With today's demands of increased industrial production and tighter emission controls, dust collectors can be pushed beyond their design limits. If they fail to keep up, production and profitability suffer.
Pleated filters and cartridges pack a lot of filtration surface into a small space. This results in narrow gas passages that get clogged by sticky dust. Optimizing pleat geometry to balance filtration area, gas velocities, and dust release is key to the Advanced Airflow Technology that keeps airflow passages free of dust accumulation in the new BHA® TotalPleat™ filters. Dust doesn’t get trapped!
It's in the design
Parker Hannifin engineers applied extensive computational fluid dynamics modeling during the research and design of TotalPleat™ to analyze the effects of the cleaning pulse as it strikes the filter’s top face. The cleaning pulse of the collector strikes the back half of the filter at an angle and typically is intended to flow unaided toward the front half. For more cleaning power, BHA® TotalPleat™ is designed with an inclined, louvered grid that deflects a portion of the cleaning pulse toward the front of the filter to evenly distribute it across the entire filter.
The Parker Hannifin BHA® TotalPleat™ aftermarket replacement filter is a cost-effective alternative to the PowerCore® filter pack for the Donaldson PowerCore® CP dust collector. Parker Hannifin’s proprietary MERV 15 TotalPleat™ filter provides significant advantages over the PowerCore® design; specifically, customers report longer filter life.
BHA® TotalPleat™ delivers long filter life. Learn for yourself with our handy infographic or download the white paper and Learn more about the engineering behind BHA TotalPleat.
TotalPleat™ was specifically developed to fit Donaldson PowerCore® CP dust collectors, part numbers P032358-016-340 and P280356-016-340. This new filter features an innovative design that minimizes pressure drop, provides meaningful energy savings and results in extended useful filter life.
This blog was contributed the Filtration Team, Parker Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division.
Powercore® is a registered trademark of Donaldson Company, Inc.
The increased reliance on renewable forms of energy makes it more important than ever to identify energy sources that can efficiently supplement the variable output and available peak load capacities of such renewable sources like wind and solar power generation. Of the various options, reciprocating internal combustion engines are an ideal choice because they represent a decentralized, flexible, and reliable source for power generation. Reciprocating engines represent one of the more mature technologies used for power generation and play a critical role in numerous other industrial, commercial, and institutional applications. Originally developed in the 19th century, the most significant improvements occurred in the past three decades, driven by economic and environmental pressures for power density improvements (more output per unit of engine displacement), increased fuel efficiency, and reduced emissions.
Reciprocating engines have proven especially beneficial in producing peaking power to supplement renewable sources, such as wind and solar energy, during high demand periods. In today’s dynamic energy industry, there is a greater need for flexible, efficient electricity generation. No longer can we predict peak demand patterns. As wind and solar energy sources achieve greater market penetration, their intermittent energy supplies present challenges to operators trying to balance loads and maintain frequencies.
Download our white paper Reciprocating Engines: A Mature Technology that Is Proving Especially Relevant in Today’s Energy Environment to learn why reciprocating engines are the optimal peak power producers and best practices for maintaining performance.
Critical attributes for power generation
Reciprocating engine plants are well suited for flexible peaking and intermediate generation needs in the 20-300 MW output range. They offer competitive heat rates and multi-shaft reliability to compete in energy markets, plus industry-leading ramp rates and startup times to compete in ancillary services markets. These are critical attributes since these engines when powered by diesel fuel, are increasingly being used for emergency standby or limited duty-cycle service because of tighter emission standards and the relatively higher cost of fuel. Dual-fuel and gas-fueled reciprocating engines represent the engines of choice for the higher duty cycle stationary power market.
Ongoing improvements in efficiency, cost, emissions reduction, and usage of advanced fuel and/or hydrogen will ensure that reciprocating engines continue to remain viable and competitive with newer technologies such as fuel cells and microturbines in the distributed generation market. Their increased usage is also a result of newer configurations, involving the installation of multiple large engines, which make them competitive even in power generation applications of 200 MW or more.
Reaping the rewards of a preferred intermittent power source
There are several reasons why reciprocating engines are the ideal peak power producers, including:
Reliability- When operated and maintained according to manufacturer recommendations, modern reciprocating engines commonly exhibit availability factors of 95% or better.
Quick response- Reciprocating engines can start-up and ramp load more quickly than most gas turbines.
Efficiency- Reciprocating engines are very efficient, especially when incorporated into combined heat and power schemes (CHP) over a wide range of loads.
Versatility- These units can adapt to many industries and can be run on a variety of liquid and gaseous fuels, biofuels, and biogases, as well as carbon-neutral synthetic fuels.
Low water usage- Power plants using internal combustion engines tend to require significantly less water than similarly sized combined-cycle or simple-cycle natural gas turbine plants, resulting in cost savings.
Despite all their benefits, reciprocating engines are not without their disadvantages. Work is ongoing to help overcome specific challenges regarding environmental impact and efficiency. Reciprocating engines have improved significantly over the last two decades in terms of increased efficiency and reduced emissions. Electronic engine control and improved combustion chamber design, including the use of pre-combustion chambers, allow engines to operate on leaner fuel mixtures. Improvements in materials and design have allowed engines to operate at higher speeds and power densities while still maintaining long life.
“The primary challenge today is being environmentally friendly. Reciprocating engine manufacturers are being asked by customers and regulations to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and hydrogen.”
Jeff Pappalardo, market development manager for gas turbines and reciprocating engines, Parker Hannifin
Although natural gas burns much cleaner than diesel, it is not a 100% clean option. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs – unburned, non-methane hydrocarbons) are the primary environmental concerns with reciprocating engines operating on natural gas.
Noise pollution is another concern with reciprocating engines because they generate more noise than turbines. With newer environmental regulations addressing the problem of noise pollution, there is more focus by manufacturers and engineers to change and enhance designs so as to minimize noise.
Although reciprocating engines have a comparatively high reliability rate, regulations and competitive pressures are driving engine manufacturers to continue performance and efficiency improvements.
