Is safety your number-one priority? The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is dedicated to helping companies across the country understand and establish proper safety standards for workers, employers and even temporary workers. They set and enforce safety standards and provide training, outreach, education and assistance.
OSHA publishes an annual list of the Top 10 Most Cited Violations. Companies typically have a specified amount of time to rectify the OSHA safety violations (not just the ones included in the Top 10 list) or risk being assessed fines, which can escalate quickly to very high amounts depending on the violation. The goal of this blog is to provide information on Machine Guarding and where it ranks on the Top 10 list. Within the Machine Guarding category, we’ll dig a little deeper and share some of the most-cited sections.
We’ve included a link to the Top 10 OSHA Most Cited Violations for the past five years. You’ll notice that over this time, Fall Protection, Hazard Communication and Scaffolding were the top three safety violations. Although there is an opportunity to improve and educate in those areas, we want to see where Machine Guarding is on the list. Our goal is to help you, where we can, eliminate this violation from the list and avoid fines.
When we look at the data, it is very promising in that each year the amount of Machine Guarding violations is in decline! See Figure 1 below:
So, what are some of the top specific sections that have been cited within the Machine Guarding category? We looked at safety data from 2015 to 2018 and listed below the top four sections cited during that time:
· 1910.212(a)(1) Types of Guarding
o One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine’s area from hazards, such as those created by point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks. Examples of guarding methods are barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices
o Top section most cited
o Number of citations are decreasing: 1575 to 1289 (18%)
· 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) Point of Operation Guarding
o The point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury shall be guarded. The guarding device shall be in conformity with any appropriate standards therefore, or, in the absence of applicable specific standards, shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent the operator from having any part of his body in the danger zone during the operating cycle.
o Second most sited section
o Number of citations are decreasing: 629 to 475 (24%)
· 1910.212(b) Anchoring Fixed Machinery
o A machine designed for a fixed location must be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving.
o 3rd most cited since 2015: 165 to 76 (54%)
· 1910.212(a)(2) General Requirements for Machine Guards
o Guards shall be affixed to the machine where possible and secured elsewhere if for any reason attachment to the machine is not possible. The guard shall be such that it does not offer an accident hazard in itself.
o 4th most cited section over 2016 and 2017: 58 to 46 (21%)
We’ve all heard the saying that knowledge is power. If you didn’t already know some of these statistics, we hope that you are now more aware of common OSHA safety violations and some of the specific machine guarding violations that can occur. According to Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, penalties for 2019 were more than $11 million. It is very important for each person in the organization to have a safety-first mentality. Having this kind of attitude will ultimately create a much safer working environment and positively impact your bottom line.
When reviewing ways to guard your machine, consider using T-slot aluminum framing. Parker can help through our Design Center and Authorized Distributor network throughout the country. You can also electronically sketch your ideas with TADA, our free design tool. Visit www.parker.com/designarchitect to download TADA, view help tutorial videos and download templates. Also, visit www.parker.com/ips to learn more about Parker’s T-Slot Aluminum Framing Products and how they can enhance safety.
This article was contributed by Mario Mitchell, product manager for IPS T-Slot Aluminum Framing, Electromechanical & Drives Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation..
Thanks to our loyal followers for all of the interest in the topics covered in this blog over the past year. In examining the most-read blog posts over the course of 2019, it becomes obvious that there is quite a diversity of products under the electromechanical umbrella, but the common threads of precision, innovation and purpose tie them all together.
Energy savings, an important initiative for now and the future, was highlighted in two top posts: 5 Reasons to Control Your Compressor With a VFD and How VFD Technology on Hydraulic Power Units Helps Improve Performance.
The new and rapidly growing field of mobile electrification was covered in Series Hybrid Vehicle System Design.
Providing advice for selecting the right components for a great system was found in three posts:
2019 saw some impressive growth in social media interaction. Our most popular platform remains the Parker Electromechanical Technology Showcase on LinkedIn, which attracted many new followers in the past year. Popular posts covered a variety of topics including motorcycle racing, featuring an electric bike powered by our GVM motor, participation in a number of industry trade shows including our first Cybershow, and shared content from our Parker Distributors. Please follow us and feel free to share and comment - and don't forget, we are also on Twitter @ParkerElectro.
The past year also included some new product announcements, like extended power range for the AC30 VFD, now available through 600 HP, new PAC and PACIO accessories, and most recently the availability of the ACR7000 multi-axis motion controller.
Parker sees its purpose as a platform for growth, change and positive impact to the world. As we enter 2020, watch for more new innovative solutions from the Electromechanical & Drives team as we focus on these values and on engineering your success.
