The COVID pandemic impacted the way many industries do business, and the HVAC industry is no exception. Ongoing concerns regarding infection risk and indoor air quality have prompted an unprecedented demand for filters with a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) value of 13, commonly known as MERV 13 filters, as well as those with even higher MERV ratings. As part of its COVID response, ASHRAE recommends increasing outside air within buildings as much as possible, as well as upgrading air filters to a minimum MERV 13 efficiency rating.
The rush to upgrade to high MERV filters, however, opens the door to a practical discussion about whether that is the best action in all cases. The reality is that using the wrong filter for the wrong application in the wrong place can substantially limit HVAC systems’ efficiency. The result is that air quality will suffer, and the system will consume more power than it should to function.
Is MERV 13 really the best choice for your HVAC system?
A MERV rating is determined by the filter’s particle-size removal efficiency. The higher the number, the higher the filter efficiency. Before considering ratings, however, it’s important to determine the purpose of the filter.
If the primary purpose is to keep heating and air conditioning systems clean and block contaminants from interfering with the operation of key components, you likely don’t need as high a MERV rating. If the primary objective is to protect breathing air quality, then a higher MERV rating might make sense.
An option worth considering in some applications is the use of a multi-filter system that includes final filters and pre-filters. A less expensive, lower MERV-rated filter, functioning as a pre-filter, can trap dirt and large particles before the air reaches the final filters downstream which then remove the small particles. Multi-filter systems can extend the life of the more expensive final filters, creating overall cost savings.
When choosing a filter, it’s also important to consider the conditioned space’s activities and the types and sizes of particles those activities generate. Contaminants of greatest concern need to be evaluated to determine the level of filtration efficiency required for that contaminant’s size (measured in micrometers/microns). Once a full list of contaminants of concern has been identified, you can use the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2-2017 to select the proper filter with the appropriate MERV.
Additional considerations when choosing a filter
Of course, particle-capture efficiency matters. But there are also other filter characteristics that should be considered when determining the best filter for a specific application. Cost is always a consideration and should include the purchase price, as well as service life and maintenance requirements. The filter’s resistance to airflow also is a key consideration, as it is proportional to the energy consumed by the filter. Energy expenditures can account for about 81% of an air filtration system’s annual operating costs, while its purchase price and maintenance can account for about 18.5%.
Other considerations include the design and materials used in filters. Some designs are easier to install, seal better, and don’t absorb moisture or shed. Pleated filters, which are commonly made with a blend of cotton and polyester or synthetic media, provide a larger filter-surface area than panel filters. Most pleated filters are MERV 6 to 13. Depending on the filter, capture efficiencies for particles in the 3 to 10-micron range can be 35% to 90%.
There are also extended-surface filters that are made with synthetic, fiberglass or cellulose/glass-fiber media. These include bag or pocket, rigid-cell, aluminum-separator and V-bank filters. Pocket filters provide an even greater filter surface area than pleated filters to provide maximum efficiency with the lowest pressure drop and longest life. They typically have MERV ratings of 11 to 15.
Other factors that can affect efficiency
Even a filter with the highest MERV rating can’t achieve high-quality air if some of the air is not going through the filter. Gaps around high-efficiency filters or filter housings can decrease filter performance. They occur when filter media are not sealed properly in the filter frame, when filters are not gasketed properly in filter racks, or when air-handler doors and duct systems are not sealed properly.
For a 1-mm gap, bypass flows can increase to 25% to 35% of the total airflow. The percentage increases based on the filter’s efficiency because air naturally flows through areas with the least resistance. Since higher efficiency filters have a greater resistance to airflow, bypass air has a larger effect. This, in turn, reduces the efficiency rating. For a 1-mm gap, for instance, a MERV 15 filter will perform only as well as a MERV 14 filter. A 10-mm gap, in contrast, causes a MERV 15 filter to perform as a MERV 8 filter. That’s why building operators and maintenance personnel should perform regular field inspections to ensure filter seals and gaskets are installed properly.
