Not every application needing reliable seawater to fresh water supply is located on a sail boat, motor boat or fishing vessel. When boat owners need simple, automatic or manual operation, a design for limited spaces and heavy-duty construction, they turn to Parker and our array of known brands: Village Marine, Sea Recovery and Horizons Reverse Osmosis. However, Parker watermakers are also used in remote applications to deliver purified water from salt water or a land source for on land consumption.
Living on a remote tropical island may sound idyllic, but it comes with some harsh realities. Power. Water. Access. And destructive weather.
An example is the Bahamas. Little Hog Cay is a completely private, 20 plus acre barrier island in the Northern Bahamas with lagoons, beautiful white-sand beaches and land elevations to 30 feet. The island is located in the Hog Cays, one mile from mainland Abaco or five minutes from the airstrip and full-service marina at Spanish Cay. It is centrally located between the top four Abaco sportfishing destinations Walker`s Cay, Green Turtle Cay, Treasure Cay and Marsh Harbor.
After Hurricane Dorian in 2019, the island owner was forced to replace several key infrastructure items, one of which was the water purification system, consisting of a water maker, pumps and storage tanks. The initial call to the Parker service teams was prompted by the customer who was trying to install a Parker Village Marine Little Wonder Modular LWM 145 Watermaker with a 12 VDC system.
Rather than mounting on an ocean vessel, the customer was installing the unit on land to provide water for drinking, ice, and water gardens. He intended to use salt water as the source and needed technical support on the related equipment required to supply the source water to the unit. The customer submitted a request for technical assistance on one of our Parker websites. The email was routed to Parker's Pan Am group and the technical team at the Bioscience and Water Filtration Division. The customer included a phone number and location on the request but did not provide an email address. Due to the remoteness of the location, cell service was challenging. The team was able to reach out to the customer via Whatsapp — a social media application.Dockage:
Little Hog Cay is the only private island in North Abaco with completely protected deep-water dockage. The island is approached from the Abaco Sound carrying depths of 12 feet or more at low tide. A 90-foot channel leads to a fully-enclosed 30 by 155-foot slipway with depths of 8 feet at low tide. Outside the slipway, on the Sound, a double-point Manta Mooring System is installed. In addition, shallow-draft vessels can be anchored inside the lagoon. The entrance is located on the Atlantic Ocean side and carries 6 feet of draft at low tide.Power:
After the island was badly damaged in Hurricane Dorian, the system was rebuilt and reengineered. The off-grid solar-powered system had most of the 90 solar panels fixed or replaced, adding Enphase microinverters to each, and replacing all the destroyed lead acid battery banks with reclaimed lithium batteries from crashed Tesla vehicles as the power storage system. This installation was the first in the North American continent to use an entire Tesla Model 3 battery pack - 75 kWh of power storage. Also, there is an additional 45 kWh of Tesla Model S reclaimed batteries. This is supplemented with two small wind turbines that can produce a theoretical 2.8 kW of peak power, but realistically produce approximately 900 W, almost constantly.
Salt water requiring desalination. The island originally had a 1,200 GPD watermaker that was destroyed by Hurricane Dorian. The owner was challenged by constant repairs and also determined the system was more than the needs of the island required. An analysis of time spent in the repair of the unit versus time running showed it would run for one day and then not for 3 weeks.
The intent was to produce water on a much more frequent basis (constantly when the sun shines), without a huge power draw. A smaller watermaker unit — the Parker Little Wonder LVM — was selected to match the needs. The system produces a continual supply without the noise of a traditional watermaker. In addition, the unit is set up to filter the clean water a second time (customer preference, but not required) to produce 9 ppm for ice and drinking water.
The customer built a smart monitoring system using Home Assistant (on a Raspberry Pi) that monitors the solar radiation from the island's Ambient Weather station. Based on the time of day and level of sun, it will switch on the Little Wonder watermaker. Three 33’ x 13’ water storage tanks are located below the pavilion. The smart system will switch on the Parker watermaker to ensure there is enough water for personal use and to run the auto irrigation systems.How we helped
The selection of the Little Wonder Modular (LVM) 145 watermaker with 12 VDC was ideal for use in the customer's remote location. The power source on the island was solar power and the LVM can run on 12 V power.
