In today’s production environment, compressed air is widely used to automate processes, provide motive power, and package products. A clean, dry, reliable compressed air supply is essential to ensure manufacturing facilities maintain efficient and cost-effective production processes to meet output goals.
There are many types of compressor technologies to choose from, including an oil free variant. The promotion of oil free compressors often targets industries such as food and beverage, pharmaceutical and electronics where oil contamination from compressed air is a major concern. Unfortunately, during the selection, purchase and installation of an oil free compressor, the downstream air treatment system is often neglected. For this reason, production and facilities managers are often disappointed that oil and water contamination are still present in their compressed air even after the installation of a new, oil-free compressor.
In this blog we will identify:
For a detailed analysis of contaminants present in compressed air, independent test data findings, rotary screw compressor operation, ISO standards and best practices on how to achieve technically oil free compressed air, download the complete white paper, "How To Get Oil Free Air From an Oil Free Compressor".
The two leading sources of oil in compressed air are:
If these sources of contamination are not addressed, oil will infiltrate the air receiver and distribution piping, becoming a widespread issue in the manufacturing facility.
Ambient air contains gaseous oil (vapor). It is a combination of hydrocarbons and VOC (volatile organic compounds) which come from natural sources as well as vehicle and industrial exhaust. While oil vapor in air regularly exists in a reasonably low volume, it will be comparatively higher in urban areas, industrial environments, and near parking lots, roads and highways.
Large volumes of ambient air are drawn in through compressor intakes. The oil vapor in the ambient air cannot be seen in its gaseous state. However, once in the compressor, some of it will cool, condense and form liquid and aerosol oil. This issue increases as the air is compressed (squeezed), creating a higher concentration of oil in the confined space of the compressed air system.
Oil from the compressor
One obvious solution that manufacturing and plant managers turn to in their effort to reduce oil in their compressed air system is to use an oil-free screw compressor.
While there are certain benefits to using this type of compressor, it is a misconception that they will eliminate a potential source of oil contamination completely. While oil-free compressors do not use oil in their compression stage, oil can be introduced from these sources:
Oil carryover from ambient air - Oil vapors in the ambient air are drawn into the compressor intake, compressed and concentrated. These concentrated vapors then enter the compressed air distribution system where they can cool and condense.
Oil carryover from the compressor - The oil used in the closed-loop system to cool and lubricate the bearing and gears heats up and vaporizes during operation. This closed-loop system is vented inside the compressor cabinet, releasing oil vapor. This can often be a source of oil contamination of the compressed air.
Inter-cooling/after cooling - Oil free compressors typically use two compression stages. An inter-cooler is typically placed between the two stages to cool the air down. Before exiting the compressor, the compressed air passes through an after cooler to cool it to a more usable level.
Liquid and aerosol introduction - As the inter-cooler and aftercooler cool the compressed air, it reduces the air's ability to hold water and oil vapors. Cooling condenses the vapors into liquid water and liquid oil which is carried along the air at high velocity. Rough internal surfaces of the piping, elbows, fittings, etc., disrupt the flow of condensed liquids which causes them to atomize and produce droplets or aerosols of water and oil.
Liquid reduction - Many air compressors are fitted with an integrated water separator to reduce liquids. This helps to remove larger volumes of liquid contamination; however, it will not remove fine droplets (aerosols) and oil vapors.
While an oil-free screw air compressor is a common choice of industrial manufacturers, consideration must be given to the placement of the compressor away from high oil vapor concentration in ambient air sources, like parking lots and highways, whenever possible. In addition, awareness of other requirements for oil lubrication, and the threat they present, like venting of closed-loop lubrication on the compressor itself, is critical. Finally, the recognition that treatment of the compressed air for oil and other contaminants is still necessary, even with an oil-free compressor, and is critical to the efficient operation of the plant. Let’s take a closer look at air treatment.
Using international standards to specify oil free compressed air
ISO8573 series is the most commonly used standard for compressed air. It is made up of 9 separate parts. Part 1 refers to air purity (quality). Parts 2-9 provide details on the equipment and methodology used to accurately measure for different contaminants in a compressed air system. For more information on understanding ISO classification tables, read our blog, "Six Points to Consider When Applying ISO8573-1 in a Manufacturing Facility".
ISO88573-1 provides users a way of specifying an air purity required for the entire compressed air system and or for individual usage points for each contaminant (particulate/water/total oil).