This article was contributed by Lou Lambruschi, marketing services manager, Electromechanical Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
In industry, time is money. So, for engineers who are time-pressured, there is a solution for electromechanical press and joining applications.
Push-To-Fit is an innovative electromechanical solution that combines a number of Parker’s established core products into a joining module. All individual components of Push-To-Fit are designed to meet the highest expectations concerning force, dynamics, precision and service life for engineers working in the general industrial and automotive manufacturing space. In fact, the solution is scalable to a wide and diverse range of end application requirements.
In simple terms, the module comprises a process control unit, servo drive, motor electric cylinder and force sensor connected together through software to provide fast and easy integration into customer processes. For instance, the process control unit offers full compatibility and preparation for third-party device connectivity, with dual LAN networks and options for Profinet, Ethernet IP and Modbus. Numerous operating options, such as web visualisation, digital I/O and communications interfaces (e.g. OPC UA,) are also available to further simplify integration.
Parker has made sure that ease-of-use is boosted through real-time control information, historical/trend data, adjustable error response, definable motion profiles, and monitoring via tolerance windows or tolerance curves.
Among the many advantages of this quiet, clean solution is greater energy efficiency versus comparable technologies such as hydraulics and pneumatics. Moreover, excellent throughput rates are facilitated by high travel speeds of up to 450mm/s, while repeatability is 0.03mm.
Created by Parker’s Electromechanical and Drives Division, Push-To-Fit is a cost-effective and highly flexible solution, with different forces and multiple stroke lengths available. As a result, customers only buy precisely what is needed for their specific application.
In terms of functional safety, Push-To-Fit is supplied with hardware STO as standard. Further safety functions such as SLS and others are available with the safety PLC. As a Fail-Safe, over EtherCAT (FSoE) master the safety PLC uses the EtherCAT fieldbus to establish safe communication without separate wiring. The external safety brake completes the range and permits safety-related applications up to PLe.
As press or joining applications are one of the key processes in modern automated manufacturing there are increased demands on product quality and statistical analysis. To fulfill such demands Push-To-Fit comes already with interfaces like Q-DAS. Within a text file basic information and process data is available in a kind of key-value database. In addition to Q-DAS other integrated process data managements like IPM are supported as well. Via TCP/IP process data is collected in a life cycle file to ensure access. Such systems also help you to identifies errors in an early stage This is another reason why these systems and the required interfaces are so valuable.
Discover more about the Push-To-Fit solution and the benefits it can bring to industrial assembly projects.
This article contributed by Patrick Knebel, product manager Push-To-Fit, Electromechanical Division Europe, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
The arguments advocating more automation in our factories and process plants are gaining momentum and translating into a revolution in production environments.
Parker designs automated linear motion solutions such as electromechanical actuators to offer a combination of load handling, space saving and reliability attributes. This all links to the overall goal of optimising throughput and minimising costs. We’ve also noticed that versatility and simple utilisation in multi-axis solutions are also becoming more important, particularly for applications such as materials handling and feed systems, as well as production and packaging machinery.
The latest high-load rodless linear actuators, such as the HLR series, achieve a load capacity at 3847 Newtons (N) that is circa 20 percent higher than existing solutions. Notably, we’ve incorporated a square rail, which not only promotes higher load capabilities, but also longer operating life. Performance parameters include speed up to 5 m/s, acceleration up to 50 m/s2 and repeatability of ±0.05 mm.
Having high load and thrust force capabilities can save money for your plant by allowing the deployment of a smaller actuator than would normally be required. We all know that floor space costs money, so the opportunity to use more compact automation solutions and create space for additional capacity is quite literally, priceless.
Parker’s compact HLR actuators also facilitate the fast and easy creation of multi-axis solutions. If your machine or system is based on a double or multiple axis gantry design, then the HLR concept can be expanded quickly and easily, saving money by reducing design resource and solution complexity.
For instance, in double-axis applications, our system makes use of a connecting shaft to ensure synchronous and rigid transmission of the drive torque to a second linear actuator arranged in parallel. With the use of toe clamps for mounting the actuators, one or two cross beams can be fastened directly to the carriage of linear actuators, dispensing with the need for additional connection plates.
Sometimes, a complete, pre-defined drive and control package can be supplied to match and integrate actuators into a wide range of applications, and here at Parker, we can supply it. By using a pre-defined drive package consisting of actuator, motor, gearbox and servocontroller, a complete drive train can be quickly selected to suit your specific task.