When the customer began installing the unit, he realized that due to his land-based application, the transfer pump needed to be reviewed. Even though a transfer pump was supplied with the Little Wonder LVM unit, installation is usually on a boat where the distance between the transfer pump and watermaker unit is relatively close. In this case, the transfer pump needed to supply the head pressure to move water from the salt water source to the watermaker unit mounted location. On the Little Wonder LVM 145, Parker supplied a raw water boost pump with a magnetic drive.
Parker's technical team reviewed the installation details provided by the customer. The technical team provided specific recommendations on the installation location for the transfer pump, which was as close to the source as possible. The Little Wonder LVM 145 requires .5 GPM, so a boost pump with 2-4 GPM was sufficient. A centrifugal pump was recommended by Greg Newman, Parker sales manager, to deliver 50 psi or less to the high-pressure pump. Technical schematics for the LVM unit were also provided.
Original message from the customer:
"Hi, I have the LWM 145 GPD watermaker unit - very cool!! I am setting it up on my island here to use to water my plants and make some drinking water and ice. I need to install a raw water pump to deliver the water to the unit. What PSI do I need to deliver the saltwater at and what flow rate? Thank you in advance."
Customer - Island Owner
The Village Marine Little Wonder Modular Series Watermaker is the ideal reverse osmosis desalination system for experienced sailors and boaters who require small low-power watermakers. Capable of producing up to 145 GPD (550 LPD), the Little Wonder is designed for cruising sail boats and land applications where space and power are limited and reliability is required. The system is simple to install and easy to operate. High-quality components ensure safety and years of reliable service. Featuring a compact, modular configuration, this desalinator is the most reliable, field serviceable, quiet, efficient and economical source of fresh water available on the market today.
Meters and monitors:
The fact that our application engineers across the country were able to find a way to reach out, answer questions, and provide the right recommendations for auxiliary products that keep customers supplied with clean fresh water is part of who we are at Parker. We always enjoy reading follow-up testimonials from the users of our products:
"The quality of the Little Watermaker is way better than any other desalination equipment I have used before (and I have used a lot). But the thing that really astounded me was the amazing quality of the support! I could not hold back my enthusiasm for the professionalism, and my amazement that I had finally found a company that is happy to embrace a modern communication standard (in this case WhatsApp) to ensure the products are working as they should!
Wow, you guys are AMAZING!! Literally - you have a customer for life and I will influence many, many, many others. I absolutely love the quality of the product, your manual/documentation and that you included a full schematic!! The point that you responded so quickly and on WhatsApp further confirms the professionalism of your company. I own a small island in the Bahamas - and companies like yours make it soo much easier to do what I need to do. Thank you very much!"
Customer - Island Owner
Leading with purpose
After more than a century of experience serving our customers, Parker is often called to the table for the collaborations that help to solve the most complex engineering challenges. We help them bring their ideas to light. We are a trusted partner, working alongside our customers to enable technology breakthroughs that change the world for the better.
This article was contributed by Paul Kamel, product manager II, Parker Bioscience and Water Filtration, and
Greg Newman, leisure sales manager, North American, Caribbean, South American, Parker Bioscience Water Filtration Division.
*Images supplied and approved for use by our confidential customer.
Additional and helpful content on Parker Watermakers:
4 Mar 2021
Plastic is one of the largest and most important markets for process and precision cooling and is a critical success factor in the production of formed plastics. Precision temperature control ensures dimensional stability of the plastic product and enhanced quality of the finished product. Failure to provide sufficient cooling can result in surface flaws in the finished product, such as blistering, roughness, structural defects and opacification.