Class 0 is a reference to an ISO8573-1 air purity classification. It is also often referred to as an oil contamination classification, but it can also be applied to solid particulate and water.
Almost all oil free rotary screw compressors are sold under the banner of Class 0. Unfortunately, the ISO 8573-1 Class 0 classification is often misunderstood or misapplied to air compressors. It is important to remember:
The implication is that oil free means that produced compressed air is free of any trace of oil. This is misleading and difficult to prove or guarantee in practice. This is due to the fact that 0.003 mg/m30.003 mg/m3 measurement must be conducted within the methodology presented in the ISO8573 series. However, the limitation of accuracy for the measurement of total oil is 0.003 mg/m3, not zero.
Technically oil free air
A definition of technically oil free air has been created to define a compressed air system that has been treated to reduce oil to the low limit of measurability: 0.003 mg/m3.
It is occasionally used to imply an inferior quality of compressed air compared to the so-called oil free air delivery by an oil free compressor — when in fact the treated air will be of a higher quality.
Therefore, technically oil free compressed air is as close to oil free compressed air as possible, with total oil levels down to 0.003 mg/m3.
In short, no they cannot for these reasons:
Industries like food and beverage, pharmaceutical and electronics need to be especially concerned with introducing oil and other contaminants to their products via compressed air. Below are some common misconceptions:
In conclusion, technically oil free compressed air, i.e., ISO 8573-1:2010 Class 1 for Total Oil or ISO8573-1:2010 Class 0 (0.003 mg/m3 for Total Oil should be specified.
In order to achieve technically oil free compressed air, the following purification equipment must be installed.
These will treat the oil vapor drawn into the compressor intake and residual oil in the distribution lines throughout the facility. They will also remove other solid and liquid contaminants.
Achieving technically oil free compressed air requires a careful approach to system design. Treatment in the compressor room should be robust enough to protect the downstream piping system. Then at the points of use, additional treatment should be installed to address the specific needs of each individual critical application. The ISO air purity specified should be reflected at the last stage of filtration on the line ahead of use.
Oil in a compressed air system is not the only concern for users. There are a minimum of 10 contaminants found in a compressed air system, oil being one of them, that require treatment:
To operate any compressed air system safely, efficiently and cost-effectively, contamination must be reduced to acceptable limits. Failure to control contamination can result in a myriad of problems for manufacturers and consumers including:
Ensuring effective compressed air contamination control requires a number of purification technologies. In fact, the purification equipment required downstream of an oil free compressor is identical to that of an oil lubricated compressor. The table below highlights filtration and drying technologies and the contaminants they reduce:
Due to the financial and commercial impact of a contaminated product, many companies specify the use of an oil free compressor, in the mistaken belief that this will deliver oil-free compressed air to critical applications. Oil free compressed air systems are typically installed without downstream purification equipment intended to treat oil, as they are deemed unnecessary accompaniments. While oil-free compressors do not use oil in their compression stage, oil can be introduced from other sources. Therefore, treatment of the compressed air for oil and other contaminant removal is still necessary, even with an oil-free compressor. Failure to control contamination can impact production, company image and financial performance.
To learn more about how to assure technically oil free air, remove other contaminants and about key components of a compressed air treatment system, please download our white paper, "How To Get Oil Free Air From an Oil Free Compressor".
This article was contributed by Mark White, compressed air treatment applications manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
Whether it’s a 25-foot pleasure boat, million-dollar yacht, luxury cruise ship or large tanker, they all have one thing in common: they need potable water. That’s why marine desalination systems continue to receive so much focus and research.
The search for a space-efficient, lighter weight seawater desalination system is ongoing as space is precious on most marine vessels.
The need for space efficiency is balanced by the desire to:
It takes energy to separate salt from water. Historically, desalination was an energy-intensive process that only could be handled in a large industrial plant. But innovations in technology and design have made it possible to create smaller, more efficient, portable systems.
Desalination by reverse osmosis is typically preferred because RO systems offer better energy efficiency, economics and a smaller footprint. But there are other promising technologies on the horizon.
One example is desalination based on ionics, where a cationic diode is combined with an anionic resistor. The key advantage is the system’s low energy requirements and the use of no moving parts. It is estimated, however, that an ionic desalination system may still be about five years out from being market-ready. The search continues for more robust materials that won’t quickly disintegrate as a result of the ionic process.
The next big thing in desalination technology will be small, and we will continue to see designs getting smaller and more modular. This is so they take up less space without compromising the amount of salt water they can convert in a certain amount of time.