Adjusting for changing loads
Weather conditions and times of day influence the amount of renewable power generation being fed to the grids. An ongoing challenge is that most existing thermal plants are designed for continuous high loads. This contrasts with the fact that reciprocating engines today are more often providing stand-by or intermittent power, which results in highly fluctuating load requirements. Although reciprocating engines can start up and reach full load capacity quickly and can withstand dramatic changes in load with many starts and stops, that is not to say such less-than-ideal situations don’t take their toll on equipment performance and service life.
Maintaining performance and efficiency
As is the case with most engines, a reciprocating engine is only as good as its maintenance. Engines need to be regularly inspected and maintained to keep peak performance. This is especially true given the demanding, corrosive environments in which most reciprocating engines operate.
Corrosion can affect an array of components so the use of advanced materials is important for those engines used in corrosive environments. Proper sealing is critical because leaks will shorten part lives and reduce engine efficiency. For example, if leaks occur in the combustion system, fuel flooding can occur thus damaging the piston rings. This will greatly reduce the combustion efficiency of the engine.
There are several preventative actions that should be taken to ensure that internal combustion engines are running at peak performance and not subject to added wear and tear. Ongoing monitoring will improve performance, reduce maintenance costs, and avoid unexpected failures, all of which lead to greater reliability, more efficient operations, and reduced fuel consumption and emissions. Unplanned outages are expensive, giving rise to the increased focus on predictive maintenance programs.
Understanding how you can make the most of new technologies
Reciprocating engine manufacturers continue to develop technologies that enable engines to operate with more fuel flexibility, allowing the engines to run on traditional fossil fuels, natural gas, and hydrogen. That’s good news, but it also means that users need to fully understand the increased component requirements that accompany these advanced technologies.
Download our white paper Reciprocating Engines: A Mature Technology that Is Proving Especially Relevant in Today’s Energy Environment to ensure your power generation plant is realizing the full potential of the latest reciprocating engine technologies and real-time system monitoring.
Article contributed by Jeff Pappalardo, market development manager
Engin Cekic, global account manager, power generation reciprocating engines
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In harsh industrial manufacturing environments, dust collectors can be pushed beyond their design limits, negatively affecting production and profitability. Filtration can be complicated with all the variables found in a dust collection system. Filter air passages can easily become clogged with sticky dust - resulting in frequent change-outs and unscheduled maintenance. That's why it's more important than ever to use the most effective, reliable filtration available.
Parker has developed an innovative aftermarket replacement filter, BHA® TotalPleat™, to replace PowerCore® CP filter pack. Part numbers P032358-016-340 and P280356-016-340.
The BHA® TotalPleat™ is a proprietary MERV 15 filter offering numerous improvements and advantages.
This blog was adapted from the white paper, BHA® TotalPleat™ Delivers Long Filter Life. Download your copy today.
Advanced airflow technology
The innovative deep-pleated design is engineered to keep 92% of the filter face open to flow, yielding high efficiency, effectiveness, and long service life.
More open air passages
The filter is designed with larger airflow passages, creating 50% more open airways compared with OEM filter packs. The open-pleat spacing extends to the filter’s full height to maximize use of the media surface area. Strategically placed glue beads lock the pleatpack together so the air passages remain open throughout pulse cleaning.
Increased available filter face area
The TotalPleat™ filter face is 28% more open compared with the OEM filter. TotalPleat™ has larger and fewer airflow passages, and this pleatpack is designed to minimize the number of glue beads or plugs to hold the pleatpack together - optimizing filter face availability.
Technology maximizes pulse cleaning, saves energy
Even distribution of cleaning pulse
Dust can be more fully ejected during pulse cleaning. The dust-laden air flows into TotalPleat™ at a 22% lower air velocity compared with the OEM filters. The TotalPleat™ filter’s higher percentage of available surface area and larger airflow passages prevent dust from getting trapped. The cleaning pulse can reach the full depth of the filter on the clean side. On the dusty side, the open pleat spacing gives improved dust ejection. The cleaning pulse is then better able to reach the full depth of the TotalPleat™ filter and effectively clean the filter media.
Parker engineers applied extensive computational fluid dynamics modeling during the research and design of TotalPleat™ to analyze the effects of the cleaning pulse as it strikes the filter’s top face. The cleaning pulse of the collector strikes the back half of the filter at an angle and typically is intended to flow unaided toward the front half. For more cleaning power, BHA® TotalPleat™ is designed with an inclined, louvered grid that deflects a portion of the cleaning pulse toward the front of the filter to evenly distribute it across the entire filter.
Energy savings are realized when dust is fully ejected from the filter during cleaning as a result of the even distribution of the cleaning pulse. Fewer pulses are required to keep the filters running at low dp and less energy is consumed. TotalPleat™ beta sites across the country demonstrate this innovation in pulse cleaning results, improved performance, and longer filter life.
At beta site test locations, the dust collectors vent a variety of applications that challenged the BHA® TotalPleat™ filters with different operating conditions, grain loads and dusts to be filtered.
Longer service life
At each beta test location, customers reported a longer useful life with BHA® TotalPleat™ filters than they experienced with the OEM filter packs. At several locations, TotalPleat™ filters have been running for longer than 12 months in applications where the OEM filters lasted only three to four months. At one beta site, the OEM filters plugged with dust in one week, requiring replacement; whereas TotalPleat™ was still running after 16 weeks.
Parker's R&D department conducted full-scale testing using our ASHRAE 199 test rig at our Industrial Filter Test Lab and Customer Experience Facility in Slater, MO, throughout the TotalPleat™ filter development project.
The ASHRAE 199-2016 test protocol defines a six-stage test procedure to measure the performance of industrial pulse-jet dust collectors and air filters. Our engineers collected data to compare filter differential pressure trends and the number of pulse-jet cleaning cycles required to maintain DP. Each stage of the ASHRAE 199 test has a defined duration, with the entire test being about 50 hours. While designed to be somewhat of a pass/fail test, the test is useful to compare the performance of various filters.
The greater percentage of open flow passages within the BHA® TotalPleat™ pleatpack that allow dust to be pulse cleaned more completely is key to outstanding performance. In combination with the louvered grid, the open flow passages on the clean side significantly improve the cleaning pulse’s penetration into the filter’s full depth. This keeps TotalPleat™ flow passages clear of dust accumulation; dust doesn’t become trapped in the filter. This innovative, new design minimizes pressure drop and results in extended useful filter life.