Automating a machine or system is one thing, but sourcing innovative automation offering genuine competitive gain is quite another, particularly with regard to linear motion. Here, only factors such as high-load capabilities, high speed, compact dimensions, reliability, repeatability, and the simple creation of multi-axis solutions can provide the levels of future-proofing required to remain ahead of the pack.
If you would like to discover more about our HLR actuator and the benefits it can bring to your project, please click here.
This article was contributed to by Olaf Zeiss, product manager, Electromechanical and Drives Division Europe, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
It’s no secret that the Millennial Generation’s practices and preferences are shifting consumer product design and marketing messages across the board. But how does that trend affect product design in the world of industrial manufacturing? Are we seeing similar trends in pneumatic and electromechanical design on the factory floor?
The short answer is yes. Millennial engineers, or makers - a popular term coined by this generation, are leading the transformation of our industry. Makers are known for their self-sufficiency. They don’t want to have to make a phone call or wait several days for information. They want to be able to find the answers themselves and get on with their creations.Challenging the status quo
The key is that members of this generation are not afraid to challenge the process or the system. When it comes to pneumatic and electromechanical actuator sizing, the process has been the same for decades. Actuators are designed conservatively to meet many safety and service factors. Calculations are complex but everyone has designed this way because it has worked, and why fix something that is not broken? The reality of this approach, is that very large actuators are specified across a machine and the makers are asking “do the actuators really have to be that big?”
Tools that allow users to simulate their system design with the exact components they need to create the desired motion are helping us to understand that the actuators can be much smaller. We can now design actuators that are specific to the application, while saving money and cost.Modern actuator sizing
Parker’s Virtual Engineer is a web-based product selection program that enables this generation to go out there and get the answers. Users don’t need to have studied electrical engineering to operate. Recently graduated engineers are being asked to specify components on a wide variety of machinery or systems that they haven’t created. No matter what your technical background is you can specify an actuator. It allows the designer to jump in and make a difference – and that’s what the makers are looking to do.
Virtual Engineer was designed for pneumatic and electromechanical actuator sizing in linear motion applications. Users are able to:
Attending PackExpo 2019? Meet our engineers at PackExpo in Las Vegas September 23 - 25 and see a demonstration of the Virtual Engineer at booth LS-6288. Not attending the show? Learn more about Virtual Engineer here.
This article was contributed by Marissa Tucker, product marketing manager for controls and HMI and Tim Faillo, global program manager for factory automation, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
This is the final of a three-part series that spoke to the various feedback devices that are provided as options on Parker Servo Motors. Part 1 & Part 2 provided the basic theory of operation for the devices and provided some guidance on why you might choose one versus the other, along with some helpful formulas for calculating required resolution. The following is a quick summary and recommendations on selecting the best feedback device for your motion control application.
Incremental encoders (optical)
Good resolution - up to 20,000 ppr on standard Parker product
Good for applications where going back to home for out of application situation (power down) is not a concern
Provide absolute position upon powering up (no homing required)
Provide a very high resolution
16 bit = 65,536 ppr
20 bit = 1,048,576 ppr
Options for memory download to support “smart” encoder option
Option to allow for single cable from the motor for power and feedback
Good resolution (12 bit)
Very rugged – 40g vibration and 200g shock
High temp suitability – up to 200 deg. C
Provide absolute position within a single turn
Accuracy not as good as incremental or absolute encoders
Article contributed by Jeff Nazzaro, gearhead and motor product manager, Electromechanical & Drives Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
In an industrial manufacturing environment, t-slot framing is often used for workstations, machine guarding, enclosures, tables, carts and more. When you have your initial idea for building with t-slot framing, how do you convey the concept? Do you use a piece of paper, CAD or even the famous napkin to sketch out your thoughts?
Traditionally, and still today, the “napkin sketch” method is how most t-slot aluminum framing companies encourage the user to send in information. It is very effective and allows the customer to quickly convey their ideas.
You might notice a trend that takes the customer from the “paper napkin sketch” to the “electronic or digital napkin sketch.” With the increasing use of 3D CAD systems, customers can use electronic tools to create their designs. The user libraries can be downloaded from the web and all the parts and components become available for use in your CAD system. Some companies offer a plug-in to a specific 3D CAD system. This means that their software works with that specific 3D CAD system, which may or may not be the system that you’re using. Other companies offer a standalone tool that can export files into various 3D CAD formats.
Here are a few ways to access these tools
With so many projects and the time constraints that go along with them, it is important for users to work efficiently. Using an electronic tool to “sketch” your design will allow you to import that assembly into your current project. This is very valuable if it is part of a larger machine design. Also, being able to interact with a trusted partner to quickly receive a quote helps with the process of understanding project costs along the way.
