The Parker Kittiwake Cat Fines Test Kit provides early forewarning of these destructive particles and gives a vessel’s crew maximum opportunity to take corrective steps. The Cat Fines Test has been designed to flag up HFO samples that may be contaminated with dangerous levels of cat fines before the fuel has even been pumped aboard. This simple, wet chemistry, on-board test identifies the presence of abrasive silicon and aluminium fines in HFO. The test is simple to perform, cost-effective and can be completed within a few minutes. Experimental results demonstrate that the new test is capable of identifying those fuel samples that have a cat fine concentration of > 60 ppm (Al + Si), and which therefore exceed the limit recommended by ISO 8217:2012. In fact, the test has been specifically designed to provide the crew with a clear sail or don’t sail indication with regards to fuel quality.
Cat fines will damage fuel injection equipment. The fines are particles of spent aluminium and silicon catalyst that arise from the catalytic cracking process in the refinery. The fines are in a form of complex alumino-silicates and, depending on the catalyst used, vary both in size and hardness. If not reduced by suitable treatment, the abrasive nature of these fines will damage the engine, particularly fuel pumps, injectors, piston rings and liners.
Catalyst Fines (Al & Si)
If stored for long periods of time, catalyst fines may settle out of the fuel and build up as sediment in storage tanks. If the tanks are not drained regularly, this sludge can be disturbed in heavy weather and enter the fuel system.
Reduction of catalyst fines to an acceptable level for inlet to the engine takes place in the settling tank and the centrifuge. The extent of this reduction depends on the water content of the fuel, as catalyst fines are “hydrophilic”, in that they attract water and become contained in a water shell. Inclusion in the fuel of significant volumes of used lube oil may also limit the effective removal of fines.
The rate of settling is determined by Stokes’ Law, which takes account of the particle size, difference in density of the catalyst fine and the fuel, and the viscosity of the fuel. Various values are quoted for the density of catalyst fines, but in reality, they may be likened to honeycombed structures, which retard the rate of separation. This is further hindered by the outer shell of water by virtue of the close proximity of the density of water to that of the fuel.The extent of the removal also depends on the height of the tank (fixed) and the size of the particles (variable). As far as the centrifuge is concerned, the critical factor is the relationship between the actual viscosity of the fuel and that for which the centrifuge was sized. If there is a difference in viscosity, the residence time of the fuel in the centrifuge will be greater than the design value; hence directionally the centrifuge should be able to remove fines of a smaller size. Whilst this approach is theoretically correct, the operational result is totally dependent on the size distribution of the fines. With the introduction of modern centrifuges without gravity discs, the recommendation is now to operate all available in parallel, which enables the flow through each to be reduced to the minimum practical level. The fuel is afforded the longest residence time in the centrifuges and the highest separation efficiency can be achieved. Combined output should be equal to the consumption. The temptation of using a higher rate so the daily service tank overflows back to the settling tank and is re-circulated should be avoided.
To learn how the combination of offline and online condition monitoring techniques, both on-board and on-shore, can be successfully used to prevent engine damage and avoid unplanned maintenance, download our white paper "The Importance of Effective Cylinder Oil Condition Monitoring in Two-Stroke Diesel Engines".
Article contributed by the Hydraulic Filtration Team, Parker Kittiwake, part of Parker's Hydraulic and Industrial Process Filtration Division.