The most common forms of plastic processing that require precision cooling are:
The injection moulding process accounts for a significant proportion of all plastic products manufactured globally. Injection moulded products range from electrical switches, wheelie bins, to complete car dashboards. The process is compatible with both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic material. Commonly used materials include: polystyrene, ABS, polyamides, polypropylene, polyethylene and PVC. Almost all manufacturing sectors use injection moulded parts in some form.
The following diagram depicts a typical injection moulding machine. Click to enlarge.
Cooling is essential to the process and is used for the following purposes:
The injection moulding process consists of four stages. The cooling phase is critical to the process and often involves direct cooling from a chiller.Clamping
The two halves of the mould must be securely closed by the clamping unit prior to injection of the molten plastic. The clamping device provides sufficient force to hold the mould in position during injection. The clamping set up generally takes more time with larger machines that can generate more force.Injection
Raw plastic material (generally pellets) are fed into the injection moulding machine and enter the screw assembly. Heat and pressure are applied to melt the raw plastic as it moves through the screw. The molten plastic is rapidly injected into the mould with the pressure ensuring the mould is entirely filled.Cooling
The water-cooled mould ensures that the plastic starts to cool as soon as it contacts the interior surface of the mould. As the plastic cools, it solidifies into the shape of the desired part. Shrinkage of the part may occur during cooling. The packing of the material during the injection stage allows additional material to flow into the mould reducing visible shrinkage.
The cooling of the mould is important as the product can’t be ejected until it is sufficiently cool. Efficient cooling increases product throughput and prevents unnecessary downtime. Water is generally used as the primary cooling agent. Water is channelled through the mould to facilitate a quicker cooling time. Decreased mould temperature is generally more efficient allowing for faster manufacturing cycle times to be achieved.Ejection
After sufficient time has elapsed, the cooled part is ejected from the mould by the ejection system located at the rear of the mould. When the mould is opened, a mechanism is used to push out the part. Once the part is ejected, the mould can be clamped shut for the next shot to be injected.
Injection moulding - cooling of the hydraulic system
Injection moulding machines typically use a hydraulic pump and circuit to power the screw, press, mould and ejection componentry. Hydraulic fluid is moved by a pump and that generates significant heat during operation. Approximately one-third of the electrical installed power must be removed from the system to prevent machinery issues. Insufficient cooling prevents optimal operation of the press; this results in problems with the plastic maintaining its shape in the mould. Loss of batch quality and increased rejection rates alongside frequent equipment downtime originate from poor cooling capability.
The hydraulic system generally employs the use of an oil to water heat exchanger. In many cases a chiller can be used to supply cooling capacity directly to the oil to water heat exchangers, in larger installations where multiple machines are in operation.
Cooling capacity is generally supplied to the injection moulding machine through two independent water cooling circuits:
Higher temperature loop for cooling the hydraulic oil application. Chillers are often used in conjunction with free cooling and a water tower as part of a system to supply cooling capacity to multiple applications.
Lower temperature loop for the plastic mould cooling. The cooling water is typically delivered between 10 – 15°C.
Precise cooling is not as critical for the hydraulic oil application, temperature control for cooling the mould tends to be more critical. Precision cooling is important to deliver the correct finished quality and increase productivity. In many cases, a separate chiller will be installed for each injection moulding machine to manage heat loads.
The plastic extrusion method is generally used for high-volume manufacturing where raw plastic material is melted and formed into a continuous profile. Extruded plastic products include: pipe & tubing, weather stripping, window frames, plastic sheeting, adhesive tapes and wire insulation.
The following diagram depicts the stages of the plastic extrusion process. Click to enlarge.
Thermoplastic beads are gravity fed from a top mounted hopper entering the barrel of the extruder. A rotating screw forces the plastic beads forward into the barrel which is heated by resistors to the desired melt temperature. Extra heat is contributed by the intense pressure and friction taking place inside the barrel.
At the front of the barrel, the molten plastic leaves the screw and travels through a screen pack to remove any contaminants in the melt. After passing through the breaker plate, the molten plastic enters the die that is responsible for forming the final product shape.
