Fluid and Gas Handling

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Potable Water Case Study for Choosing the Right Connectors - image of waves - Parker Hannifin Fluid Systems Connectors Division Potable water systems, whether in water filtration, beverage dispensing, life science, bottling or semiconductor are much more than the sum of their individual parts. A thorough analysis of the environment in which the system will be operating -- in addition to the selection of system materials, connectors, tubing and accessories – is needed to ensure trouble-free, long-term system performance.

The following is a case study of an existing potable water system in a dental office that broke down due to poor planning and component selection and the steps taken to rectify the problems.



Dental Office Potable Water Case Study for Choosing the Right Connectors


Download our whitepaper with two case studies on potable water systems and choosing the right connectors, tubing and accessories. 


          The dental office

Potable Water Case Study for Choosing the Right Connecors - dentist office installation - Parker Hannifin The service director of a water treatment company received a frantic call from a dental office receptionist explaining that the potable water throughout the office had an unpleasant taste and was releasing a foul odor. The central Reverse Osmosis (RO) system was producing unusable water at the office’s water cooler in the patient lounge, the spigot in the employee break room and in the dental operatories where dental treatments are performed. Further, it was noted that there was a pungent odor emanating from the sink every time the tap water was turned on in the break room, while all the tubing supplying the service locations was turning green.

  Diagnostic survey and audit

A diagnostic survey of the entire water system, plus a site audit of the existing installation and plumbing service to the building, revealed many issues, including:

  • The static water pressure to the building measured 112 psi with no pressure regulator on the incoming service main.
  • A leaky self-tapping valve was in use for the under-sink RO unit installed in a way that was a plumbing code violation.
  • The RO drain saddle was mounted downstream of the trap - another code violation.
  • Cleaning chemicals and a box of dishwashing compound under the sink were causing corrosion and oxidation to the plumbing.
  • Purveyance tubing from the RO system was secured to the wall with small clips and the horizontal runs were drooping. The tubing was routed above the drop ceiling in several locations causing the tubing to be exposed to light and radiant heat from the lighting fixtures and nearby HVAC ductwork.

Following acceptance of a comprehensive proposal to restore high-quality drinking water to the dental office, the water treatment company’s corrective actions included:

  • Removal of the condemned existing residential RO and related purveyance tubing
  • Repairing the plumbing and sanitary piping under the break room sink
  • Cleaning, sanitizing, performance testing and recommissioning of the patient lounge water cooler
  • Installation of a code-approved pressure regulator at the main water line set to 60 psi with pressure gauge
  • Installation of a light-commercial RO system with a cellulose tri-acetate (CTA) membrane and six-gallon accumulator in the utility closet
  • Installation of 0.375-inch ID CPVC rigid piping using mounting and installation best practices
  • Installation of service valves at each service outlet for isolation, removal and replacement of chlorine
  • Addition of taste and odor (CTO) POU filters
  • Installation of non-translucent, FDA-approved flexible antimicrobial polyethylene tubing connections at each service valve, POU CTO filter and connections off the water cooler, remote RO spigot on break room sink and dental operatories with compatible thermoplastic fittings
  • Performance of pressure-test and purge purveyance piping, valves and tubing of air and fill with supplemented chlorinated RO water for disinfection; flush cooler, remote RO spigot and dental operatories
  • Attached CTO POU filters and purge of air
  • Connection of final filtered water to cooler, remote RO spigot and dental operatories
  • Testing of product water for chlorine removal

Subsequent to the plumbing inspector’s sign off, the service director took the customer on an inspection tour to appraise the taste and quality of the water and confirm her satisfaction. The customer approved the new installation and accepted a recommended service schedule for the new potable water system.


Dental Office Potable Water Case Study for Choosing the right Connectors. - Download White Paper - Parker Hannifin

Download our White Paper covering two case studies on potable water systems. Learn the importance of project planning, component selection, and understanding environmental conditions in potable water systems.


Visit Parker’s water solutions website for all available system solutions for public, life sciences.


