evaporator, how does that affect the bulb and valve?
A: In this instance, the hot gas will be mixed in the evaporator with the refrigerant being introduced from the TEV. The TEV will simply do its job of controlling superheat at the bulb. It will be influenced by the load on the evaporator and the hot gas that has been introduced at the inlet of the evaporator. In this scenario, the TEV will continue to act as the same superheat control that it did prior to the introduction of the hot gas. However, it will also act as a desuperheating device to temper the discharge gas.
Q: Why don’t manufacturers use bleed ports more often since it helps start the compressor?
A: Good question, maybe we should ask the equipment manufacturers. Bleed Ports are handy for restarting a unit against a pressure differential, for fine-tuning TEV capacity, for maintaining minimum suction pressure during startups when the system is equipped with a micro-channel condenser and the list continues. However, bleed ports prevent TEVs from seating tightly and this can complicate the ratings process for manufacturers.
Q: Why do compressor manufacturers generally expect a higher superheat at the compressor inlet as compared to the evaporator outlet?
A: The TEV is intended to control superheat at the sensing bulb location. As the superheated refrigerant travels through the suction line on the way to the compressor inlet, ambient conditions can contribute to the superheat of the refrigerant. This can happen if the suction line is uninsulated or if it is routed through high-temperature areas on the job site. This becomes a balancing act. Too little superheat at the compressor inlet and a flooded condition may damage the compressor. Too much superheat and the compressor may overheat.
Article contributed by Jim Jansen, senior application engineer, Sporlan Division of Parker Hannifin
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