This blog was contributed the Filtration team, Parker Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division.
Powercore® is a registered trademark of Donaldson Company, Inc.
The global gas turbine market is expected to experience substantial growth in both the short- and long-term in response to a growing need for a reliable, cost-effective electric supply with few carbon emissions. Such growth is being spurred by increased investment in the replacement of conventional matured infrastructures.
Due to its abundant supply, ease of deployment, and relatively low cost, natural gas has become the preferred choice to fuel most of today’s gas turbines, although there is a growing movement to supplement natural gas with hydrogen.
Download our white paper Overcoming Operational Challenges to Improve Gas Turbine Efficiency and learn how engineers are adopting new technologies and tools to increase the output and efficiency of gas turbines.
The gas turbine industry has evolved a great deal in the past 100 years with some of the greatest advances being made in the areas of improved efficiency, lower emissions, and increased output. Recent innovations have focused on designs and materials that allow faster starts, quicker ramp-ups, increased efficiency, better, more reliable performance, and reductions in carbon emissions.
In the areas of efficiency and emissions control, combined cycle gas turbines have become more popular. Although more expensive, they provide an ideal means for capturing additional energy by extracting hot exhaust gases to raise steam and produce additional energy. Another recent design trend that is effectively increasing output and efficiency is the move toward larger turbines. As the size increases, the cost per kilowatt lessens. Bigger turbines are also in a better position to effectively replace coal or nuclear plant. A remaining challenge with the larger turbines, however, is that they require larger components that are harder to monitor, thus creating the need for additional sensors and analytics to avoid premature failures or added maintenance requirements.
Maintaining efficiency despite start/stop requirements
Gas turbines will always be needed because more renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, are not capable of producing energy 100% of the time. The challenge, however, is to develop flexible operations that can quickly respond to rapid changes in the grid. When more power is demanded, however, the industry most frequently turns to gas turbines to fill the void. The ongoing need to turn off the engines and start them up again presents its own set of challenges.
“These engines are designed to operate continuously at certain ranges. When they don’t run continuously, they are less efficient, and emissions increase. Turning them off and on is hard on the various moving components and causes more wear and tear on such things as start systems, fuel control valves, actuators, and the like. Since cycling is a harder mode of operation, there is a greater need to monitor components with sensors that can watch trending performance, efficiency decreases, and filter life”
Evan Berry, global account manager, Parker Hannifin
As engineers continue to upgrade older models to increase output and create designs that accommodate faster ramp-up, increased cyclic operation, and longer intervals of operation at low partial loads, they need to be mindful of increased deterioration of seals and bearings and a greater risk of blade flutter and fatigue damage. Temperature, fuel flow, fuel pressure, airflow, air pressure, exhaust gas flow, fuel quality, and exhaust gas particulates may also be indications that an engine is not running optimally, and that maintenance may be required.
Optimizing gas turbine efficiency in extreme environments
Despite the industry’s focus on enhancing efficiency, most gas turbines today are only about 40% efficient, which means 60% of the heat generated is wasted if using a simple cycle operation that relies on a gas turbine alone. With combined cycle operations, a steam turbine uses the wasted heat from gas turbines and turns it into additional energy. The result is improved efficiency but at a considerable cost.
At the heart of efficiency, the battle is a need to run hotter. Due to the thermodynamics of the process, a gas turbine runs more efficiently and produces greater output as the temperature goes up. However, building a turbine with a higher firing temperature and efficiency is extremely difficult as there are few materials that can tolerate such high temperatures without melting.
Addressing those concerns, major improvements have been made to gas turbine components:
Superalloys with extreme temperature tolerance and durability.
Specialized seals and material solutions to handle higher temperatures assessed as critical to enabling combined cycle gas turbine efficiency beyond 65%.
Thermal coatings with improved durability to protect turbine parts from heat.
Sensors monitoring turbine performance and component life that are rugged enough to endure intense heat.
Turbine inlet cooling technologies that reduce the temperature of the intake air to mitigate reduced power output.
Adapting operations to increased use of hydrogen
Although natural gas has been a preferred fuel for gas turbines for some time, the industry is undergoing a large-scale power sector shift toward decarbonization. The biggest downside of natural gas is that it is a fossil fuel that, when burned, produces various emissions, including carbon dioxide. With more companies implementing aggressive green initiatives, interest is growing in cleaner fuel sources, such as hydrogen which, when burned, produces only water as a byproduct. In response, several major power equipment manufacturers are developing gas turbines that can operate on a high-hydrogen-volume fuel that is a blend of natural gas and hydrogen.
Hydrogen, the most abundant and lightest of elements, is an attractive fuel alternative for multiple reasons:
Odorless and non-toxic, it has the highest energy content of common fuels by weight, to be used as an energy carrier in a full range of applications, from power generation to transportation and industry.
Emerging technologies to produce it are reaching technical maturity and economies of scale.
Concurrently, hydrogen is not without its problems. There are safety concerns such as:
Difficult in handling because it burns violently and, potentially explosive.
Highly combustible range, only requiring energy equivalent to static electricity to ignite.
Flashback, combustion pressure fluctuation, and NOx.
The unique characteristics of hydrogen and the mixing of hydrogen with air are chief causes of flashback, a phenomenon in which flames inside the combustor travel up the incoming fuel and leave the chamber.
Since it burns faster and hotter, materials with higher melting temperatures must be identified.
As it’s not as dense as natural gas, existing fuel lines will also need to be resized to make them larger.
Hydrogen molecules are so small that they can penetrate most metals. That requires the use of newer, softer seals and/or special metals to avoid hydrogen diffusion.
Storage problems- whether stored as a gas requiring high-pressure tanks, or as a liquid requiring cryogenic temperatures.
Gas turbines are only as good as their individual components. Today there is a greater understanding of the value of keeping components in prime condition and monitoring their performance in order to conduct maintenance before catastrophic failures occur. Yet, it’s not merely about preventing failures and scheduling maintenance during non-peak times. As a result, there has been a transformative shift from preventative maintenance to predictive maintenance. So instead of scheduling maintenance at predetermined times, regardless of remaining component life, today’s savvy maintenance managers are using sophisticated sensors and analytics to accurately measure service life and predict when worn components or contaminated fluids are at a point of adversely affecting turbine performance.