Gary Battenburg, Technical Support and Systems Design Specialist with the Fluid System Connectors Division of Parker Hannifin Corporation Author, Gary Battenberg is a technical support and systems design specialist with the Fluid System Connectors Division of Parker Hannifin. He has 35 years of experience in the fields of domestic, commercial, industrial, high-purity and sterile water treatment processes. Battenberg has worked in the areas of sales, service, design, and manufacturing of water treatment systems and processes utilizing filtration, ion exchange, UV sterilization, reverse osmosis and ozone technologies. 


Traci Simmons, Marketing Services Specialist at Fluid System Connectors Division, Parker Hannifin.Submitted by Traci Simmons, marketing services specialist at Fluid System Connectors Division, Parker Hannifin.





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How to select a low-pressure push-on/push lok hose  - low pressure push lok hose Hose Products Division EuropeSelecting a low-pressure hose often means the choice between rubber or thermoplastic. Both offer distinct advantages however, choosing a hybrid hose can maximize all the benefits in one unit.

Low pressure hoses are used on a wide variety of machines and industrial equipment to supply different types of fluids (e.g. air, water, oil, vacuum, etc.). Hoses are typically featured in different colors to help users identify individual fluid media inside equipment more easily. Other important factors in selection include fast and easy installation of these hoses.

Push-on/push lok hoses are very easy to assemble. Just push in the nipple into the hose and the connection is ready.

How to select a low-pressure push-on/push lok hose

Rubber low-pressure hoses

Rubber hoses require a low nipple insertion force, enabling the user to perform the hose assemblies on-site on the machines, saving time and cost.

This type of hose is also highly flexible. The rubber compound makes the hose very ductile, decreasing the necessary force to bend it. This feature is very important in applications such as handling robots, where the hose flexibility is stressed at the maximum.

Finally, rubber hoses can support high temperatures. The strong grip between the hose inner layer and the hose nipple contour is guaranteed for environmental temperatures ranging from -40°C to 100°C.

Thermoplastic low-pressure hoses

Thermoplastic hoses require a higher nipple insertion force and are less flexible when compared to rubber hoses but they provide a high level of ozone resistance. This enables the long-term use of these hoses under harsh, outdoor environmental conditions (e.g. telehandlers, forklift trucks) as well as inside applications in high ozone areas.

The polyurethane material that is used also permits the offering of brightly colored hoses with a smooth surface.

Hybrid low-pressure hoses

Hybrid hoses, that combine a synthetic rubber inner-tube layer and a polyurethane cover layer, have been engineered to include all the advantages of the two materials in one unit. Their nipple insertion force and flexibility are equal to rubber hoses while their ozone resistance is equal to thermoplastic hoses, but it is on the abrasion and torsion resistance side that the hybrid hoses have no rivals.

The extreme resistance of these hoses to wear and tear makes them the ideal choice for use in very tough applications, such as energy chain systems within machine tool or injection molding machines and handling robots.

Exceptional torsion resistance, with more than one million test cycles on a pressure/torsion test bench, ensures a long-life time when used in multiple movement applications (e.g. welding robots within car production).

These hybrid hoses are also resistant to extremes of temperature, offer a smooth surface and are manufactured in a range of bright colors.

Advantages like these have proven the Parker Hybrid Push-lok Hose 837-PU to be a preferred solution in a wide range of markets. Global leading car manufacturers are among the users that have specified this hose type for use in their car production lines.

Learn More:

To discover more about Parker’s Push-Lok 837PU hybrid and other low pressure hoses visit our website, or contact us to discuss your application needs.

This blog was contributed to by Stephan Völler, Product Support Manager and Conny Stöhr, Marketing Services Manager, Hose Products Division Europe.






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Hydraulic Hose User Safety - Burst Test - Parker Hose Products DivisionOne of the most dangerous situations for hydraulic equipment is a hose burst. Whether it is a pinhole leak or a full blow burst, the danger is eminent. 