To combat gap problems, Parker created its QuadSEAL® HVAC filters with proprietary E-Pleat® media technology. The molded polyurethane frame incorporates a QuadSEAL integrated gasket on all four sides and can flex without damage. Since the media pack is 100% bonded into the foamed frame, bypass is eliminated as is the need for additional sealants or adhesives.
Challenges with MERV 13 filters (and what can be done)
If it were just a matter of choosing the filter that produced the best air quality, the decision would be simple. Everyone would install filters with the highest MERV ratings they could find. Unfortunately, it’s not quite so simple. The challenge facing engineers, building owners and maintenance personnel tasked with specifying and installing filters is that more efficient filters cause higher pressure drops because the smaller pores create more resistance to air flow.
Not only are higher efficiency filters less energy efficient (causing increased energy consumption by the fan), but your air handling unit simply may not have enough capacity to function with a high-efficiency filter. The reality is that most commercial HVAC systems today can only handle MERV 8 filter or MERV 9 filter types.
So, what are your options?
When COVID hit, suddenly industries that, for years, had functioned well with filters with MERV ratings of 8, 10 or 11, were scrambling for MERV 13, 14 and 16 filters. The reality, though, is that there are filter options even more efficient than MERV 16 filters.
High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) and Ultra-Low Particulate Air (ULPA) filters are designed to trap the smallest airborne particles and contaminants. HEPA filters have a minimum efficiency of 99.97% at 0.3 microns, whereas ULPA filters have an efficiency rating of 99.999% at 0.12 microns or higher. This does not mean that ULPA filters are better than HEPA filters when taking air flow and other variables into account. In fact, HEPA filters cost less, have a lower resistance to air flow and offer a longer service life than ULPA filters.
Parker offers a complete line of HEPA and ULPA standalone and pre-filters for removing particles and contaminants with efficiencies up to 99.9995%. They also are designed to reduce energy consumption and operating costs.
So why doesn’t everyone simply switch to a HEPA or ULPA filter since they represent the gold standard in air quality? Because most commercial and industrial HVAC systems on the market today simply aren’t compatible with them. Since they are so efficient, HEPA and ULPA filters cause a higher pressure drop than filters with lower MERV ratings.
The best option today for using HEPA and ULPA filters is as part of stand-alone systems. Many school districts are looking at options for installing portable air filtration systems with HEPA filters in each classroom to augment their central air filtration systems. HEPA and ULPA filters are also frequently found in critical medical applications and cleanrooms.Newer innovations offer superior efficiency while overcoming problems with air flow
Parker’s approach to balancing the need for efficiency with minimum pressure drops has been the development of its LoadTECH® filter that utilize Parker’s proprietary E-pleat® technology. This patented design molds filtration media into a series of pre-formed channels that direct the air smoothly through the filter, allowing for even loading, minimum resistance and complete media utilization. The previously mentioned QuadSEAL® filters offer a similar benefit of improving efficiency without restricting air flow. The advanced media used in these filters also resists tearing, damage, moisture and microbial growth, leading to a long filter life and the need for fewer filter changeouts.
The decision to use a filter with a MERV 13 rating (or higher), in accordance with the latest guidance from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and ASHRAE, is complicated by the fact that most commercial HVAC systems cannot handle the highest efficiency-rated filters. While there are options for upgrades, redesigns that include a multi-filter system, and new technologies that balance efficiency and air flow, specifiers need to be careful that they choose the right filter after considering all the variables, including cost, maintenance requirements, operating efficiency and, of course, air quality.
This article was contributed by the Parker HVAC Filtration Division.
Since the introduction of aviation fuel monitor cartridges in aviation fueling, super absorbent polymers (SAP) have been the essential materials used in the final stage of airport ground fueling systems for the protection of on-board systems from water contamination. The material’s ability to absorb and chemically lock in water have its challenges―potential media migration downstream. In 2017, the aviation industry through the International Air Transport Association (IATA), Air Transport Association (ATA) and Joint Inspection Group (JIG) introduced interim procedures while SAP-free filtration was developed. Parker has introduced Water Barrier Filtration technology for interplane fuel filtration solutions.
Runway for change is fast approaching with the Phaseout of EI 1583 SAP filter monitors
The EI specification for filter monitors has been retracted and is no longer available or applicable to the industry, as of December 31st, 2020. Phaseout of the 1583 SAP monitor has been mandated by the industry regulators.