In recent years there have been major strides made in developing more sophisticated, remote condition monitoring and fault diagnostic systems. Some of the more critical areas of focus for monitoring include:
Getting the most out of your gas turbine operations today
Despite some of the remaining challenges, the future of the gas turbine industry remains bright. There are several major players dedicated to developing the solutions that are necessary to make gas turbines more efficient, reliable, and green. While the market waits for the next big innovation, however, there are many improvements you can make in your own operation today to realize greater cost efficiencies and increase output.
Download our white paper Overcoming Operational Challenges to Improve Gas Turbine Efficiency and learn how to improve output from your gas turbine operations.
Article contributed by Evan Berry, global account manager, Parker Hannifin
Follow our Power Generation Industry page on Linkedin to keep up with the latest products, technologies, and energy-saving solutions for Steam & Gas, Biogas & Landfill, Coal/Oil/Gas-Fired Boilers, Reciprocating Engines, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Water Energy, and Transmission and Distribution.
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According to the McKinsey Global Gas and LNG Outlook to 2050 report, demand for LNG is expected to grow 3.4 percent annually to 2035 — with approximately 100 million metric tons of additional capacity needed to meet demand growth as well as decline from existing projects1.
The liquefaction process introduces a large contraction in volume to the product, making it much more economical to store and transport over extended distances from the source. This helps to establish new customers and underscores the LNG market's strength.
This blog was adapted from an article originally published in a recent issue of LNG Industry. Download a copy of the article: Why LNG Needs The Right Filters.
Raw natural gas (the feed gas) is extracted from the reservoir in its wet state. Once water, CO2, H2S and Hg are removed, it typically contains 85 – 95 percent methane. It also contains heavier hydrocarbons, such as ethane, propane and butane. Conditioning of the natural gas to remove some or all of the non-methane components is a common requirement of LNG production. These components are then often sold separately as natural gas liquids (NGLs) or natural gas condensate. Methane needs to be cooled to -259.6°F/-162°C to liquefy it, a temperature considered as cryogenic. Storage and transport of the LNG then needs to ensure this cryogenic state remains.
The compression process
For LNG production, compressors are used to compress refrigerants, not to compress the actual unprocessed natural gas. These cooled, liquid refrigerants are then subsequently used as the cooling medium within heat exchangers, which cool the natural gas and convert it into LNG.
The loss of a compressor that may ultimately lead to an operational shutdown (planned or otherwise) could cost millions of dollars per day in lost production, so the reliability of operations for extended intervals is essential.
Choosing a driver
A compressor is a rotating piece of machinery and requires something to mechanically drive (rotate) it. There are four basic options for this: a reciprocating engine, a steam turbine, a gas turbine or an electric motor. The most common options in use today are the gas turbine and the electric motor.
Proven LNG-applied performance, cost and wide range of available sizes make the gas turbine the most popular choice by far for LNG refrigerant compressor drivers.
There are two dominant options in today’s marketplace for the refrigeration cycle process for large capacity LNG trains: Air Products’ propane precooled mixed refrigerant process, AP-C3MR™, and the ConocoPhillips Optimized Cascade® process (a number of variations on these two processes have been developed and implemented in recent years). When a process has been selected, the number of refrigerant compressors and mechanical drivers can be determined.
Typical gas turbines used may be heavy duty frame engines (currently the frame 7E is a popular choice) that generate approximately 90 MW (equivalent), or a higher number of smaller aeroderivative units, which tend to generate approximately 30 – 35 MW (equivalent), such as the LM2500+. Whichever architecture is selected, keeping the plant running for extended periods is always the top priority.
Frame engines have bigger output, are heavier and more robust. Economy of scale also provides for a lower dollar per kW ratio with frame engines.
Aeroderivative engines are smaller but with higher efficiency and easier maintenance/changeouts of components. They are less robust and typically require more frequent maintenance. They do, however, offer significant operational flexibility by allowing some gas turbines to be taken offline for periods of time (with reduced LNG output), without having to take the entire liquefaction train down and flare all gas being processed. Frame engine driven refrigerant compressor trains do not typically have this capability – when the gas turbine goes down, the entire train goes down. The size and weight of the aeroderivative engine also makes it more suited for FLNG applications.
Filters are vital to system performance
In an LNG train, a single turbine shutdown could result in the process being taken offline with lengthy shutdown and startup procedures leading to huge losses. To maximize uptime and ensure continued, consistent performance of the gas turbines a carefully designed air intake filtration system is required. Typically, gas turbine compressor issues relating to the ingestion of ambient air particulate, salts and hydrocarbons account for 60 – 80 percent of overall gas turbine losses2. Reducing or eliminating this contamination correctly is key to reliable plant operations and maximizing LNG output.
Gas turbines are subjected to a wide variety of contaminants, which if not addressed, can cause corrosion, erosion and fouling, leading to reduced performance, or even complete and catastrophic failure of internal components. A filtration system should be designed based on specific installation and environmental conditions on site, as well as the operational needs of the end-user.
For LNG compressor drivers, this typically means extended uptime with very high efficiency (EPA+ levels of filtration), minimizing compressor fouling. LNG plants are typically situated in coastal (salt laden) environments, so wet and dry salt mitigation and the use of hydrophobic filtration are also key requirements.
Filtration system requirements
A filtration system is needed to protect the gas turbine from multiple contaminants present in the air — contaminants that will vary significantly day-to-day and season-to season. For example, in a dusty coastal location, there will be high levels of both dust and salt. If an area is prone to high humidity or fog events, moisture will periodically also be a crucial factor. To handle different challenges, multiple stages of filtration are required.Dust
In high dust areas, as levels of captured contaminant build up, the differential pressure across the filter will increase sharply. In these areas, self-cleaning filters, which use reverse pulses of compressed air to periodically remove layers of captured dust, are often selected.Moisture
To handle moisture, coalescing filters are often added upstream of the main filters to agglomerate droplets and help stop the captured dust becoming sticky/muddy (with a resultant pressure drop increase). If there are very high levels of dust, however, there is also a risk that the coalescer itself becomes blocked and is either forced out of place, or the large pressure spike causes the unit to alarm and shut down.