Parker is leading the way in this area. It recently filed a patent pending for its energy recovery technology for reverse osmosis systems used in the leisure market. At a dry weight of only 21.7lbs /10 kg, it will be the smallest energy recovery device on the market.
A reverse osmosis system with Energy Recovery system uses one-third the amount of energy of a standard RO unit. The system recovers energy using backpressure from the RO membranes and the movement of dual pistons that generate higher pressure. A similar design with a larger pump is being explored for larger commercial applications.
This allows boat builders to run the watermaker off battery power instead of the generator without compromising freshwater production.
The market is excited about the potential of wave energy to produce wave-powered water purification. In Hawaii, testing is under way on a new system that will produce electricity from wave energy to provide water for an entire island. If successful, the new wave-powered system will replace the existing generator as a more environmentally friendly alternative.
Wind power also has been suggested as an option, as has desalination of sea water using solar energy. Challenges remain on how to make this potential power source more consistent.
Islands that rely on converting sea water for their drinking water have demonstrated an interest in mobile water purification systems. These containerized systems are especially valuable for disaster relief efforts that have been supported by multiple Parker products. As is the case on marine vessels, size is a critical issue. All components need to fit within the space of the container.
Engineering innovations are focused on making smaller desalination systems without sacrificing water output. Efforts to date have not relied on making material changes as much as they have on packaging changes.
The way equipment is mounted can affect space requirements. So, engineers need to look at systems that can operate as efficiently when mounted horizontally as they do when mounted vertically. That means testing must be conducted in all directions.
Change has been slow to come in the marine market. Many of the designs and technologies currently used today, especially on larger commercial vessels, are not that different than they were years ago. That is partially a result of the rigorous certification process required for most major components used on commercial vessels. Commercial operators largely base their purchasing decisions on a manufacturer’s experience, a product’s proven performance and certification.
But that doesn’t mean there isn’t room for innovation. There is substantial focus on identifying ways to lower costs of the more expensive system components, including membranes, pumps and filters. Newer membrane materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, can impact costs by optimizing production levels and/or lasting longer.
With more cities running out of clean water and an increase in the number of serious storms creating drinking water shortages, the greatest push for marine desalination technology advancements may come from the land rather than the sea.
This article was contributed by Paul Kamel, Product Manager II, Parker Bioscience and Water Filtration.
Mobile bottlers face varying conditions at each wine producer’s facility. At every step of the filtration process, they need to anticipate differences in wine chemistry, storage methods, and pre-processing factors that have a direct impact on wine quality. Without reliable products and an effective solution in place, the mobile bottler can experience:
A Northern California mobile wine bottler with over 40 years in the industry was looking to improve efficiency, maximize production time and deliver optimal product quality to their winery clients through a more streamlined filtration process. They turned to Parker because of the company’s deep experience in food and beverage filtration.
Parker’s Depth-Clear lenticular filter and housing served as the first line of defense in protecting final filters prior to bottling. Using Depth-Clear 0.3 micron nominal nine cell (C9) lenticular filter, the mobile bottler no longer observed unexpected downtime due to mid-run final membrane filter fouling. As a result, the overall filter consumable costs were also reduced.
By partnering with Parker, the mobile bottler was able to efficiently package client product with the added assurance of delivering quality standards that meet winemaker demands.
Depth-Clear lenticular filters, constructed of specially formulated cellulose media and inorganic filter aids, provide reliable particle retention and enhanced throughput for superior performance in critical applications. The filter media utilizes mechanical and electrokinetic adsorptive capture mechanisms to remove particles, microorganisms, and colloids from critical process streams. The lenticular format allows the filtration process to occur within a totally enclosed environment. This eliminates the potential for atmospheric contamination and product loss through leakage.
Features and benefits:
Parker's recommended filtration solution resulted in:
Now, watch this video to learn more about Parker Lenticular Filters and Housings.
Parker works with bottlers around the world to address variable conditions that exist from one wine producer to another using the right combination of filtration parameters for clarification, stabilization, and final sanitization to ensure shelf-stable wine product with consistent quality. Contact us to discover how Parker can provide your next solution.
This blog was contributed by Ben Harrison, project engineer, Parker Bioscience and Water Filtration Division.
If your dust is combustible, you need to be concerned with the risk. According to a report published by Dust Safety Science¹, 34 dust explosions and 115 fires were logged globally in just the first six months of 2019. The incidents during this period resulted in 13 deaths and 66 injuries.