Hydraulic hose bursts create dangerous situations not only for the equipment itself but the individuals running it or standing near it. Hose failures can be minimized with regular maintenance, but that doesn't guarantee a hose assembly won't fail. Sometimes things happen without any warning signs. At Hose Products Division, we are serious about keeping users safe, which is why we have a variety of hose accessories to protect end users. 

Hydraulic hose bursts can result from a number of reasons and extreme working conditions. Incorrect routing, higher than published working pressures and temperatures, abrasion, and incompatible hydraulic fluids are several common reasons why hydraulic hose assemblies burst. A burst can lead to leaking or spraying hydraulic fluid, which is oftentimes very hot. This can result in slips, falls, and even burns. 

Pinhole leaks can form, leading to serious injury and even death if not handled correctly. If you suspect there is a pinhole leak in your hydraulic system, never try to find it with your hand. Since hot, and highly pressurized, hydraulic fluid is pushing out through one tiny hole, pinhole leaks can be extremely dangerous. Use a piece of cardboard to determine if there is a pinhole leak. If you put your hand in front of the leak, oil will inject itself into your skin. The damage may not look very bad at first, but given time the oil will spread, swelling the skin, burning the inside of your wound, and eventually leading to amputation or death if serious enough. Injection injury prevention planning is critical to avoid serious injury. In addition to oil injection injuries, hydraulic oil from pinhole leaks can pool on floors, leaving slippery areas. This can cause injury to bystanders who are unaware of the leak. 

Fitting blow offs can be just as dangerous as pinhole leaks. When fittings blow off, sharp and sometimes heavy metal can fly through the air striking nearby personnel and machinery. The hose may still be pressurized, resulting in a whipping hose that will spray hydraulic fluid.  Fitting blow offs typically happen when hose and fittings are mismatched from different manufacturers or from improper assembly. Parker fittings are specifically engineered and tested to work only with Parker hose. Using compatible hose and fittings with proper assembly will greatly decrease the risk of fitting blow offs. Additionally, identifying STAMP (size, temperature, application, media, and pressure) requirements will ensure you have the proper hose and fittings for your specific application needs. 

Partek Defense is a hose sleeve designed to protect equipment and nearby personnel in the event of a high-pressure hose burst. This hose sleeve is constructed with multiple layers that contains and dissipates any energy and media resulting from a hose burst. Partek Defense is great for all applications but especially those in the mining, construction, and agriculture industries where operators are in close proximity to hydraulic hoses. Partek Defense is easy to assemble and allows the hose to remain flexible so it does not interfere with routing.

Hydraulic Hose User Safety - Hose Whip Restraint System - Parker Hose Products DivisionHose Products Division offers a Hose Whip Restraint system to prevent whipping of a pressurized hose in the case of a fitting blow off. The system is comprised of two parts – a hose collar and a cable assembly. The collar is selected based on the outside diameter of the hose, while the cable assembly is selected based on the type of hose connection. Both the hose collar and the cable assembly work together to keep the hose from whipping if the hose disconnects from the fitting. This is important for protecting the equipment and nearby personnel.  

Hydraulic Hose User Safety - Firesleeve Hose - Parker Hose Products DivisionIn addition to Partek Defense and the Hose Whip Restraint, Hose Products Division offers a Firesleeve to keep end users safe while using hydraulic hoses. The Firesleeve is a flame resistant, braided fiberglass sleeve with an orange silicone cover that protects against extreme temperature conditions in all industries. This hassle-free sleeve simply slides over hoses and fittings and is secured in place with Firesleeve Clamps. Additionally, Firesleeve Tape can be used to seal the Firesleeve at the hose ends, replacing messy sealant that takes time to cure. For easy installation, be sure that the outer diameter of the hose is smaller than the inside diameter of the Firesleeve. 

A hose failure can create further damage and costly downtime for hydraulic equipment, while also creating potentially dangerous situations for nearby personnel. Hoses and equipment can always be replaced, but equipment users cannot. Make sure to take precautions by using these safety items or any of Hose Products Division's other hose protection sleeves to prevent damage to the hose, which could cause failure and harm to nearby personnel.