Parker's new drop-in solution for new and existing monitor vessels, the CDFX Water Barrier Filter, guarantees removal of water and dirt from fuel without requiring any additional sensing equipment, removing the water rather than simply detecting it. You can ensure that the clean dry fuel is delivered every time, avoiding costly downtime, potential flight delays, and/or removal of contaminated fuel from your aircraft.
All of Parker's products are fully certified, making switching easy and cost-effective.
There are several things to consider when deciding on various options available for SAP phaseout solutions.
What are your choices?
Questions to ask and factors to consider:
This means costly equipment design, installation, vehicle design limitations, meter capability, electronics, etc., resulting in expensive downtime
The Parker Velcon water barrier technology is approved to the EI 1588 test specifications. There are 22 tests that were similar to the 1583 specifications. However, we removed the tests associated with SAP testing. The rest of the 1588 requirements are part of the specifications:
Performance requirements for 1588 are as stringent as 1583, however, without the SAP media.Phase 1 testing
At Parker Velcon safety is our priority. In April of 2019, Parker Velcon successfully qualified the CDFX Water Barrier filter to the EI 1588 specification. Members of the Energy Institute witnesses were present at our Colorado facility.
Once qualified, we entered the EI robustness Phase One testing. This consisted of:
Test data shows that all 20 tests passed Phase One testing with no failures, achieving maximum effluent water of fewer than one parts per million. All the tests met the minimum pull force specification above 500 Newtons.Phase Two testing for field trials
Two locations were selected and testing was done at these airport tank farms. These tests were accelerated with more than 10 times the typical daily throughput. Upon completion, filters were sent back to our Velcon lab and a witness was present, through EI, to verify the water removal capabilities. Test runs from the two trial locations show vessel throughputs of over 3 million and 5 million gallons per vessel.
When breaking that down to throughput per element, it is approximately 180,000 or 310,000 gallons respectively. During the field trials, elements were returned to our Velcon lab for testing with an EI witness present. These tests included the 50 parts per million slug test and pull tests. Results were consistent with the EI qualification.
Filtration performance and filter integrity have exceeded expectations with no signs of degradation, disarming or reported issues with additives in the fuel.
Water Barrier filtration technology timeline
To summarize the developments of the CDFX Water Barrier filter technology, we review the timeline:
Here's a short video of the water barrier filter and operation. As you can clearly see, water in the fuel is repelled by the water barrier filter and droplets fall to the bottom of the vessel where eventually they must be removed at the low drain points.
Differences in technology application
Some product application differences with the water barrier filter include daily sumping that will be required and some education on the differential pressure effects.
Any water collected will need to be drained from the vessel drain point.
Parker CDFX elements are designed to replace SAP monitor elements and operation will be essentially the same. Since they do not absorb water, there are a few things to note:
Even if the entire vessel is filled with water, no water will pass through the filter. In any case, what is important to note is the differential pressures should not fall below the initial starting differential pressure when operating at rated flow.
There are three available technologies:
As you can see, only the 1588 water barrier technology offers removal for all three capabilities.
The CDFX Water Barrier filter is a true drop-in replacement, innovative at removing water and dirt while not allowing anything to pass through. It offers only clean dry fuel without the use of SAP media. Cost and resource-efficient, it fits deployed vessels in service, but without the needed cost of retrofitting or adding electronic sensors. All materials are compatible with fuels in the industry and simple product procedure changes are in place. Same diameter, same lengths, same flow rates all as with the two-inch monitor elements.
Ease of replacement
This is a short video demonstrating the ease of converting from the SAP monitor to the Parker Velcon water barrier filter.
General aviation fueling
Our water barrier filter technology was further developed for general aviation fueling applications.
The ACOX family of Water Barrier filters are ideal for slow throughput. From an operations perspective, there are minimal changes to your current operating procedures, no modifications to the filter vessel and filter change at a maximum of 22 PSID or three years of service life.