Could any of these dust explosions or fires have been prevented had a dust hazard analysis (DHA) been conducted? Proper dust explosion protection and housekeeping are critical, but new safeguards need to be taken. According to NFPA 652, you should have a DHA complete by now for any dust or powder that is collected. According to Dust Safety Science, in the past four years, the US averaged 33 dust explosions, 30 injuries, and three fatalities per year. These fires and explosions resulted in over $1 million in property loss.
Scrutinizing dust collectors
Dust collectors are being scrutinized because 53% of all primary dust explosions happen within dust collectors, which can result in secondary explosions in or around the facility. Explosions are devastating as are all safety incidents when they can be avoided. Know your options.
Location of primary explosion by operation¹
Recommended approach for prevention
Consider the key points listed below and ask yourself "Do I need explosion protection?"Analyze your dust
Design the right dust collection system
Correct operation and maintenance
The recommended approach for explosion and fire prevention can be implemented with a dust hazard analysis (DHA).³ What is a DHA? It’s a systematic review of all processes. The review determines where a fire or explosion could occur. It looks at the causes and what the consequences are and determines if existing safeguards are enough. If they aren’t, the DHA will include a recommendation of what safeguards are required.
You need to make sure that the review is completed by a “qualified person.” Someone with the experience and credentials that can properly identify potential abnormal conditions. You can expect that they will look at all processes that create dusts.
The analysis will include how fires could move between processes, determine what is normal, abnormal, and what an upset condition would look like. They will itemize all processes and equipment including bins, tanks, silos, hammer mills, pulverizers, grinders, welders, dust collectors (wet and dry) conveyors, screw augers, bucket elevators, sifters, and screens, etc.
The DHA will identify all materials that create dust and what the hazard could be, review all SDS sheets, and review books and online material for information on the dust. The analyst will determine if dust requires testing by a lab and help you develop a plan for dust control, housekeeping, training, and preventive maintenance.
If just one part of the fire triangle or the explosion pentagon can be removed, the hazard is eliminated. Both figures have oxygen, ignition source, and fuel. Oxygen is pretty much impossible to eliminate, so we will concentrate on the other two, ignition source, and fuel.
Ignition source can be managed by coordinating the following:
All decisions of what is required come down to the “authority having jurisdiction” (AHJ). This person could be the local fire marshal, OSHA inspector, or the insurance underwriter to name a few. There should be someone at your facility that works with the AHJ on preventative measures and the protection plan designed for your facility. The bottom line is that the owner of the facility is responsible for all local, state, and federal codes, standards, laws, and regulations for combustible dusts.
This blog was contributed by Phil Rankey, lead application engineer, Parker Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division.
1 dustsafetyscience.com/dust-safety-science-podcast/, August 24, 2020
2 dustafetyscience.com, August 24, 2020
3 www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=652, August 2020
A tour of any modern manufacturing facility will uncover the extensive use of compressed air.
Production managers and quality managers may not be aware of the potential hazards associated with this common utility. Untreated, compressed air entering a wet air receiver and distribution system contains many contaminants, and one of the most problematic is water. Water not only causes corrosion, but it also promotes the growth of harmful micro-organisms.
Whether compressed air comes into direct contact with a product, or is used to automate a process, provide motive power, package products, a clean, dry and reliable source of compressed air is essential to maintain a safe, efficient, and cost-effective production process.
This blog examines sources of microbial contamination, factors that contribute to microbial growth, risks associated with untreated compressed air, and the most effective methods of control.
To learn more about the risks of micro-organism contamination in a compressed air system, testing methods, examples of microbial growth, technology recommendations, and best practices for cost-effective system design, download the white paper.
Ambient air is the air we breathe and it’s all around us. It’s also the air that is drawn in by air compressors. One cubic meter of ambient air typically contains between 140 and 150 million dirt particles — and anywhere up to 100 million of these could be micro-organisms. Eighty percent of these particles are smaller than 2 micron in size and not visible to the human eye. The images below show examples of the types of micro-organisms and their sizes found in ambient air.
Large volumes of ambient air are drawn into the compressor intake as the compressor is running. Particles the size of micro-organisms are too small to be captured by panel and intake filters, so they travel freely into the compressed air system.