The product must be cooled as it leaves the die; this is generally achieved by drawing the plastic through a large water bath. In tube or pipe extrusion lines, the product is often cooled in a sealed water bath with a controlled vacuum to prevent the newly formed molten product from collapsing. Once the product has been cooled it can be spooled or cut into lengths for later use.
For products such as plastic sheet or film, the cooling is achieved by pulling through a set of cooling rolls. In sheet extrusion, these rolls not only deliver the necessary cooling but also determine sheet thickness and surface texture.
Extrusion blow moulding is commonly used to produce plastic beverage bottles. Around 508 billion plastic bottles were manufactured in 2018 with growth to 583 billion by 2021. Almost all plastic bottles were manufactured using the blow moulding technique. Most of the plastic bottles destined for the beverage market are manufactured from polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
The following diagram depicts the key steps in the extrusion blow moulding process. Click to enlarge.
In the above process, plastic is melted and an injection extrusion process is used to create a small hollow tube called a parison (or pre-form).
The parison is captured and enclosed within a metal mould that contains cooling channels. Clean dry compressed air is blown into the parison inflating it to form the shape of the hollow bottle, container or part. The plastic must be cooled before it can be ejected from the mould. A typical mould can be seen in the picture below:
A critical stage in the extrusion blow moulding process is the cooling phase. The final product is technically frozen inside the mould cavities using cool water flowing through the cooling channels.
Because blow moulding typically uses an injection moulding technique to form the parison, the heat load from the hydraulic circuit powering the press must be removed.
More precise cooling capacity must be delivered to the mould responsible for cooling the finished product prior to ejection. Typical cooling requirements for the mould are as follows:
When calculating the cooling capacity required for the blow mould, the target mould temperature in and quantity of plastic that will be blown per hour must be obtained. The Kcal/hr of heat load that needs to be removed from the mould can then be calculated. For additional sizing information please contact your local Parker specialist.
Parker Hyperchill and Hyperchill Plus chillers offer an ideal solution for the plastic industry, providing a one-package solution to meet the different needs of plastic production processes thanks to:
This post was contributed by:
James Brown, compressed air and gas treatment/analytical gas sales manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
Filippo Turra, product manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
2 Mar 2021
Closure of bars and restaurants. Decreased consumer demand. Tightened budgets. The Coronavirus pandemic's impact on the food and beverage industry has been considerable.
Yet the sector remains resilient and businesses have innovated to meet changing market demands - and ensure they maintain operational capability. Essential manufacturing operations are faced with the challenges of maintaining worker safety while continuing to fulfill orders and meet delivery deadlines. Business interests are challenged to maintain profitability and cash flow to safeguard operations.
Even prior to the Coronavirus pandemic, producers in the food and beverage industry were focusing on driving cost reductions by making processes more efficient. The pandemic, however, has accelerated this push for greater efficiencies.
Across industries including dairy, brewing and wine production, effective filtration process optimization can have a significant impact on reducing production costs.
Parker Bioscience Filtration has extensive experience in optimizing filtration processes and works closely with customers to drive efficiencies. Specialist support from our technical service group (TSG) can help food and beverage manufacturers identify areas in their process where operational costs can be reduced.
There are many ways in which filtration processes can be optimized to reduce production costs - from the correct selection and sizing of the filters to choosing the right cleaning and regeneration regimes.
Operational efficiency is key to all manufacturing operations and having zero interruptions is the ideal scenario, as every interruption carries an associated cost.
Filtration solutions should not only safeguard against contamination but also need to minimize downtime.
Rapid remote monitoring and testing of filters can ensure that they are operating correctly, meaning that producers can reduce process downtime from filter change-outs, protect against product wastage from quality and contamination incidents and reduce operational costs by extending the life of filters.