Are you ready to take your concept to completion? Start with the Parker T-Slot Aluminum Design Architect (TADA). This is a free tool that you can use to design your tables, carts, workstations, enclosures and more. We also have a network of Design Centers located throughout North America that are ready to help you with your design needs using T-slot aluminum framing.
Parker is making t-slot aluminum framing design easier than ever. For mechanical design engineers, lean manufacturing leaders and do-it-yourselfers, the Parker T-Slot Aluminum Design Architect (TADA) software allows you to take more creative control over your assembly designs. Download your free, fully functional copy today.
Article contributed by Mario Mitchell, product manager for T-slot Aluminum Framing, Electromechanical & Drives Division North America, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
Stretch films are essential in the packaging industry as they provide a versatile and high-quality solution for packing products in a safe and economical way. Film is produced by a flat die extrusion process where AC motors and AC variable speed drives play a significant role in ensuring a high-quality output.
The process starts with the extruder that is essentially a pump that melts and transports fluids of high viscosity. The polymer enters into the extruder via a gravimetric feed, and through the combined actions of heat and mechanical stress, the material is melted, mixed and pushed through an extrusion head to give the desired shape. After exiting the extrusion head, the material enters a cooling unit, here water cooled ‘chill rolls’ reduce the temperature of the film before it is finally wound onto rolls.Extruder
The extruder consists of a hollow cylinder in which rotates a single or double screw driven by an electric motor; this is usually coupled to the plasticising screw by a gearbox. The motor provides the torque required and rotates at a speed necessary to obtain the expected melt flow rate. Any failure in the precise control of the screw speed can cause changes in film thickness in the machine direction.
For the past 20 years, AC motors have typically taken over from DC motors in the control of the extruder screw in cast film line applications. They have been able to deliver many advantages in terms of convenience, reliability, low maintenance and a reduction in the overall dimensions of the system solution. AC motors are controlled by AC variable speed drives that guarantee stable rotation - even at very low speeds (via a closed loop circuit through incremental encoders), provide short circuit protection (low or high voltage), and incorporate EMC filters to eliminate electrical noise and interference.
In recent years, along with AC motors and drives, torque motors have also been utilised in screw extrusion control. These offer a complete direct drive solution that does not require the assembly of different elements such as a gearbox, belts and pulleys. Torque motors guarantee uniformity in the motion, linearity and constancy in the extrusion of the plastic material.Cooling section
As previously mentioned, when the material leaves the extrusion head, it is melted on chilling rolls that form the cooling section of the cast film production line. The cooling unit is comprised of a primary quenching roll, that cools the film on one side, and a secondary roll, that cools the film on the opposite side. It also includes a motorised roll positioning system for correct vertical and cross machine direction alignment of the rolls, and in many cases a vacuum box and/or air knife.
The rolls must be perfectly aligned with the web to guarantee uniform tension and to minimise thickness variations across the width of the film. In addition, the angular velocity of the rolls must be well controlled to prevent film thickness fluctuations in the machine direction.Accumulator and winder section
Within the cooling and winding sections we find the accumulator, this is used to allow splicing of the web being fed from an empty winder to a full winder at zero speed without stopping the line.
At the end of the process, a further winder brings the extruder material onto rolls. The winding process has to preserve the film’s properties and dimensions when the rolls are unwound in other downstream processes.
There are several different types of winders, although the typical one used one in cast film applications is a ‘turret’ or ‘centre’ winder where the web tension decreases as the roll diameter increases.
All the movements performed in the cooling, accumulator and winder sections are driven by AC motors and drives that govern the web speed and the correct web tensioning.
AC Drives and Motors
AC Drives with high-end control are very important for guaranteeing high-quality film throughout the process. Easy-to-configure software for the closed loop control and optimum efficiency for many different types of material is a vital element of a cast film line system and process.
Parker's AC30 series with power ratings ranging from 0.75 to 450 kW coupled with the company’s Quicktool software with full IEC61131PLC functionality or Parker DSE Lite software, provides all the features needed to achieve optimum synchronisation between all line sections. It allows customers to create, parameterise and configure user-defined applications using dedicated function blocks such as the winder, PID and diameter calculator. The AC30 series also provides access to a large library of application macros and worked examples.
Connectivity via EtherCAT, Profinet, Ethernet IP and Modbus TCP IP through a dual Ethernet port enables communication between individual drives in a simple and flexible way and supports intelligent data analytics and connection to external servers. The line setpoint can be sent through a very fast channel supported by 1588 time synchronised peer-to-peer communication, and each part of the machine has its own regulation, either within the drives, or through communication protocol by the PLC.