Drop-in solutions for existing houses will not require any retrofitting or additional electronic sensors. Again, no SAP material is used in the fabrication of the ACO X series of filter elements, and these elements are effective in fuel containing FSII which is anti-icing additive. These elements currently meet the effluent fuel and structural requirements of 1588. However, qualification to the EI-1588 standard is coming shortly for the ACOX family.
Electronic water sensor
Parker Velcon has also developed an electronic water sensor for detecting water and fuel. It meets the 1598 design criteria and it was developed to replace chemical water testing. It detects water from zero to 50 parts per million, utilizes a one-quarter-inch common standard port connection, will be certified to ATEX and IECE X, easily to install without any plumbing or electrical systems. And a control box is also available if desired.
The sensor works on a principle of light scatter. Laser light reflects off water and is detected by the photo detector. The more water droplets, the more intense the laser glows as shown in the illustration on the right. The design and testing for the sensor are complete. We expect to achieve ATEX IECE X certification shortly and are looking to qualify the sensor to the 1598 certification in midyear of 2021, making it available to the industry by later in the year in 2021.
Watch the full presentation by Robert Guglielmi, presented at Intrapol Aviation Conference
Article contributed by Robert Guglielmi, business development manager, Aerospace Filtration Division, Parker Hannifin
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The performance of gas turbines (GT) for power generation has a fundamental influence on the bottom line. Lack of availability, reduced power output and maintenance overheads all link directly back to profitability. As the efficiency of GTs continues to increase, with models such as the GE H-class now pushing power plants above 60% net efficiencies, the cost for loss of performance gets higher. It doesn’t take a math whizz to see that the more power generated by a GT, the more power is lost if it underperforms or has to be shut down!
This new breed of efficient GTs aids the global push in the reduction of CO2 emissions to address climate change. They offer:
Consuming vast quantities of air, however, the quality of this air has a huge impact on GT performance, and the higher the GT efficiency, the greater the potential impact. This means the design of the filtration system has an even more crucial role to play in overall operational efficiency and reliability.
But what is so different about these high-efficiency GTs and why do they need different protection to older E-class or F-class models? They face all the same environmental perils as current GT installations – but their finely tuned performance is precision-engineered, packed with technology, latest advanced materials and finishes. This means they require more rigorous protection from the fouling, pitting and corrosion that finer particulates and contaminants in the inlet air flow cause to blades, stators and buckets.
You might consider just using finer filter media to catch the contaminants. Along this path, however, lies many troubles. Often the worst thing to do is to employ the finest, high-efficiency media as this easily blocks, can cause quick rises in differential pressure leading to unplanned GT “runback” or even shut down and increased maintenance overheads. On the business side of things, huge dollar losses from drops in power output are even more preeminent with pressure rises when operating these bigger, more efficient machines.
If you want to find out how you can ASSURE the performance of high efficiency GTs, the answer is multi-faceted. It requires deep understanding of real-world operating conditions and the demands of these impressive machines. And an understanding of what really matters inside the inlet house – and that can only come from experience.
The filtration system is only as good as its weakest part. Many different factors about filter design equate to assured performance, including:
At the end of the day, assuring the performance of H-class or equivalent GTs, requires a revolution in filtration design to provide maximum protection and reliable performance in the harshest installation environments.
Introducing clearcurrent® ASSURE
clearcurrent® ASSURE range of filters features an innovative design that helps to boost GT performance, reduce lifecycle costs, improve safety, increase availability and extend GT life. Features and benefits include
This article was originally published in the print and digital magazine 2-2021 Issue of Power Engineering International and again in the online version here: Why compromised filters mean compromised gas turbines.
This post was contributed by Tim Nicholas, market manager, PowerGen, Parker Gas Turbine Filtration Division.
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Today, lasers are used in a variety of industries including automotive, plastic, packaging, clothing, furniture, toys, label production, musical instruments, and medical. In order to be competitive, meet market expectations, and adhere to strict quality standards, businesses around the world are turning to industrial lasers to support their manufacturing processes.
The key to the success of implementing a laser system is not just having a laser, but ensuring it functions properly. In order to do this, it's very important that close attention is paid the to temperature of the water running through it. Variations in operating temperature will affect the laser's performance and increase downtime levels, resulting in costly maintenance and lost production.