Kyri McDonough, Hose Products Division, Parker HannifinArticle contributed by Kyri McDonough, marketing services manager at Hose Products Division, Parker Hannifin.





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OSHA Rule Limits Silica Dust Exposure - Jackhammer Application - Parker Industrial Hose Products Division In an effort to improve worker safety, the United States Occupational Health and Safety Association (OSHA) has issued a Final Rule to limit occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS). The Rule went into effect for the construction industry on September 23, 2017. Employers that fail to comply are putting their workers at risk and will face stiff OSHA penalties.

This blog discusses RCS and the dangers of exposure as well as employer requirements, what employees can do to limit exposure and methods of compliance. 


What is RCS?

Crystalline silica is a naturally occurring mineral found in the earth’s crust. It is present in many materials used in construction and demolition processes such as brick, concrete, ceramic tiles, mortar, rock, sand, soil and stone.


Why is RCS dangerous?

Crystalline silica is classified as a human lung carcinogen. Inhaling crystalline silica dust can lead to serious health conditions including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), silicosis, and kidney disease. 


OSHA Rule Limits Silica Dust Exposure - Download OSHA Summary Guide - Parker Industrial Hose Products DivisionDownload the RCS Summary Guide to learn more about the new OSHA Rule, including

  • The types of equipment and tools associated with exposure
  • Employer requirements
  • Silica dust exposure level thresholds
  • Preferred compliance methods
  • Workers’ rights
  • Compliance timeline by industry
  • Nonconformance penalties


How are workers exposed?

Worker exposure to RCS occurs during many construction-related activities performed on materials that contain crystalline silica such as abrasive blasting, jackhammering, drilling, tunneling, concrete mixing, crushing and cutting. During these processes, hazardous RCS dust — typically one hundred times smaller than ordinary sand found on beaches or playgrounds — is released and suspended in the air, where the particles may be inhaled by workers. These particles can penetrate and embed deep into the lungs and other organs.



While the concerns associated with crystalline silica have been recognized since the first half of the twentieth century, formalized regulations were not created until the 1970s, with the formation of OSHA. At that time, suitable regulations were put in place, but as time passed and technology developed, those regulations became outdated.

In 2013, OSHA embarked on an extensive evaluation of the issue of crystalline silica exposure — analyzing scientific data, reviewing industry standards and considering input from an array of stakeholders —culminating in the proposal of the Final Rule.


Saving lives

In the United States alone, approximately 2.3 million workers are exposed to respirable crystalline silica and almost 90% of them work in the construction industry.

“OSHA estimates that the Final Rule will save over 600 lives and prevent more than 900 new cases of silicosis each year, once its effects are fully realized. The Rule is projected to provide net annual benefits of as much as $7.7 billion to society in terms of reduced costs associated with preventing and treating silica-related illnesses.”

— Occupational Health and Safety Association (OSHA)


Employer requirements

The Final Rule requires construction employers to limit worker exposures to RCS and take other steps to protect workers and ensure their safety including:

  • Implement a written exposure control plan. 
  • Restrict practices that expose workers to silica where feasible alternatives are available.
  • Use a preferred control method.
  • Provide respiratory protection when required. 
  • Offer medical exams and keep records.
  • Comply with OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (29 CFR 1910.1200). The HCS requires employers to inform employees about hazardous chemicals in the workplace through their written hazard communication programs.


How employees can minimize risks

Workers can reduce their exposure by applying OSHA recommended precautions:

  • If a respirator is required, wear one that is N95 NIOSH certified.
  • Don’t wear a tight-fitting respirator if you have facial hair because it could prevent a good seal between the respirator and your face.
  • Understand the health risks associated with exposure to RCS as well as the job tasks that create CSR exposure.
  • Wear work clothes that are disposable or washable. Before leaving the site, vacuum or change out of your work clothes.
  • Do not eat, drink or smoke where crystalline silica dust may be present.  