Historically, liquid-based filter testing has required long stabilization and test times. Parker's Valairdata 3 sterile gas filter integrity testing solution is an effective alternative. Lightweight and portable, it provides results on-site within seconds through an aerosol challenge which is fully correlated to aerosolized bacterial and viral challenges and is a reliable accurate method for detecting integrity. Further minimizing downtime, the test filter can be introduced back into the process immediately after testing with no flushing or drying required.
The right filtration solutions can increase efficiency in multiple applications, whether they are generating greater efficiency in yeast recovery from fermented liquids, reducing quality incidents at the aseptic packaging stage or dairy food operations, or increasing productive fermenter volumes through foam management in off-gas separation.
Furthermore, reductions in energy costs and water consumption can be achieved through cold filtration in place of pasteurization - for instance in the brewing industry, where sterile filtration is being used to provide effective microbial stabilization without the energy costs associated with operating heat exchangers in the flash pasteurization process.
There are also options for optimizing operational costs and minimizing change-out frequency through working with our TSG to develop optimized cleaning and regeneration regimes that extend the life and value of the filtration products.
Case study - how our TSG minimized downtime and increased efficiency for a large independent brewery
Our customer was using Parker's PEPLYN PLUS and BEVPOR filters to clarify and stabilize beer prior to bottling. The filters were installed in a bottling line which was cleaned, according to the manufacturer's specification, using alternating caustic and acid cleans.
The compatibility of the filters with the detergents and conditions was unknown. Therefore, the filters were removed from the line when it was cleaned, to avoid chemical damage, and then sterilized using an autoclave before being re-installed in the system.
The solution to the brewery's downtime issue was to implement a clean-in-place (CIP) program which allowed for the line to be effectively cleaned with the filters in place. To achieve this, our TSG agreed on a trial protocol with the brewery and conducted a compatibility trial to ensure that the filters would not be damaged during the CIP process.
The PEPLYN PLUS and BEVPOR filters were exposed to CIP cycles using an acidic detergent, which contained a mixture of nitric and phosphoric acid at a 1 percent concentration and a temperature of 140°F/60°C, alternated with a CIP cycle using a caustic detergent at 1 percent concentration and a temperature of 140°F/60°C.
We provided and installed the filters which were used in the trial on the brewery site and these were sent to our laboratory regularly for condition inspection and integrity testing. We also trained the team at the brewery in the use of a Parker BEVCHECK PLUS integrity test unit which they were able to use to verify the integrity of the final membrane filters after each CIP cycle. The process parameters and integrity test values were recorded by the brewery's own team and monitored by our TSG.
The trial showed that after a period of six months and 49 CIP cycles, the filters remained integral - proving that they were compatible with the new cleaning method.
For the brewery, this was a significant development, as it meant that the filters could be left in-situ during the cleaning process, saving time and reducing operational costs.
This post was contributed by Lee Pattison, Food and Beverage Product Manager, Parker Bioscience Filtration, United Kingdom.
Parker Bioscience Filtration offers filtration solutions to protect the quality and taste of food and beverage products. By working with our application experts, manufacturers can develop a tailored solution to ensure their product is free from contamination, full of flavor and visibly clear.Related content
25 Feb 2021
Air handling unit (AHU) filters are used in an HVAC system to prevent dust and other contaminants from circulating in a building. They help improve indoor air quality (IAQ), which has become an increasingly important concern for all facilities since poor IAQ negatively impacts people’s health and productivity.
There are usually three types of filters within an air handling unit:
Primary filters are typically panel filters that have a pleated design. These pleats increase the filter’s surface area, allowing it to catch more dust. By collecting dust before it travels further into an AHU, primary air filters also prevent dust buildup from occurring on mechanical components such as motors, fans, and cooling coils, and in ductwork.
Where primary filters act as the first line of defense against dust, secondary filters are used after them to capture finer particles like bacteria and pollen, as well as any remaining dust. Secondary filters are generally filters that protect the higher-cost final filters and have an efficiency rating of MERV 11 -16. The higher the MERV value, the more efficient the filter will be at trapping airborne particles.