When the air is compressed, it is "squeezed" down into a smaller volume. Since the compression process raises the temperature of the air, the air needs to be cooled before use. This process condenses water vapor into water aerosols and droplets, fully saturating the compressed air. As the wet compressed air enters the storage and distribution system, it provides the ideal environment for microbial growth.
Dangers of microbial contamination
If compressed air directly or indirectly contacts products, packaging materials, instrumentation, or production machinery, contamination is likely. Microbial contamination from compressed air can:
Untreated compressed air exhausted from pneumatic tools, valves, cylinders or machinery can also contain micro-organisms. If this exhausted air is inhaled by employees working nearby, it can lead to workforce illness. Workers should wear personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling compressed air condensate as it can also contain micro-organisms. Caution should be taken as condensate discharges. The condensate (containing micro-organisms) can be easily be inhaled, especially when timed solenoid drains or manual drains are used because these can aerosolise.
ISO 8573-7 is the international standard used to test compressed air for micro-organisms. It is used in conjunction with ISO 8573-4 (solid particulate).
First, the air is tested in accordance with ISO 8573-4 for solid particles. Next, samples are taken using a slit sampler to distinguish between a particle and a micro-organism. The slit sampler passes compressed air over an agar plate. The plate is then taken to a laboratory, incubated, and checked for growth. This test determines if the air is sterile or non-sterile and if required, provides a count of colony-forming units (CFUs).
Partial flow test equipment required
Best practices to control and microbial growth in compressed air
To control microbial growth, a combination of very dry compressed air and high-efficiency filtration should be used.
First, all traces of liquid water and water aerosols must be eliminated from the compressed air.
Next, the dewpoint of the compressed air must be reduced to a level known to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. A dewpoint of <-26°C inhibits growth but is not available from dryer manufacturers who use the 3 dewpoints from ISO 8573-1 to classify dryer outlet dewpoint; therefore ≤ -40°C is used. The lower the pressure dewpoint, the more effective the control. Achieving the right dewpoint will stop the growth but micro-organisms can still survive and flourish again if exposed to moisture.
Combining the optimal dewpoint with high-efficiency dry particulate filters (particulate reduction down to 0.01 micron at 99.9999% efficiency) located at the point of use will significantly reduce microbial concentrations down to acceptable levels.
If sterile air is required for critical applications, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, additional absolute rated air sterilization filters should be used to achieve 100% removal of micro-organisms and particles.
There are many different drying technologies available, but not all are able to deliver the outlet dewpoint required to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. Types of dryers include:
The table below shows the six ISO 8573-1:2010 dewpoint classifications and typical dryer technologies used to achieve the required dewpoint.
Specifications to control micro-organism growth
The recommended pressure dewpoint to control the growth of micro-organisms is ≤ 40°C, equivalent to ISO8573-1:2010 Class 2 for water. The recommended specification for point of use dry particulate filtration is a high-efficiency grade providing particle reduction down to 0.01 micron with a removal efficiency of 99.9999%, equivalent to ISO 8573-1:2010 Class 1:2:1 or ISO 8573-1:2010 Class 1:2:0.
The warm, dark, moist air found in a compressed air system provides the ideal environment for microbes to grow and flourish. Untreated compressed air contains many potentially harmful or dangerous contaminants that must be removed or reduced to acceptable levels to protect consumers, employees, the brand, and provide a safe and cost-effective production process. The most effective way to control the growth and proliferation of micro-organisms is with a combination of very dry compressed air and high-efficiency filtration. For applications requiring sterile air, absolute rated air sterilization filters should be used.
Parker Oil-X filter range and modular dryer ranges have been designed to provide quality that meets or exceeds the levels shown in all editions of ISO 8573-1 and the BCAS Food and Beverage Grade Compressed Air Best Practice Guideline 102. Parker filtration and dryer performance have been independently verified by Lloyds Register.
Recommended filtration products
Recommended drying products
Download the white paper to learn more about the risks of micro-organism contamination in a compressed air system, testing methods, examples of microbial growth, technology recommendations, and best practices for cost-effective system design.
This article was contributed by Mark White, compressed air treatment applications manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
In industries ranging from manufacturing to off-highway, the efficient management of engineering resources is more important than ever as businesses face the acceleration of customer demand for high output at peak performance and reliability. Engineering teams are continually seeking ways to improve existing technologies and hydraulic systems without diminishing the integrity of their designs. The application of high-fidelity simulations is one way that system design engineers are using technology to produce greater results.