Methods of compliance

Employers following alternative exposure control methods must first comply with the requirements of the Standard to protect employees following the hierarchy of controls, a long-standing OSHA policy. These include engineering and work practice controls for reducing exposure. Respirators may be used when reductions to acceptable levels of crystalline silica cannot be achieved to an acceptable level. 

There are two main types of engineering controls:

Local exhaust ventilation and isolation

Local exhaust ventilation removes dust by capturing it at or near the point where it is created. Isolation separates employees from the dust source by containing the dust or isolating employees. One such example of exhaust ventilation is a properly ventilated cab on heavy equipment.

Wet method/water delivery systems

Wet methods involve applying water or foam at the point of dust generation. The water grounds the dust before it becomes an airborne health hazard. NOTE: Pre-wetting the work area is ineffective and does not comply with the standard.

OSHA Rule Limits Silica Dust Exposure - Twinhammer Hose_ Parker Industrial Hose Products DivisionParker Hannifin’s recently introduced Twinhammer Hose, is specifically designed to comply with OSHA wet method dust control. The hose is a unitized, chemically bonded dual air/water hose assembly designed to simultaneously transfer air to power jackhammers and water to suppress silica dust during tool operation, to 212°F and 300 psi.

By using this engineered equipment in a manner following a specific work practice, the risks of crystalline silica are substantially reduced.


New OSHA Rule Limits Worker Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica - Download New OSHA Rule - Parker Industrial Hose Products DivisionFor detailed information on the new OSHA Rule, download the summary guide.


OSHA Rule Limits Silica Dust Exposure - Dennis Danial, technical services manager at Parker Industrial Hose Products DivisionThis blog was contributed by Dennis Daniel, technical services and marketing services manager at Industrial Hose Products Division, Parker Hannifin.





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Continuous Remote Monitoring vs. Route-Based Condition Monitoring Solutions - Plant floor sensor image - Parker Hannifin Quick Coupling Division - SensoNODEWithout question, the Internet of Things (IoT) has changed the way we look at condition monitoring and diagnostics. Many now consider checking analog gauges and jotting down measurements on a clipboard obsolete.

Industries from manufacturing and automotive to health care and transportation are using advanced condition monitoring solutions to:

  • Identify issues before they escalate

  • Reduce downtime

  • Decrease maintenance costs

  • Avoid dangerous situations

  • Make better, more informed decisions

  • Improve labor efficiency

All of these benefits have opened the doors to Predictive Maintenance.


Which wireless solution is best for your business?

Continuous Remote Monitoring vs. Route-Based Condition Monitoring Solutions - Condition Monitoring Graphic - Parker Hannifin Quick Coupling Division - SensoNODENow, it isn’t a question of if you need an advanced condition monitoring solution, but which type? We break down the key differences between Continuous Remote Monitoring and Wireless Route-Based Monitoring to help you answer that question.

Wireless route-based monitoring for on-site diagnostics

If you need a solution for short-term monitoring or diagnostics, then a wireless route-based condition monitoring solution will likely give you the best return on your investment.

The “route” speaks to the asset manager’s maintenance routine, whether it’s walking a plant floor and inspecting each machine, or running diagnostics on a specific piece of equipment. Wireless sensors are installed at key points on your machines to monitor vital conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure, and humidity) and wirelessly transmit that information to a mobile device by using the required software or mobile app.

Wireless route-based condition monitoring 

Continuous Remote Monitoring vs. Route-Based Condition Monitoring Solutions - Route-based Monitoring Graphic - Parker Hannifin Quick Coupling division SensoNODEThis type of wireless route-based condition monitoring solution alleviates some of the common issues, including:


Technicians within range can wirelessly retrieve information from sensors installed on the asset. Without the wires and cables required by a traditional monitoring solution, technicians can monitor and record each measurement simultaneously, then move on to the next piece of equipment. This helps cut down the time it takes to complete the route, thus potentially increasing the frequency of those routes.

More daily measurements mean a more robust archive. There is also a better chance of catching the sudden spikes or drops in condition levels that often go unnoticed, leading to decreased asset performance or outright failure.