These high-powered lasers generate a large amount of heat and must be dissipated to avoid overheating critical components. Regardless of whether it is a Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Neodymium, or Fiber laser, it will require a cooling system to remove excess heat. Water cooling is used for most industrial lasers because of its availability and high thermal capacity. It is necessary to maintain a high level of control over the temperature and cleanliness of the cooling water for three main reasons:
A reliable supply of cooling water is required to keep the laser functioning properly. If there are variations in operating temperature, the laser machine performance is negatively affected, resulting in costly, time-consuming downtime.
A flexible solution
Parker Hannifin has been serving the laser industry for years with a specialized range of industrial water chillers for precision cooling. Parker's Gas Separation and Filtration Division has recently expanded the product line and introduced a new chiller solution—the Hyperchill Plus. The Hyperchill Plus is designed for safe and reliable operation in the most varied working conditions, providing precise and accurate control of the process fluid temperature. The availability of a wide range of accessories and options makes Hyperchill Plus a flexible cooling solution.Features and benefits
A partner you can trust
We know each application in the industry is different, that is why our dynamic engineering team can design and optimize the chiller for your process, providing you the benefits of reliable laser performance. Trust Parker’s global service network and our years of industry experience for your water cooling needs.
For more information on the new Hyperchill Plus, view this interactive presentation and download the brochure.
This post was contributed by the Gas Generation Technology Team - Parker Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division.
The global wine market has never been more competitive, and customer expectations have never been higher. Facing a world of choice, buyers in the wine industry are increasingly turning to familiar brands for the reassurance of consistent quality, taste and affordability. The challenge for producers is to supply consumers’ favorite wines at the volume and cost required while ensuring that taste, character and enjoyment remain undiluted.
From fermentation to bottling, nitrogen has an important role to play in modern winemaking. Nitrogen is used for purging or blanketing tanks, racking barrels, flushing bottles, and at any point where the wine comes in contact with air.
Benefits of using nitrogen in wine production and processing include:
A cost-effective alternative
On-site generation provides a reliable source of nitrogen at the lowest total cost available. Generating your own nitrogen eliminates the hassles of supplied cylinders, dewars or bulk nitrogen. A nitrogen generator, such as the Parker WineMaker series, produces 98 to 99.9 percent pure, dry nitrogen on-demand and dispels any concerns about lines icing up, running low, or running out of nitrogen. Features include:
Easy installation and operation
Installation is simple: pipe in compressed air and pipe out nitrogen. Just connect a standard compressed air line to the inlet of the generator, connect the outlet to your nitrogen line and the unit is ready for trouble-free operation. The system is designed to operate 24 hours/day, 7 days/week. There is no complicated operating procedure or labor-intensive monitoring involved. Simply select the purity your process requires and set the flow and
within minutes, high purity, dry nitrogen is available. Once the nitrogen generator is installed, the system requires very little maintenance.
Check out our infographic
From Amarone to Zinfandel, Parker provides solutions for every variety of winemaking, and for the key stages in the production, storage and bottling process. We partner with food and beverage customers around the world, sharing expertise and know-how to develop new, better and more productive ways of making wine.
This post was contributed by the Filtration Technology Team, Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division
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Searching for a water chiller for an industrial application?
The use of cold water is very common in industry, as cold water improves productivity, secures industrial processes and reduces costs. There are several methods of creating cold water, but water chillers are increasingly becoming the preferred solution. Primarily because chillers always supply the exact water temperature requested, even with differing ambient conditions and load requests, thus ensuring optimum efficiency.
Chillers, by operating in a closed circuit, continuously reutilize the same water, and thereby avoid unwanted water wastage. Add to this fact that a number of directives have recently emerged to safeguard both the quality of the water being utilized (for health reasons) as well as the discharging of impure water into the ambient (to protect the environment): closed circuit chiller operation greatly simplifies conformance to these regulations. The needs of industry are changing, and a water chiller increasingly satisfies these needs.Hyperchill water chiller with wide product range
The Hyperchill product line offers a wide range of cooling capacities from 1/2 to 50 ton, and a huge variety of options to fit every application. Parker’s ability to easily configure and package these options in a turn-key assembly allows for reduced installation costs and easy start-up.