Both primary and secondary filters protect higher-cost final filters used when having clean air is critical. Final filters are designed to trap microscopic airborne particles and contaminants from an air stream. You can expect final filters to be Sub-HEPA, HEPA, or ULPA filters, which all serve the same function but deliver varying levels of filtration efficiency and performance.
As filters become filled with dust, or dust accumulates in the system’s ductwork, pressure resistance increases. This resistance causes the HVAC fans and motors to work harder, wasting energy and leading to wear on the mechanical system. The relationship between air filters, energy efficiency, and HVAC mechanical components is a delicate one, so your filters must not fail. Here we examine some of the most common reasons that filters underperform and ways you can avoid unnecessary problems.
When selecting a filter, it helps first to define the overall goal you are trying to achieve. Say you are trying to provide clean air for patients and employees. That would likely require using a filter with a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 14 or higher. The higher the MERV value, the more efficient the filter will be at trapping airborne particles. Great, you’ve narrowed that down. But there is often a tradeoff with using higher MERV level filters. While they produce cleaner air, they may also require a stronger fan and more energy to push the air through them. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have a high filtration efficiency and are most often used in hospitals and medical facilities. Always consult with your system’s manufacturer to determine the pressure difference across the filters in your AHU. Specifying high-efficiency filters will help create a lower pressure drop, making it easier for equipment to overcome these demands.
The bottom line is that you should specify filters that meet required filtration levels and system configuration needs. Choosing the right filter will yield a lower overall cost of ownership and require less frequent change-outs.
You have to know what elements your AHU filters might be exposed to at any given time. In agriculture buildings, for example, filters need to withstand extreme temperatures, wind and snow. In a commercial kitchen, humidity would be a factor to consider. Having this knowledge will help you determine what frame construction (paper vs. metal vs. plastic) or media technology (fiberglass, washable, antimicrobial, etc.) will be most appropriate.
HVAC filter size is measured using length, width and depth. While all manufacturers offer standard sizes, some will create custom sizes with dimensions to fit individual units or filter banks. Using incorrectly sized filters or filters that are improperly installed with faulty seals or gaskets can cause gaps. Even small gaps that may seem insignificant can permit a bypass of dirty air, decreasing the performance of the rated filter and the HVAC system. Always install a filter according to the air flow direction indicated on the frame. Check to be sure the filter is properly seated in the housing, and pull any clips or fasteners tight to ensure a proper seal. For filter banks, make sure the mounting is structurally sound and will not collapse or weaken the filters under stress.
The way a filter is handled and stored prior to installation matters immensely. Filters have fine structured media fibers, so care must be taken not to drop, touch or puncture them. A bent frame can mean the difference between a good and bad seal. The correct way to store air filters is in the upright position, with the pleats running vertically. Never store air filters flat on the ground or in a damp environment.
Regularly scheduled filter maintenance is crucial to achieving desired IAQ, reducing additional equipment maintenance and downtime, and extending the life of HVAC components. After selecting and installing the proper air filters, they should be monitored to ensure pressure drops are within established limits and to address any other filter issues that could overtax the system. Whether you track filter change-outs manually or use a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), keeping accurate service records can assist with HVAC system warranty claims.
Parker HVAC Filtration offers a broad range of filters to solve your most challenging filtration challenges. Our impressive legacy of filtration brands combined with our technical expertise have strategically helped customers across various industries and facilities achieve a better environment for their occupants, employees, manufacturing processes, equipment and livestock. Consider these trusted solutions for your next application, and as always, contact our Division at 1-866-247-4827 to speak with a filtration specialist.HEPA filters
Parker’s MICROGUARD® and MICROPLEAT™ premium filters deliver advanced performance for today’s clean manufacturing process and other critical environments.
When to use:
For higher air flow volume applications when high purity and energy savings are required. Feature and benefits include:
In 2020, Parker introduced LoadTECH® filters with our proprietary E-Pleat® media technology to help our customers meet increased air filtration challenges in their HVAC systems.