With one mobile device, such as a smartphone, technicians can easily and quickly monitor the digital readout and automatically record a measurement with the click of a button. Now the grease, dirt, and grime that build upon an analog gauge, making it more difficult to read, are no longer an issue…and neither is the technician’s handwriting.

Record keeping

Maintaining a digital record that can be exported and uploaded to a computer ensures recorded measurements are no longer subject to being lost, misfiled, torn, or stained with the random coffee cup. It’s also easier to analyze digital files to identify trends than it is with hardcopy records.

Increased downtime

The biggest benefit is that wireless monitoring solutions don’t require shutting down the piece of equipment to take measurements. Leaving job-critical assets online while running diagnostics means companies can investigate issues without halting production.

These benefits allow workers to:

  • Easily take accurate measurements from individual machines

  • Wirelessly diagnose machine issues to reduce downtime and save money

  • Easily monitor your assets/machines on-site

  • Export recorded measurements

  • Avoid potentially unsafe working conditions

Route-based condition monitoring is perfect for companies that need an immediate, short-term diagnostic solution that is more accurate than traditional gauges.

Continuous monitoring for remote measurements

Continuous Remote Monitoring vs. Route-Based Condition Monitoring Solutions - Continuous Remote Monitoring Graphic - Parker Hannifin Quick Coupling division SensoNODEContinuous remote monitoring gives users a broader view of their assets by providing a steady stream of information, so they never miss a beat. Unlike wireless route-based monitoring, which requires a technician to be within the range of a sensor to get the measurement, users can take measurements with a continuous remote monitoring system anywhere they have an internet signal.

While conceptually similar, continuous remote monitoring solutions do have a few differences compared to route-based monitoring solutions:

Long-term vs. short-term monitoring

Route-Based Monitoring begins and ends when the end-user is actively using the system. Continuous Remote Monitoring solutions are designed for long-term monitoring to give users immediate access to the health of their machines. Continuous monitoring solutions are always ‘watching’ machines and systems for any issues that could lead to reduced performance or downtime. That means that at any time of the day, users can access critical information without interrupting production.

Big picture vs. snapshot

While Route-Based Monitoring helps users take measurements and run diagnostics on individual assets, a Continuous Monitoring solution gives users the bigger picture of how things are running. Users can gather trend data from all assets at all locations and analyze that information to find ways to optimize machine performance and keep production running smoothly.

Remote vs. on-site monitoring

By giving users access from anywhere with an internet connection, they can monitor and collect the data of multiple assets from multiple locations simultaneously. Cloud-based remote monitoring lets users access everything from their desktop, so plant managers can analyze trends for all assets right from their office whether they’re on-site or miles away.

Employing a continuous monitoring strategy allows companies to:

  • Access data anywhere, anytime

  • Receive alert notifications of potential issues

  • Visualize data in a way that makes the most sense

  • Customize alerts, trend charts, and dashboards

  • View measurement anomalies easily

  • Support continuous improvement efforts with trend data

  • Export data for analyzing later

Continuous remote monitoring is perfect for large-scale operations with multiple assets or production/assembly lines.


Final thought

If you’re considering either wireless route-based or continuous remote monitoring for your business, but you still have questions, our engineers can help you choose the best option for your needs. As a global leader in connected motion and control technologies, Parker has spent years developing solutions and strategies for both types of advanced condition monitoring.

Contact us today for more information on remote condition monitoring solutions


 Contributed by Dan Davis, product sales manager, SensoNODE Sensors and SCOUT Software Parker Hannifin.






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Choosing the Right Connector, Tubing and Accessories for Your Application - Part 1 - water pipes flowing water - Parker Fluid System Connectors DivBefore the advent of thermoplastic fittings, the water conditioning industry was basically limited to brass, bronze, galvanized and copper tubing for connecting Point-of-Entry (POE) filters, softeners and related components to service plumbing. Point-of-Use (POU) drinking water appliances were typically fitted up with brass compression fittings and copper or polyethylene tubing.