Common installations: Single process closed loop
About 80% of installations are straightforward, single process, closed loop cooling applications. In such an application the piping is simplistic and flow demands are unchanging. The chiller is sized for worst-case site conditions, the pressure drop is calculated for the piping and the process, and there are few, if any, options required. The standard Hyperchill process water chiller includes a pre-programmed PLC, an electrical cabinet with motor overloads, a refrigeration system, and an internal water system.
The two standard pump sizes are “3 bar” with a nominal head pressure around 40 psi, and “5 bar” with a nominal head pressure around 70 psi. The vast majority of applications use high quality, low noise level, axial fans which are installed as standard on the Hyperchill. There is a large cold-water storage tank built into the chillers which allow the compressor(s) to cycle off when load requirements are low in comparison to the available cooling capacity.
This configuration allows the customer to take advantage of seasonal conditions which increase the efficiency of the refrigeration circuit, thereby reducing electrical consumption. The pre-programmed and integrated controller makes set-up a snap. All the customer needs to do is install piping, supply power, fill the unit, and select the desired outlet water set point. From there, the unit is ready for startup!
Beginning with our 5-ton unit, model PCW060, a variety of additional options are available. For outdoor installations where the units are subject to cold ambient conditions, Parker offers two different low ambient packages. These packages can allow the chiller to operate outdoors in ambient temperatures as low as -4°F (-20°C). For conditions beyond this temperature range, the unit must be installed indoors. In such an application, it may be beneficial for the customer to look at our centrifugal fan option, which allows the user to duct hot exhaust air outside the building during summer. The user can also benefit from such an installation by installing a second exhaust port indoors. This would allow the customer to direct the hot exhaust back into the plant during cold winter months, reclaiming the heat and decreasing the cost of heating the facility.
In addition to the centrifugal fan option, Parker offers two additional condenser options. The “Bio Energy” option includes a corrosion resistant epoxy coating on all of the exposed copper piping. This is an excellent option for Bio Gas or Landfill Gas sites, as well as for installation near coastal waters where the environment may be salty. There is also an option for a water-cooled condenser. This is a great choice for High Ambient conditions or for indoor applications where the customer has an existing cooling tower. The water-cooled condenser option may also be selected when the customer has the desire to reclaim the heat expelled by the chiller. Parker can even quote the water-cooled condenser with special corrosion resistant materials of construction for applications where it is desired to use seawater for cooling.
Parker’s highly knowledgeable Applications Engineers can work with you and your team to select the options required to optimize the chillers for your specific installation. For a full list of available options – including special pumps, remote controls options, special voltages, and more. If you’d like to request a quote, please contact our applications engineers at GSFquotes@parker.com
By pairing industry leading quality with a wide variety of easily configurable options, Parker’s Hyperchill is the solution for your industrial cooling needs!
Process Cooling Applications: • Coating Systems
This post was contributed by the Gas Generation Technology Team - Parker Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division.
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In southern California, Mulligan Sales, Inc. blends dry dairy and other food ingredients for makers of baked goods, snack foods and confections. These powdered ingredients typically create high dust levels that tend to absorb moisture in the air, requiring cool, dry in-plant conditions.
Dust collection and constant air conditioning create a challenge
In its powdered ingredients processing facility, Mulligan Sales required both substantial dust collection and constant air conditioning for temperature and humidity control. Running both systems simultaneously was not an option with the company’s existing dust collectors—an external baghouse unit with envelope-type filters and a manual shaker for filter cleaning. The existing system vented outside, returning no air back into the mixing and batch-weighing areas. And because the unit would have extracted conditioned air as well, the air conditioning could only be run when the unit was off and the facility was not blending. Additionally, the facility had limited power available for their dust collection equipment, so a bigger system alone was not the answer.
Mulligan needed a solution to:
A Parker Hannifin representative performed a detailed assessment of Mulligan’s existing equipment, identified its key design inefficiencies and areas in need of dust collection, and considered the company’s potential need for additional processing equipment in the future. The representative then arranged a tour of a successful DustHog® installation at a leading snack food maker’s facility. Impressed with its performance, Mulligan chose to work with Parker.