When to use:
To achieve fewer filter change-outs, reduced labor and disposal costs. Feature and benefits include:
Parker’s XTREME+Plus® standard capacity SSP filters offer extreme durability and industry-leading dust-holding capacity in normal operating environments.
When to use:
Applications with low and medium dust-loading conditions. Not recommended for use in high-temperature or turbulent air flow environments. Feature and benefits include:
To learn more about Parker’s commercial and industrial HVAC filtration capabilities, visit our website or call us at 1-866-247-4827.
This post was contributed by the HVAC Filtration Team.
25 Feb 2021
For packaged wine to be successfully placed on the market within the country of import, it must be microbiologically stable, visually clear and particulate free.
The accepted method of achieving microbial stability is to filter the wine using membrane filtration immediately before the wine moves into the packaging machine. The membrane filters should be validated to remove wine spoilage organisms without affecting the wine's essential characteristics, where typically 0.65 micron membranes are used for red wines, and 0.45 micron membranes are used for white wines.
Prefilters are used to retain fine particulate (and in some cases, microbial retention is also necessary), before the wine reaches a final membrane filter - which must offer validated microbial retention, be integrity testable, easy to clean and high flowing. Final filters should demonstrate retention to Sacchromyses, Brettanomyces, Acetobacter and Oenococcus.
The standardization / pre-stabilization process addresses the wine's microbial stabilization, clarity and potential for blocking subsequent final filters prior to packaging.
When preparing the wine for export, the winery will adopt a method of standardization, to achieve stability during transport, protect essential characteristics and reduce the levels of sulfur dioxide required.
However, these standardization treatment methods vary between country, region, winery and wine type, leading to variable qualities of wine being received by the packaging facility. In response to this, the packaging facility should make a quick assessment of the incoming wine to understand its filter blocking potential (Filterability Index or FI testing) and then perform its own standardization process when off-loading the wine from the road tanker, prior to storage.
Historically, standardization was carried out by powder filtration or using sheet filters, but other technologies have become available which have offered significant improvements, including lenticular / stacked disc solutions, cross flow filtration and cartridge filtration. The table below shows a comparison of the different standardization technologies to achieve the target conditions in the wine.
Cartridge filtration for wine stabilization during tanker off-loading
The use of cartridge filtration is an attractive option for wine standardization for tanker off-loading, as there are numerous advantages over the other technologies.
The filter cartridges used are typically available in a range of absolute retention ratings and should have been validated by the filter manufacturer to give specific retention against spoilage organisms under different operating flow rates or feed pressures. This in turn leads to very well-defined retention characteristics.
As a result, the final filtration can be easily tailored to suit the type of wine being filtered, allowing flexibility to optimize the process against specific requirements.
Long service life
Operational costs are minimal and are dictated by the frequency of filter change-outs due to blockages, which will be influenced by the level of contamination within the wine.
However, cartridge filters can be easily cleaned to aid regeneration and repeated use, so extended operational lifetimes can be easily achieved. Effective cleaning is a significant drawback experienced with the operation using the sheet / lenticular format of filter. Due to the construction of sheets / lenticulars, the filter media is very difficult to regenerate through cleaning and often leads to damage rather than effective regeneration.
Increased wine protection
By standardizing the quality of wine delivery, the wine bottling / packaging facility can access further cost savings in the form of extended operational lifetime of the final filters used prior to bottling.
Capital costs are dictated by the complexity of the system including the degree of automation required. For a simple manually operated filtration skid, capital costs are kept low and are attractive to bottling / packaging facilities with multiple loading / off-loading locations within the facility. Full automation can be included or added to the system later to help optimize further and improve filter lifetime through standardized CIP (clean in place) regimes.
For wine tanker loading / off-loading, Parker's PREPOR NG range of cartridge filters is a highly effective solution. They utilize a graded density polypropylene filter media which has been developed with the global wine industry to achieve optimum operation in wine standardization applications.