The TS1000 is a technology from Parker which uses a mesh designed to deliberately allow dust and sand to pass through while coalescing free moisture. This leaves the final filters to handle relatively dry dust and sand; something they are perfectly well designed to address. Treated Microfibre glass is the preferred choice of filtration media for very high efficiency final stage filters, providing high-level dry particulate removal and hydrophobic (wet salt removal) performance. Microglass is approximately 10 times thicker than some other high efficiency medias on the market. This ultimately means it is more resistant to blockages, and any pressure increases occur slowly and predictably over long periods of time, avoiding the infamous ‘hockey stick’ effect, when pressure drop (Delta P) increases rapidly with very little warning.
Having multiple filtration stages for LNG intakes also provides the ability to change filters without the need to shut down the turbine, commonly a key requirement. This requires careful design to ensure the stages offer the right incremental levels of filtration to avoid frequent blockage, and to ensure contaminants do not affect turbine performance. As changeout of the prefilter stages, which are designed to capture larger particulate and coalesce moisture, can occur without shutting down the turbine, the air intake system designer needs to consider and design for ease of online changeout from the outset.
For the very high efficiency final filtration stages, filters should be selected that offer extended service life. Using an extended 24 inch deep filter, rather than a traditional 12 – 17 inch filter, is one option which increases the surface area for particulate collection and, therefore, requires less frequent changeout. In general, prefilters should require changing no more than around once per year; second stage filters once every two years; and third or fourth stage filters (if present) approximately once every four years. If a filtration system requires more regular maintenance than this, a review of its design is recommended.
The demand for LNG is set to continue to rise and the reliability of the systems used to liquefy the gas is critical. Any unscheduled shutdown can lead to significant costs and a huge revenue hit from lost production. Although the gas turbine filtration system may appear a small concern for the overall LNG train performance, having the right filters in place will have an enormous impact on the short and long-term performance of the plant.
This post was contributed by Pete McGuigan, Parker Hannifin Ltd, UK.
This blog was adapted from an article originally published in a recent issue of LNG Industry. Read the entire article, Why LNG Needs The Right Filters.
2. GEA18414 – offline water wash optimisation for F-class gas turbine pulsed wash systems.
The quest for compact dust collectors in the industrial manufacturing arena has led to the increased use of filter cartridges. Among these dust collectors is one developed by a manufacturer using PowerCore® filter cartridges. When filtering dust that doesn’t easily release from the filter media, cartridges often plug and restrict airflow. Soon, several customers and operators of these smaller dust collectors found themselves dealing with filter issues and contacted Parker for a solution.
The innovative TotalPleat™ aftermarket replacement filter was developed to fit Donaldson PowerCore® CP filter part numbers P032358-016-340 and P280356-016-340. The proprietary MERV 15 filter provides numerous improvements and advantages over the OEM filter.
Our engineering team used advanced engineering tools, computational fluid dynamic modeling, and 3D printing to design a filter cartridge that can handle more demanding conditions. Innovations like our louvered grid on top of the filter not only more evenly distribute the cleaning air but also serves as a handle for cartridge removal and ASHRAE 199 testing validated the new design.
The installation | case study
After extensive analysis, laboratory, and beta-site testing, some of the first BHA® TotalPleat™ cartridges were installed in September of 2019 in a collector in the southeast United States. The collector, on top of a cement loadout silo, is in plain view of the adjacent interstate and visible dust emissions would attract immediate attention.
With the new TotalPleat™ cartridges, a remote monitoring device was installed to track the collector’s performance. As of December 2020, there had never been any visible emissions from the TotalPleat™ filters and differential pressure has been excellent (see chart on page 2 for the dp trend).Application details
The cement dust filtered by the TotalPleat™ cartridges has more moisture than normal, can be sticky, and harden on the filter media when the moisture condenses. The intermediate use of this collector favors condensation and moist dust. To avoid excessive dust buildup, the cartridges are cleaned continuously during collector operation. Off-time, the time between pulses is 23 seconds and results in one complete cleaning cycle every three minutes. The continuous cleaning requires a tough filter media to withstand the high number of impacts generated by the pulse valves. By December 2020, the cartridges had received over 45,000 pulses, there are no emissions and the differential pressure is still quite low, overall: very good.
A year-plus after installation and without any maintenance, the TotalPleat™ filters are still running strong while the original OEM cartridges had emission and pressure drop problems within the first three months of operation. In several instances, TotalPleat™ life has quadrupled compared to the OEM cartridge, as reported by customers.
What is noteworthy is that during the first days of operation, the TotalPleat™ filters were slightly damaged because the header pressure for the pulse valves was accidentally set to 100 PSIG instead of 60 PSIG. This has not caused any operational issues or emissions and speaks well for the robust new design.
Why do the TotalPleat™ filters perform better?
Pleated filters and cartridges pack a lot of filtration surface into a small space. This results in narrow gas passages that get clogged by sticky dust. Optimizing pleat geometry to balance filtration area, gas velocities, and dust release was key to the advanced performance of the TotalPleat™ cartridge. The louvered grid improved cleaning efficiency by properly distributing the cleaning energy to the entire pleat pack. That is why BHA® TotalPleat™ has longer filter life and the ability to better discharge the accumulated dust. The TotalPleat™ filter cartridges are a direct replacement for the Donaldson PowerCore CP filter part numbers P032358-016-340 (MERV 13) and P280356-016-340 (MERV 15). TotalPleat™ cartridges are completely incinerable.
This blog was contributed the Filtration team, Parker Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division.
Powercore® is a registered trademark of Donaldson Company, Inc.
As regulatory pressure continues to curb greenhouse emissions, there has been a lot of attention on solar and wind energy. However, a less-publicized renewable energy source could play a major role in preparing for a world that is less dependent on fossil fuel — tidal energy.
The potential energy that could be harvested from tidal movements on a global scale is enormous, with some experts citing about 1 terawatt of power is stored in the world’s oceans. This would be enough to power 10 billion 100-watt lightbulbs at once.