In the production of mobile hydraulic systems, for example, manufacturers aim for reliable, efficient and cost-effective solutions. The predictive capabilities of state-of-the-art computational tools that provide real-world accuracy enable engineers to better understand the coherent phenomena and make rational decisions when developing systems. These physics-based simulation technologies promote collaborative product development practices between CAD, PDM and supplier management systems, and hence realize the innovation in response to engineering requirements.
To learn how computer simulations can be used as design instruments, read a case study detailing the fluid and structural mechanics of hydraulic tanks presented in our white paper “Design Innovation Through High-Fidelity Simulations”.
Determining a better structural design of hydraulic systems is a never-ending problem. A wise practice is to explore all possible dimensions of physics to achieve the best solution. The design of hydraulic tanks offers an interesting example of the effectiveness of virtual engineering. Here, the predictive capabilities of state-of-the-art computer simulations can be used to examine models of the effects of a variety of conditions, including:
Hydraulic tanks tend to receive foreign matter of different physical and chemical properties from the return line flow. Although the solid contamination can be separated from the oil stream using a return line filter, air bubbles can pass through the filter and enter the tank. As a result, there can be sudden pressure fluctuations that can lead to cavitation and variable thermal loads.
The return line fluid temperature defines the system operating conditions and is imparted to the tank’s internal structure while the external surface of the tank is exposed to ambient conditions. This can create considerable temperature gradients in the tank’s structure.
The structural behavior of the hydraulic tank in response to the flow and pressure as well as the variable thermal loads constitutes a multi-physics problem with the aspects of bubble motion, turbulence, heat transfer, and structural dynamics.
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling provides the opportunity to introduce and adjust the variables and evaluate design alternatives at a rate much faster than prototyping. This allows for several alternatives to be studied simultaneously by the engineering team, resulting in quicker solutions for product improvement.
Major engineering trends such as hybridization, 5G, autonomous systems, etc. are transforming the products and processes in many disciplines. Applying virtual reality in the design phase is much faster, and more economical than conventional prototyping and testing. Additionally, these high-fidelity simulations provide undeniable value by, for instance, suggesting suitable materials, appropriate tolerances and adequate manufacturing methods, etc. — all leading to the efficient management of engineering resources.
Download our white paper, “Design Innovation Through High-Fidelity Simulations” to learn how computer simulations can be used to examine the effect of inlet configurations on flow patterns of hydraulic tanks.
This article was contributed by Jagan Gorle, Ph.D., principal R&D engineer, Parker Hydraulic & Industrial Process Division.
Biopharmaceutical manufacturers have traditionally implemented bulk final filtration and bulk dispensing as two separate unit operations – with multiple operators assigned to carrying them out. However, this approach can be inefficient in a number of ways.
Drug product needs to be transported between the two unit operations. This movement of product and materials not only wastes operators’ resources but also increases the time taken to complete the final stage of the manufacturing process. There is also a risk of product loss and contamination during the transition between two unit operations.
Implications for biopharmaceutical manufacturers
The manual nature of bulk final filtration and bulk dispensing as two separate unit operations also has implications for biopharmaceutical manufacturers.Involving multiple operators in the process increases the potential for variability and human error. This can lead to product losses and in the event of contamination, the loss of entire batches – with the resulting financial losses, reputational damage and market shortages of life-changing drugs.
Human error can also lead to inaccuracies; for example, more product being transferred to a bottle or bag than is required can have a significant impact on production and can be financially damaging too – especially given the high value of the product when it reaches this stage.
There are also cost implications of the man-hours dedicated to the two unit operations – as well as the fact that specialist staff may be more effectively employed elsewhere in a process, rather than being used to manually operate pumps and valves.
Using a separate open process for bulk filling after filtration can expose a sterilized batch to potential contamination and given the product is in its most concentrated and valuable format at this time, the consequences can be grave.
How can efficiency be improved?
Parker’s SciLog® FD (Filter and Dispense) System automates, standardizes and encloses final bulk filtration and dispense operations. The system brings bulk final filtration and bulk dispense into one unit operation, which is optimized for both functions.
The SciLog® FD System removes the variability and potential for human error that is inherent in manual processes and it allows manufacturers to apply pre-defined recipes for dispensing. Stages such as sampling and product recovery are automated, while in-line pre and post-use filter integrity testing is built into the system.
How does the SciLog® FD improve efficiency in bulk final filtration and bulk dispense?
Additional advantages Reliability
Gain a greater understanding of the SciLog® Filter and Dispense FD at the SciLog® suite at Parker Bioscience Filtration’s site at Birtley, UK.