The filter media used in PREPOR NG filters retain spoilage micro-organisms and fine haze forming colloidal material while being capable of regeneration through chemical cleaning and backwashing operations. As a result, PREPOR NG filters can reduce the FI value of wines to deliver the correct quality of filtered wine for tanker loading / off-loading while being capable of repeated use under variable loading conditions.
There are many approaches to the wine standardization process, however, the requirements of the process are consistent: to protect the essential characteristics of the wine during storage and to standardize it prior to final filtration.
Cartridge filtration with PREPOR NG filters is an economical and flexible approach to the processes of wine standardization for tanker loading / off-loading and delivers on the key criteria required to perform optimally in this application.
Use of PREPOR NG cartridge filters for tanker off-loading applications will return significant processing cost savings for wine bottlers / packagers in the forms of:
This post was contributed by Lee Pattison, food and beverage product manager, Parker Bioscience Filtration, United Kingdom.
Parker Bioscience Filtration offers filtration solutions to protect the quality and taste of beverage products. By working with our application experts, manufacturers can develop a tailored solution to ensure their beverage is free from contamination, full of flavour and visibly clear.
Find out more about Parker Bioscience Filtration's solutions for the wine industry
11 Feb 2021
For the last twenty years, the print industry has been on a journey of technological transformation. Printing markets are changing, many publishing products have electronic versions replacing previously printed media. E-books, online newspapers and magazines are taking significant sections of their respective markets, while directories, catalogues and brochures have electronic alternatives.
These factors have seen a shift from traditional products to packaging and labelling, where demand is growing fast. In fact, the print market is forecast to continue expanding for the next five years.
The digital age has allowed machine manufacturers to develop systems that are now so advanced that printing companies have been forced to invest in the latest machinery in order to remain viable in the market.
Product designs are now sent online to print companies, which will generally be able to turnaround and deliver finished product within 24 hours. Older methods of waiting for inks to dry have been replaced by UV systems where the ink is instantly cured. The ability to rapidly cure inks has allowed printing machinery to run at higher speeds and significantly increasing productivity.
The role of chillers
A consequence of modern machines running at higher speeds is that they use more energy.
This generally results in the liberation of more heat. In most print applications, excess heat is a problem for the following reasons:
Chillers play an essential role in printing applications. They are vital in providing the machinery with temperature stability, which is in turn, critical to ensuring the quality and speed of production are maintained.
Most machine manufacturers circulate chilled water through the critical components to reject the unwanted heat and provide stable working temperatures.
The heat load is generally removed by circulating chilled water through the print roller or through the UV curing lamps.
Chilled rollers provide cooling directly to the product to maintain consistency of throughput. The chilled water passes through rotary unions at each end of the roller.
Cooling of UV and LED lamps
UV and LED lamp systems are used to create ultraviolet light that can be directed onto the printing surface. The UV light reacts with the wet ink resulting in rapid curing and drying. The UV curing method is common in modern and large print systems as the printing throughput can be significantly increased. Chilled water is typically passed through a heat-sink attached to the bulb mounts and maintains a stable operating temperature.
Cooling in large printing operations
Larger printing systems often adopt a centralised system, where an integral heat-exchange unit is used to control the cooling of individual components in the line. An externally located chiller is then used to provide primary cooling to the integral heat-exchange unit.
The diagram below depicts a typical large printer installation. Click to enlarge.
In many instances, the complete print line is supplied by an integrator that packages a number of OEM systems to provide the customer with the required solution. Ink curing through UV lamps is commonly employed in these larger lines. Hyperchill and Hyperchill Plus chillers offer a robust and cost-effective solution and are ideally suitable to meet the cooling demands from a UV based system.
Why Parker chillers?
Hyperchill and Hyperchill Plus chillers deliver safe and reliable operation under the varied working conditions typically found in the printing industry.
Design features on Parker chillers can deliver significant benefits to the end-users. Some key features and benefits for printing are as follows:
This post was contributed by James Brown, compressed air and gas treatment/analytical gas sales manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
Filippo Turra, product manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
26 Jan 2021