Parker Hannifin solved Mulligan’s temperature control needs with an external DustHog® SFC 12-3 downward flow cartridge dust collector, customized with a C-3600 Cyclone pre-cleaner for each of the existing large mixer and batch-weighing areas. This achieved measurably more effective, efficient dust collection than the previous baghouse unit. Unlike the former externally vented design, the new SFC system returned clean air into the facility. For further assurance, the system featured an exterior safety filter, as well as a silencer to keep the noise level well under OSHA guidelines. As for system size, Parker Hannifin tailored the design to meet Mulligan’s equipment and airflow goals—as well as the facility’s limited horsepower requirements.
Maintenance was also substantially reduced since the SFC system required far less frequent filter change-outs than the previous baghouse unit. This resulted from the SFC’s patented pulse-jet technology that pulses dust off filters. Parker Hannifin designed this pulse-jet system to clean the full length of the cartridge filter for better, long-lasting performance while allowing the unit to clean the filters during operation. Further, the pulsing is delivered in regulated blasts of air, so fewer pulses are needed, which conserves costly compressed air.
Additional value and future needs addressed
According to Mulligan Sales Plant Manager Byron Tobin, the facility went from having “tremendous dust challenges” to an “85 percent decrease in residual airborne dust.” With no external air discharge, the company also began saving thousands of dollars in state permitting fees, while reinforcing its good-neighbor commitment.
This solution also resolved the challenges of dust collection in conjunction with temperature and humidity control. UAS (now Parker Hannifin) worked with our vision all the way,” Tobin said. He also cited quality details that are yielding added value, including the system’s washable filter cartridges with a spare set for less downtime during change-outs, explosion relief vents for protection, powder-coated finish on the collectors for corrosion resistance and three additional flexible dust collection arms that allow reconfiguration of the processing room equipment for other projects.
To accommodate Mulligan’s future needs, the new system can be expanded. Tobin noted that his facility is initially optimizing 30 to 40 percent of the new system’s capacity, allowing for expansion or reconfiguration to improve productivity at any time.
“We knew we needed to step up. The result is impressive, and we have future capability.”
Byron Tobin, Mulligan Sales Plant Manager
Exhaust duct from the DustHog® SFC downward flow dust collector with in-line silencer and safety filter.
“The facility went from having tremendous dust challenges to an 85 percent decrease.”
Byron Tobin, Mulligan Sales Plant Manager
As a result, Mulligan Sales, Inc. faced their production challenge with a DustHog® SFC Series Dust Collector with Cyclone pre-cleaner dust collection system integrated with their facility’s environmental controls.
Article contributed by the Filtration Team at Industrial Gas Filtration and Generation Division.
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As new markets emerge and off trade consumption increases, the shelf-life of canned and bottled craft beer has become increasingly important.
Brewers of craft beers carefully select and balance the ingredients to generate the unique and distinctive characteristics of their brand. And as competition between breweries heats up - and drinkers become more adventurous in their choices - the range of flavours available is blossoming. Coffee, chocolate, vanilla and even smoky flavours are joining citrus fruits, sours and high-intensity hops in the battle for beer drinkers' palates.
Beer's unique characteristics, which include colour, brightness and taste such as bitterness and sweetness, should remain unaffected by any microbiological stabilization treatment prior to bottling. In a competitive market, it's vital that a brewery's products are protected — and that consumers can enjoy their chosen beer's unique flavours as intended.
Sterile filtration (or cold stabilization) is the final microbial filtration of beer using a microporous membrane to remove yeast and typical spoilage organisms to provide extended shelf life. It's an alternative to the flash pasteurization of beer, which deactivates yeast and spoilage organisms by heat. Flash pasteurization demands higher relative water and energy consumption, therefore making cold stabilization a more appealing process to craft brewers who wish to keep operational expenditure low and reduce their carbon footprint.
The final stabilization of beer by microfiltration has commonly been accepted as a gentler method of stabilization, generating a cleaner, fresher, more natural flavour when compared to flash pasteurization.
A number of independent tests have investigated the effect on the taste of both flash pasteurization and cold stabilization by Parker's BEVPOR microfiltration range.