You can undertake interactive demonstrations with the SciLog® FD system and run trials to determine how the equipment can be used to optimize your processes. This can also be carried out virtually through a video link.
Contact us to book into the SciLog® suite.
This post was contributed by David Heaney, market development manager, Parker Bioscience Filtration, UK
Parker Bioscience Filtration specializes in automating and controlling bioprocesses. By integrating sensory and automation technology into a process, a manufacturer can control the fluid more effectively ensuring the quality of the final product.
In today’s foundries, facilities engineers and maintenance personnel are challenged with effectively balancing increases in throughput with reductions in costs. Maintaining the optimum performance of baghouses is a critical area of focus as they can have a significant impact — either positive or negative — on the output of a foundry.
Learn how a U.S. foundry venting multiple processes with a shaker baghouse solved high differential pressure, short bag life, costly maintenance and reduced furnace airflow problems. Download the case study.
A foundry located in the U.S. was experiencing high differential pressure and short filter bag life in their baghouses, resulting in costly maintenance and problems with reduced furnace airflow. Specifically, the 3-compartment Bahnson Hawley/Norblo shaker baghouse did not provide adequate airflow to the four induction furnaces, a scrap pre-heater system, and a mag inoculation station it vented. The filters were blinding with fine particulate, and the resulting high-pressure drop across the collector reduced the original design airflow of 40,000 CFM to 28,000 CFM.
The foundry knew they needed expert advice on how to solve these issues before it was too late. They turned to Parker because of the company’s deep experience in air filtration design and equipment. Parker’s specialists determined that a system like the one installed at the foundry required a design air volume of 55,000–60,000 CFM — well beyond the capabilities of the old shaker-style baghouse.
Parker’s engineering team designed a pulse-jet cleaning conversion for the existing housing incorporating the high efficiency of BHA®PulsePleat® filter elements. In the design, the existing housing had the maintenance-intensive shaker mechanisms and thimble tubesheet removed and retrofitted with a flat tubesheet for installing the top-loading BHA®PulsePleat® filters from inside a walk-in clean air plenum. The design called for only 336 BHA®PulsePleat® filter elements to meet the calculated design air volume at a 4:1 air-to-cloth ratio.
BHA® PulsePleat® filter elements can revitalize your dust collection system, by solving the most common baghouse problems: lack of capacity, short filter life, and low efficiency. PulsePleats can increase the filtration surface area in your present baghouse system facilitating higher throughputs, longer life, and higher efficiencies. Benefits include:
The foundry decided to move forward with Parker Hannifin’s recommendation. The system was installed to the design specifications and the improvements quickly proved worthy of the investment. Some of the key findings included:
Effective business management starts with identifying inefficiencies and implementing real-world solutions that provide maximum benefits through increased production and reduced operational costs. By installing Parker’s innovative BHA® PulsePleat® technology, this foundry reduced furnace airflow problems, extended bag filter life and reduced high maintenance costs.
To learn more about the application, download a copy of the case study “
US foundry venting multiple processes with a shaker baghouse solved high differential pressure, short bag life, costly maintenance and reduced furnace airflow problems.”
This blog was contributed by the Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Team.
As production facilities managers can attest, global wine production and consumption continue to flourish. Record production levels of 293 million hectolitre were reached during 2018. Europe continues to dominate wine production with Italy, France and Spain accounting for approximately 51 percent of global production. This puts additional stress on operations for plant managers.
Precise process cooling is one of the most critical requirements in modern winemaking. The application of cooling during several production steps facilitates high volume production whilst maintaining the unique flavour profile of the final product. Temperature control is also an important factor in wine preservation where consistent quality is required to allow distribution of the product to the global market. Hyperchill and Hyperchill Plus chillers offer a robust and cost-effective solution ideally suited to the exacting cooling demands of the wine industry.
Winemaking has been around for thousands of years. Many traditional and modern techniques are employed to produce the vast array of wine products found in the market place. There are different approaches required to produce red, white and sparkling wines.
In general, wine production can be split into 5 steps:
The diagram below details the wine processing stages and where chilling may be applied:
Temperature control through precision chillers may be employed in the following wine processes:
Cold maceration techniques are often employed in the production of red wines. The process is applied prior to alcoholic fermentation and can improve the extraction of taste and colour compounds from the grape skins, seeds and stems into the wine must. Wines manufactured in this way are considered to have more fruit flavours and colour intensity, in addition to reduced tartness.