An animation shows how high a performance drive solution supports the optimal control of a cast film line.
Article contributed by Jean-Philippe Olry, application engineer industrial market, Electromechanical & Drives Division Europe of Parker Hannifin Corporation.
Using a variable frequency drive (VFD) can be beneficial in many constant speed applications driven by electric motors, such as those that require controlled starting and have been historically served by a reduced voltage soft-starter (RVSS). While an RVSS and a VFD can both provide a controlled start, let’s examine the benefits of each technology and when it makes sense to use one over the other.
The differences between RVSS and VFDs and when to select one or the other for an application is determined by the following factors (when using a NEMA design B three phase induction motor):
An RVSS can be used to limit inrush current and reduce mechanical stresses on the motor and device it is powering during the starting cycle. The RVSS ramps the starting voltage from 40% (typical) to 100% over a set time (2 - 15 seconds typical). Starting torque is significantly reduced, rising to full torque at rated voltage.
By using an RVSS, locked rotor torque will be approximately:
Rated Torque x 2 x (% applied voltage)2
At a 40% start voltage, locked rotor torque will be:
Locked Rotor Torque = Rated Torque x 2 x (0.40)2 = 0.32 (32% of rated torque)
Because both the voltage and frequency are varied with a VFD, the motor will be at 100% flux at any speed resulting in the ability to produce 100% torque at 100% current at any speed below base speed. Therefore, a VFD can be used as a full torque soft starter in place of an RVSS. When used in this capacity, a VFD is capable of starting loads that require up to 200% torque such as mixers and production machinery with no inrush current.
Parker has recently introduced the AC10 series of general purpose VFDs, available at 230V to 20HP and 460V to 250HP and offer:
Article contributed by Bill Riley, business development manager for the Drives Business Unit, Electromechanical & Drives Division North America, Parker Hannifin Corporation.
For a long time, the use of hydraulic power in industrial processes has been associated with its traditional benefits: high power density, precise control, and long-term performance. Yet these advantages typically come hand-in-hand with equal numbers of potential drawbacks: excess noise, heat generation, and inefficient energy allocation. As we move forward, technologically advanced industrial equipment now requires hydraulic systems that can provide quieter, more economical and more efficient solutions.
Where wasted energy and resulting carbon emissions might have previously been seen as inconsequential, a switch to a tightly-modulated hydraulic system fitted for specific tasks is essential in today’s globally competitive and eco-conscious economy. With various industrial machinery (including die casting machines, presses and plastic injection moulding machinery) placing different demands on hydraulic control, you may wonder: how can highly complex hydraulics systems be adapted for individual requirements?
Matching optimum performance to size requirements
Taking one application example into consideration – injection moulding machinery (used in rubber, thermoplastic and other polymer industries); Parker has developed an immersed servo motor pump system with the aim of enhancing hydraulic reliability and reducing energy consumption. Hydraulics have long been utilised in this industrial process; with a hydraulic power unit (HPU) as the source and with very large capacity pumps and motors to ensure steady performance. However, Parker’s solution brings in three separate elements (a pump, a servo motor and a drive for control) to match flow rate to the particular requirement, primarily through the rotational speed of the motor.
From opening and closing moulds to plasticising and injecting, there are many auxiliary movements – often occurring in parallel – that take place within plastics machinery. They must be supplied centrally with the required flow and pressure over the briefest of cycle times. Controlled by the speed and torque of servo motor as part of Parker’s solution, careful flow and pressure regulation allows for greater energy efficiency. With the high maximum speed of the small vane pump, a very high volume flow can be achieved with the smallest size. Therefore, component size can be optimised to suit their need and investment costs reduced.Selecting a complete solution
Alongside hydraulic systems available for injection moulding machinery, Parker offers a full-system solution, the Drive Controlled Pump (DCP), which combines a versatile range of AC drive controllers, motors and pumps into tailored packages for the most diverse applications. With the incorporation of an alternating current drive controller, the speed range can be set in advance to a predefined cycle. Whether for a long or short duty cycle, the precise amount of hydraulic power required can be calculated for any particular point in time. When selecting between vane pumps or axial piston pumps, factors of output, required minimum and maximum speeds can be assessed and taken into consideration.
Parker’s DriveCreator dimensioning software tool enables the creation of an energy-efficient, speed-controlled, electrohydraulic DCP solution, while its start-up tool simplifies the task of putting the DCP into operation once selected. To discover more about recommended combinations of individual components, please click here.
This article was contributed by Vincent Sinot, key account manager, Parker Sales Company France.