Industry experts describe tidal energy as one of the greatest untapped renewable energy sources on the planet. In the U.S., where there are thousands of miles of coastline, the Department of Energy estimates that developing just 5% of tidal energy’s identified technical resource potential would generate electricity in the amount of 12.5 terawatt-hours per year, which is enough to power slightly more than 1.1 million typical American homes.
Read part 2 of our white paper- 2021 Power Generation and Renewable Energy Trends, to explore renewable energy technology trends, both established and newer technologies including hydropower, wind, solar, and biogas.
Tidal energy pros and cons
Tidal energy is attractive for many reasons. It is environmentally friendly and represents a highly predictable energy source, especially when compared with wind energy or solar power. It also offers high energy density and provides an inexhaustible source of energy with comparatively low operational and maintenance costs.
There are several disadvantages, however, that need to be addressed before tidal energy can reach its full potential. The largest barrier to tidal energy is the high cost associated with building tidal power stations. Another major concern is the potentially negative environmental effects on marine life. Spinning blades can injure living organisms, as can water fouling resulting from various system components.
Other disadvantages of tidal energy include the variable intensity of sea waves. Plus, there are location limits. Tidal energy plants must be located where tides are the strongest, yet not too close to cities where aesthetic concerns prevail.
Recent technological developments have reduced economic and environmental costs to competitive levels, opening the door to a bright future for tidal energy.
Leading technologies for capturing renewable ocean energy
There are two primary methods of generating electricity from tides:
Tidal range devices utilize the difference in water levels between high and low tides.
Tidal stream devices utilize the energy of flowing water in tidal currents to generate electricity directly.
A tidal barrage is one of the better-known tidal range devices. Tidal barrage technology utilizes dam-like structures that are often built across the entrance to a bay or estuary. Their tunnels contain turbines that generate energy created by the changing heights in tides.
Although tidal barrages have a long history, their future is less certain. High installation costs and concerns about the effects on local marine life have turned the interest from barrages to stream devices. These include a variety of turbine designs, as well as more innovative concepts, such as oscillating hydrofoils and tidal kites.
Many different technologies are currently in development in the tidal stream sector. Challenges remain, however, before they may prove commercially viable.
Durability is a primary concern, as any tidal stream device needs to withstand greater loading forces because of the high density of water. There are also concerns regarding the impact of tidal turbines on water quality since they disrupt upstream and downstream current velocities. In addition, local sea life is adversely affected by noise pollution, the generation of electromagnetic fields, and possible injury from rotor blades and other moving parts.
Designing tidal turbines to withstand harsh marine environments
Tidal turbines are similar to wind turbines in that they have blades that turn a rotor to power a generator. They can be placed on the seafloor where there is strong tidal flow. Because water is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines must be much sturdier and heavier than wind turbines, which makes them more expensive to build. However, they can capture more energy and release greater amounts of power with the same size blades.
Given the increased water density, the harsh corrosive environment of the sea, and concerns about oil leaking from components and harming marine life, tidal energy systems require components that are highly durable, reliable, and proven safe.
Parker has led the market with several innovative products that have proven, over time, to withstand the harsh marine environment and provide safe, reliable operation.
Some of these products include:
A proprietary Global Shield™ Coating Technology for steel cylinder rods that offers significantly increased corrosion protection for longer component field life at a lower cost than stainless steel.
Parker F37 / Complete Piping Solutions (CPS) that eliminate welded pipe connections, increasing safety and decreasing installation time.
The Parker Tracking System (PTS), which reduces asset downtime as well as the efforts of the maintenance staff when replacing products such as ruptured hoses.
Creating technologies that harness the potential of tidal energy
As tidal power engineers work to refine existing technologies, there has been a focus on improving turbines and how they are powered. Consider some of the more noteworthy innovations that have taken place in just the past few years:
Modified bulb turbines with an additional set of guide vanes are allowing better management and control of the flow through the turbine. Bulb turbines are attractive because they can deliver very high-power output.
A breakthrough announced in mid-2020 was a turbine that does not require a gearbox. With fewer moving parts in the turbine, there is greater reliability and longer intervals between maintenance checks.
Concentrators or shields are being placed around turbine blades to optimize tidal current flow toward the rotors. A remaining challenge is that high-tech equipment is required to deploy these devices in rough seas and anchor them to the seabed.
Direct-drive, hydraulic, and inertia systems continue to evolve. For example, considerable research is being done on dielectric elastomer generators, which utilize soft capacitors that do a better job of withstanding harsh ocean environments than traditional electromagnetic generators.
Artificially intelligent turbines promise to provide greater efficiency and the ability to adjust to changing conditions in real-time. A newer AI system has been designed to utilize data derived from wind energy. Data is captured at the surface and transmitted to the turbine system to maximize turbine performance and efficiency. Such a design is projected to reduce lifetime costs for this tidal energy system by nearly 20%.
A new 73-meter-long floating superstructure has been developed that supports two 1-MW turbines on each side to generate twice as much energy.
An innovative tidal kite known as Deep Green is creating several hundred times more electricity than a stationary turbine on the seafloor. The tidal kite can produce electricity from slower currents which makes it more versatile.
A wave energy team at Oregon State University is researching novel direct-drive generators which don’t require the use of hydraulic fluid or air. Instead, they leverage the velocity and force of a buoy to power the generator. The generators respond directly to ocean movement by employing magnetic fields for contactless mechanical energy transmission and power electronics for efficient electrical energy extraction.
Although much of the research on tidal turbines over the past decade has focused on design options that will produce greater energy efficiency, today there is greater awareness regarding the need to achieve a more reliable operation to ensure the consistent production of tidal energy. Types of damage that most often affect the drivetrain of a tidal turbine include:
broken gear teeth
lubrication variability resulting in dry contact of the rotating surfaces
This has opened the door to a new generation of condition-based monitoring and diagnostics equipment. Parker offers in-depth expertise in this area with products such as:
icountPD Online Particle Detector that features the most up-to-date technology in solid particle detection for independent, real-time monitoring of system contamination trends.
Parker On-Site Heated Viscometer, an on-site oil analysis that detects out-of-spec fuels or lubricants before equipment damage occurs.
Parker Acoustic Bearing Checker monitors high-frequency Acoustic Emissions (AE) signals naturally generated by deterioration in rotating machinery.