Cold maceration can be achieved using several methods. Precision chillers, in conjunction with tubular heat exchangers or jacketed vats, are often able to deliver the required cooling capacity. Cold maceration usually occurs between 4-15°C for a period of two to seven days.
Temperature control of the wine must during the fermentation process is essential in the production of high-quality wines. Alcoholic fermentation is an exothermic chemical reaction in which yeast is used to transform the natural sugars into alcohol.
Optimal fermentation temperatures range between 18-20°C for white wines and 25°C for red wines. If excess heat is not removed from the process fermentation can stop, this can result in a poor taste profile with high sugar content. Additional additives such as Sulphur Dioxide are then required to prevent spoiling during storage.
Precision chillers are generally used to supply the cooling fluid to helical coils or jacket heat exchangers in the fermentation vessel. The diagram below depicts a typical set-up:
At low temperatures, a natural component called potassium bitartrate can crystallise out of the wine and leave sediment in the bottle. The crystals are considered an undesirable component in high-quality products.
Cold stabilisation is often practised prior to bottling to remove excess potassium bitartrate. The wine is chilled close to freezing point and held at this temperature for up to 48 hours. The low temperatures cause the potassium bitartrate to precipitate out of the solution where it can be filtered off before bottling.
The diagram below shows a typical set up for tartrate precipitation:
Hyperchill and Hyperchill Plus chillers deliver safe and reliable operation under varied working conditions that can meet the challenges found in the wine industry.
Key features and benefits for the industry are as follows:
This post was contributed by James Brown, compressed air and gas treatment/analytical gas sales manager and Filippo Turra, product manager, Parker Gas Separation and Filtration Division EMEA
Sourcing fresh water for onboard use is an important consideration for the blue water cruiser. Blue water cruisers are boats designed to handle and be out in rough seas off the coast. These boats are designed for long passages across open water. Potable water can either be stored in tanks on the vessel, or it can be provided on-demand through the use of an onboard watermaker. A watermaker turns salt water into fresh water by removing salt and other contaminants. These new on-demand water purification systems can be installed on almost any vessel.
Parker's latest generation of its Aqua Whisper Pro series of fully manual watermakers brings efficiency and noiseless operation to your yacht and leisure craft. The Aqua Whisper Pro is suited for charter, offshore fishing, and ocean cruising. It’s traditional manual functions and touch-pad control panel allow simple operation and digital and analog instrumentation for redundancy.
The Sea Recovery Aqua Whisper Pro is an extremely quiet, compact watermaker for leisure marine applications, designed with the blue water cruiser in mind.
Another key feature is unobstructed access to the main components for ease of maintenance.
“The modular version offers customers a water maker package that allows for customized installation of the components.”
— Paul Kamel, engineering manager for Parker Bioscience and Water Filtration
The Aqua Whisper Pro utilizes precision engineered components and features a modern push-button controller interface with a digital display. Driven by AC or DC motors, this configuration enables boat owners to fit their watermaker into tight spaces. Integral to every SRC Aqua Whisper Pro unit is an open frame, resulting in less installation time.
The watermaker utilizes a stainless steel pump specifically designed for seawater reverse osmosis applications. The unique design of this high-pressure pump reduces the noise level to a negligent hum.
Blue water cruising
The Aqua Whisper Pro produces between 450 to 1800 GPD of water, making it perfectly suited for mid to large-sized yachts and fishing boats.
New lower energy consumption watermaker
The low-hassle PRO (Parker Reverse Osmosis) Mini System is engineered to fit anywhere. Measuring at about 2 - 3 cubic feet, sail, center console, small power boaters and catamarans have the opportunity and the convenience of a Sea Recovery Watermaker without space restrictions. Featuring a simple interface, the PRO Mini can be monitored via the control panel or remote (optional). The perfect seaworthy companion for the solo cruise, the PRO Mini can produce up to 7,15, 23, or 31 gallons of fresh water per hour and 170, 350, 550, or 750 gallons per day.
Whether you use it to drink, for cooking, to shower, for washing clothes or dishes, or to wash down your yacht, a Parker reverse osmosis (R.O.) watermaker system offers more than enough potable water for any crew, big or small. Having a Parker watermaker on board provides unlimited possibilities for saving money, and increasing leisure time.
This article was contributed by Paul Kamel, engineering manager, Parker Bioscience and Water Filtration