Cold stabilization as an alternative to flash pasteurization, a brewer's perspective
A trial, conducted by a leading UK brewery, indicated that beer packaged after cold stabilization produced a beer that protected the desirable, crisp and bitter taste profiles when compared to pasteurization in a triangular taste test.
The test, carried out with an experienced taste panel, tested the same batch of beer after cold stabilization and flash pasteurization to identify if the method of stabilization impacted upon the finished product characteristics of the beer. In this case, the data generated helped the brewery to select cold stabilization as their preferred method of microbial stabilization.Protecting shelf-life
The studies performed not only established the immediate characteristic changes of the beer that had been pasteurized, but they also identified that the method of stabilization had an effect upon the beer's characteristics for the duration of the product's shelf-life.
The work identified that cold stabilization through BEVPOR filtration increased the time taken for the beer to display a stale/oxidized characteristic. Not only did the oxidized characteristics take longer to develop in the microfiltered beer, but it was far less pronounced over the 12-month trial.
A second brewery in the south of England conducted a trial looking at flash pasteurization and cold stabilization to determine which method would be used in the bottling of a leading premium ale. The same batch of beer was sent to two different contract packagers, one packaged the beer after flash pasteurization and the other after cold stabilization.
The brewing team commented that microfiltration appeared to be a 'gentle process' which protected the late hoppy characteristic of the ale. As a result of this process, the brewery installed an integral cold stabilization unit utilizing Parker's BEVPOR microfiltration cartridges and fabricated housings.
Choosing the right filter materials
Products from Parker's BEVPOR microfiltration range - such as the BEVPOR BR and BEVPOR PH filter cartridges - utilize a polyethersulfone (PES) membrane which has been carefully selected due to its excellent performance characteristics in beer stabilizing applications.
One of the key performance requirements of the PES membrane was making sure the unique characteristics of the beer were protected while guaranteeing the removal of yeast and typical spoilage organisms.
Microfiltration elements are designed to remove spoilage organisms through size, however, they will also remove other material such as suspended solids, proteins, polysaccharides and colour through adsorption. Depending on the extent of the adsorption, changes to the final characteristics of the beer may be possible.
Studies into the adsorption of head retention protein components during membrane microfiltration were conducted using two commonly used membrane materials: polyetersulphone (PES) and polyamide (PA) for both 0.45 micron and 0.65 micron ratings. Results showed that the membrane material had an effect on the protein content of the filtrate. PES reduced the protein content to a lesser degree than the PA membrane. Micron rating was also shown to affect the adsorption of proteins with 0.65 micron filters having a lesser effect than 0.45 micron filters.
Protecting the unique characteristics of your beer
A further study was carried out in order to demonstrate the low levels of protein adsorption expected with PES membrane compared to other materials used for beer filtration and serves to demonstrate the functional benefits of using PES on a number of levels.
Firstly, due to the lower protein adsorption characteristics of PES, the filtration has a negligible effect on the physical and sensory properties of the first run brew, so qualities such as head retention , colour and taste remain unaffected. Secondly, due to the low adsorption affinity, the PES membrane does not foul as readily as PA and is easily cleaned by clean-in-place processes so the system can be regenerated and used again.
Both of these qualities have been observed by multiple brewers who have reported the associated functional benefits of using BEVPOR filters.
This post was contributed by Lee Pattison, Food and Beverage Product Manager, Parker Bioscience Filtration, United Kingdom.
Parker Bioscience Filtration offers filtration solutions to protect the quality and taste of beverage products. By working with our application experts, manufacturers can develop a tailored solution to ensure their beverage is free from contamination, full of flavour and visibly clear.
Find out more about Parker Bioscience Filtration's sterile filtration solutions for the brewing market
Speed to market is critical for bio manufacturers. The faster a process can be scaled up, the faster a return on investment on drug development costs can be realized. With a strong trend towards the use of single-use technologies (SUT) in bioprocessing, what strategies can be implemented during research and development (R&D) to ensure successful scale-up to commercial manufacturing?
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This article was contributed by Paul Kamel, product manager II, Parker Bioscience and Water Filtration
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