To learn more about tidal and other energy trends impacting our world, read our Power Generation and Renewable Energy Trends White Paper – Part 2.
Article contributed by the Filtration and Energy Teams.
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Today, the food industry faces demands for all types of produce, from exotic tropical fruits to the staple diet of bread, rice and potatoes, to be available all year round in “just produced” condition. Health concerns over reducing salt, chemicals and preservatives in food places additional pressure on suppliers and manufacturers to find safe, economical ways to extend shelf life. As a result, retailers recognize the need for improvements in packaging technology.
Food products begin to deteriorate almost as soon as they are picked or prepared for packaging. Bacteria, yeast, moisture, and mold are the culprits. The goal of food manufacturers and processors is to delay decay to allow more time from production to the consumer without sacrificing quality.
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a process that has been used for many years to combat food spoilage. MAP involves packaging or storing product in a modified form of the Earth’s natural atmosphere. Air inside a package is displaced with a protective gas to keep oxygen at controlled levels (less than 2 percent). Too much oxygen and moisture in a package leads to bacterial growth and oxidation, which results in spoilage, inconsistent flavors, poor product quality, and shortened shelf life. Nitrogen gas is usually used as a protective gas in MAP because of its dry, inert qualities.Typical food products that benefit from MAP
Nitrogen has traditionally been supplied in the form of high pressure cylinders, liquid mini tanks or bulk storage vessels. However, a delivered nitrogen supply can present a host of problems including:
Producing nitrogen on-site from compressed air is an economical alternative to buying it. A Parker nitrogen generator, for example, is a plug and play system that uses standard plant compressed air to produce high purity, food grade nitrogen. Installation involves connecting a compressed air line to the inlet and connecting the outlet to the nitrogen line. The system is designed to produce a continuous and consistent supply of commercially sterile nitrogen.Advantages of a nitrogen generator over a traditional nitrogen supply
To learn more about in-house nitrogen generation for modified atmosphere packaging, read this brochure. You can also call 1-978-858-0505 to speak with a Parker applications engineer.
This post was contributed by the Gas Generation Technology Blog Team, Parker Hannifin
As renewable energy sources such as wind and solar become a larger part of the overall United States’ energy portfolio, energy producers and system operators have an opportunity to take advantage of expanding options to introduce renewable energy to the power grid.
The renewables trend
Renewable energy is one of the fastest-growing energy sources in the United States. Total annual electricity generation from wind power in the United States increased from about 6 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2000 to about 338 billion kWh in 2020, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.
During the past decade, solar power has grown at an average rate of 42% annually, resulting in more than 89 gigawatts of solar capacity in place today across the United States, according to Solar Industry Research Data.
Read part 1 of our white paper- 2021 Power Generation and Renewable Energy Trends, to learn how fossil-based power generation technologies are rapidly evolving and renewable technologies are being scaled to meet the demands of the 21st-century market.
The rise of renewable energy is a result of many factors, including a favorable regulatory environment, technological advancements, and increased demand for clean energy in electricity markets.
As this trend continues to grow, solutions to accommodate the fluctuating supply and demand associated with variable renewable energy--from utility-scale wind farms to residential rooftop solar panels--become critical. A solar installment or wind farm that can capture and monetize oversupply is more efficient. In fact, experts in a YaleEnvironment 360 article have described energy storage as the true bridge to a clean-energy future.
Utility-scale batteries are used to store and distribute energy, increasing reliability and resilience for energy producers. Due in part to advancements in technology, the cost of utility-scale battery storage has dropped dramatically in recent years nearly 70% between 2015 and 2018, according to the EIA. The EIA predicts battery storage will increase by nearly 7,000 MW in the near term.
Customer and third-party-owned distributed energy generation and storage units are also becoming more common. Single-family households are installing rooftop solar panels. Microgrids are serving university campuses with small wind turbines. Large hospitals are generating electricity with a reciprocating engine combined heat and power (CHP) system for its own heating, cooling, and electricity.
As these trends continue to grow, the implications for existing energy grids become more complex. Connecting solar, wind, and other utility-scale renewable energy sources into the grid are difficult in part because current grids are designed for a centralized distribution model. Grids built decades ago were not designed to efficiently accommodate widely distributed generation.
Renewable energy and grid stability
The United States electricity grid is aging. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, 70% of the U.S. electrical grid’s 160,000 miles of high-voltage transmission lines are more than 25 years old. Many transformers that either step up or step down the voltage to accommodate distribution are roughly the same age. Other components still in operation were installed more than a century ago.
While the grid has served energy needs well for decades, today’s energy demand does not resemble the needs that drove its initial design, or the needs that have emerged since its mid-century expansion. Today’s energy consumption has grown more complex, straining the capabilities of the grid.
Electric utilities have increasingly invested in replacing and modernizing this aging infrastructure. The U.S. publicly owned electric utilities spent an estimated $52 billion on electricity transmission and distribution infrastructure in 2019, representing about half of the total capital expenditures.
This investment in modernization is in part driven by the need to accommodate grid integration of renewable energy sources.
Grid integration of renewable energy systems
One way in which renewable energy systems are connecting to the grid is through smart grid technology. Smart grids enable the efficient integration of renewable energy sources, critical for the transition to clean energy.
In modernizing the energy grid, smart grid digital technologies are being deployed across the transmission and distribution system to help grid operators improve operational efficiency, reliability, flexibility, and security, and to reduce electricity consumption. Rather than replacing elements of the existing grid, smart grid technologies improve efficiency by digitalizing, upgrading, and expanding the current electrical grid.
Smart field devices and sensors are key elements of smart grid technology. These monitor processes, communicate data to operations centers, respond to digital commands, and adjust processes automatically. In modern smart grids, Phasor Measurement Units help operators assess grid stability. Advanced digital meters provide information to consumers and automatically report outages. Relays automatically sense and recover from faults in substations and automated feeder switches reroute power around problems. Batteries store excess generated electricity, accessible on-demand to the grid.
To further enhance smart grid capabilities, communications networks share data among devices and systems, while information management and computing systems process, analyze, and help operators access and apply data coming from the grid.
Another growing technology for grid integration of renewable energy sources is high-voltage direct current (HVDC). Electrical grids have long been based on alternating current (AC). In the early days of electricity, transformers could reduce AC voltages, but nothing similar existed for making direct current (DC) safe for residential use. With technological advances, however, this has all changed. During the past two decades, numerous HVDC transmission systems have been built throughout the world. These are long-distance lines carrying DC electricity that are separate from the AC transmission lines in the grid.
HVDC power systems transmit electricity over long distances more efficiently. Transmitting AC at lower voltages increases resistance in the transmission line conductors. Resistance generates heat, resulting in the loss of electricity as it travels through the line. Over long distances, the cost of power loss over high-voltage AC power lines exceeds the added cost of the HVDC converter stations over the lifetime of the system. This breakeven distance has been estimated at 800 km (500 miles) for overhead lines and 50 km (31 miles) for underground and undersea cables.
This means it can be more cost-efficient to transmit electricity over DC rather than AC power lines when the customers are consuming electricity hundreds of miles from where the power is generated. Renewable energy sources such as wind farms, large solar arrays, and hydroelectric power are often great distances from the population centers they serve.
HVDC systems are helping countries around the world advance toward renewable energy grid interconnection. The United States has 20 HVDC systems in operation, including a 3,100 MW capacity line that transmits electricity 845 miles from Oregon to the Los Angeles area. China, a leader in this technology, is in the process of building a massive national electrical grid based on a hybrid system of UHV (ultra-high voltage) DC lines for power transmission from its provinces in the north and west and an AC network for distribution to its population centers near the eastern coast.
Parker's solutions for power transmission and distribution
From transmission and distribution applications to energy storage solutions and power conversion systems, Parker offers a wide range of solutions on the leading edge of the grid modernization trend.
To learn more about power transmission and distribution, read our white paper 2021 Power Generation and Renewable Energy Trends – Part 1.
The article was contributed by the Filtration and Energy Teams.
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Biogas is a renewable energy source that can be used to generate heat and electricity. It’s produced through the decomposition of organic materials from plants and animals, also known as “biomass.” Further refined through a renewable natural gas production process, biogas can be used for virtually any application where fossil natural gas is used.
Where biogas comes from
There are three principal sources of biogas.
Municipal solid waste facilities are the primary source. Here, landfill gas is created by the decomposition of paper, yard trimmings, food waste, and other organic wastes.
Dairy farms and livestock operations are other sources. These often have covered holding ponds for animal waste and used animal bedding. When collected, this raw biogas can be burned to heat water or run specially modified, diesel-powered farm equipment.
A third source is anaerobic digesters, used by municipal sewage treatment plants, paper mills, and food processors, as well as large livestock operations. These digesters facilitate and speed up the decomposition process of plant, animal, and human waste.
Read part 2 of our white paper- 2021 Power Generation and Renewable Energy Trends, to explore renewable energy technology trends, both established and newer technologies including solar, wind, marine, and biogas.
What are the advantages of biogas?
As a renewable energy source, purified biogas can be used in place of traditional fossil fuels in a variety of applications, including utility-scale electrical generation, fuel for combined heat and power (CHP) plants, pipeline natural gas, and vehicle fuel. It can reduce the amount of material placed into landfills and can help contribute to the development of a circular economy.
It’s also made without combustion, and its production and refinement release much less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than fossil fuels.
According to a 2019 report on biogas potential by the World Biogas Association, biogas produced by anaerobic digestion could help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by 10%-13%.
Biogas fuel production processes
Raw biogas has a methane composition of 40%-60%, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The remaining components include carbon dioxide, water vapor, hydrogen sulfides, and other byproducts of the anaerobic digestion process.
Without removal of these byproducts, the raw biogas can corrode and damage the metal parts of power generation equipment, while having a reduced energy potential. Once treated, however, the 90% methane gas that remains is as pure as fossil methane. This gas, also referred to as renewable natural gas (RNG), can be used virtually anywhere fossil natural gas is used.
A variety of technologies and processes can be used to purify biogas. The exact approach chosen may depend on the condition of the biogas, the amount to be purified, or the intended use of the RNG. These technologies and processes include:
Filters to remove foams, small particles, grease, particulates, and other similar contaminants
A dehydration or dehumidification process to remove water vapor
Biofiltration to remove hydrogen sulfide, siloxanes, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Chemical, pressure, or membrane processes to remove carbon dioxide
For pipeline quality gas, RNG often requires drying with an adsorption dryer down to a pressure dew point (PDP) of -58°F (-50°C) prior to injection into the natural gas grid
The future of renewable natural gas production
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, biomass gasification — which is currently being researched — could be deployed soon to produce hydrogen for fuel.
In this process, biomass is heated to temperatures more than nearly 1,300 degrees F (just greater than 700 degrees C). Steam and oxygen are added to the reaction, resulting in the production of both carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The hydrogen can then be removed using adsorbers or special membranes. Additional filters can be used to capture the carbon dioxide, resulting in minimal emission. The DOE is supporting research into ways to lower the capital costs associated with this process.
Another promising technology involves the use of biomass to produce synthetic natural gas through thermochemical conversion. In this process, biomass goes through a series of processes to create what’s known as Bio-SNG ( Bio -Synthetic Natural Gas). This gas can be used as a substitute for natural gas and is suitable for transmission in energy pipelines.
The global biogas trend
According to a 2020 report by the World Bioenergy Association the European Union is the world’s biogas leader.
In 2018, the EU’s production accounted for more than half of the global biogas industry. Asia was second, with a share of 32%. The Americas were a distant third at 14%.
In the United States, according to the EIA, biogas helped generate 11.75 kWh of electricity in 2019. This amounted to less than 0.5% of all electricity consumed in the country.
Overall biogas production currently is just a tiny portion of the world’s energy portfolio. But experts do believe it has potential for growth. This is especially so in Europe, where, according to a report by Euractiv, conservative estimates point to a tenfold increase in production by 2030.
As global energy needs grow, biogas holds great potential to grow in stature as a renewable power source. Parker offers a range of solutions to help those in the biofuel industry harness energy from biogas and biomass production processes.
To learn more about trends in the Renewable Energy industry, read our 2021 Power Generation and Renewable Energy Trends White Paper – Part 2.
This article was contributed by the Filtration and Energy Teams.
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