In the mid-1980s, plastic push-fit type fittings were introduced to the US water conditioning market and shortly thereafter, drinking water systems were marketed with these new fittings. This was followed closely by small Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems that incorporated pumps to improve applied pressure to the membrane where high TDS and/ or low feed water pressure conditions were present. Excitement among product assemblers, manufacturers, installers and service departments was high because of the speed with which tube connections and water service could be made. Then, reality set in.


Hard lesson learned

Some early adopters of the push-fit type fittings, especially assemblers of the small, pump-equipped RO systems, quickly learned a lesson in paying attention to the application guidelines for those new fittings. They were not designed to work in a negative pressure (vacuum) application. To be more specific, it was found that fitting the inlet port of a rotary vane pump with this fitting would allow a vacuum on startup and it could be observed that air was being drawn from the atmosphere and joining the influent water stream. The result was a failure of the rotary vane pump due to cavitation created by the entrained air.

A locking clip for the collet was quickly provided by the fitting manufacturer that prevented this condition. It was an expensive and hard lesson learned by those who rushed to be first, ignoring the user responsible for making the final selection of materials, accessories, and components which would have prevented misapplication of the product.

Now, over 30 years since that product introduction, advances in fitting design have improved and there are many manufacturers competing for this fitting business in many different markets and applications, including:

  • water filtration
  • beverage dispensing
  • bottling
  • food
  • semiconductor

With so many market inroads, it’s important to know what the limitations are for various types of fittings, valves, tubing, and accessories used for specific applications. Let’s look at some application conditions that must be considered before final selection of thermoplastic fittings and tubing for water and beverage service compatibility.

  Material selection for drinking water

Since the application involves drinking water, the selection process must include Instrument Grade FDA and NSF 51 and/or NSF 61 standards compliance. This will quickly narrow down the field of qualified fittings, valves, and tubing. A material selection guide is typically provided by the manufacturer and is recommended for review to confirm accurate selection of components for the application under consideration.

Water pressure

What is the expected system pressure?

This is important, especially when measuring the static water pressure in the service plumbing of a residence, office or commercial/industrial building. Use a faucet-mounted pressure gauge to obtain the water pressure. Another option is to contact the local water utility and ask for the average and highest known water pressure for the grid area where the installation will be commissioned. Where excessive pressures are recorded, specify a properly rated pressure reducing valve on the inlet of the installation to ensure compliance with the recommended working pressure of the tubing. Working pressures of fittings and valves are typically much higher than that of tubing but still should not be overlooked when specifying the overall material list.

Water temperature

What is the expected maximum temperature for the application? Is there a hot-water circuit included in the specification?

Look closely at the working pressure (WP) of the selected tubing to make sure it is within the temperature and pressure ranges specified by the manufacturer. There will be a temperature and pressure chart for the tubing to confirm what the maximum allowable system pressure is relative to the maximum water temperature. Read this chart and make sure you are referencing the specific size tubing you have specified. Smaller diameter tubing will operate at both higher pressure and temperature than larger diameter tubing.

For example, a 3/8-inch OD polyethylene tube will operate at 77 psi at 125°F, whereas a 5/8-inch OD polyethylene tube at the same temperature specifies a recommended working pressure of only 43 psi. Therefore, a 0.625-inch OD polypropylene tube would be recommended because that size tube will operate at up to 100 psi at 125°F. Polypropylene tube is more rigid than polyethylene and is designed for higher pressure and temperature.


Do not design your system based on the minimum burst pressure rating in the application chart. The working pressure is typically one-third of the minimum burst pressure; use caution and confirm that you are specifying your tubing based on the recommended working pressure. If a change to polypropylene tube is required, it is very important to confirm compatibility with the tube fitting. Some fittings are only rated for polyethylene tube, so use extra caution here. Additionally, a tube support is recommended for these types of tubing for maximum holding power where end loading, vibration or pressure spikes may occur. A good example of this would be where a solenoid valve in the system controls flow. The opening and closing of the valve will create pressure spikes that could result in connection failure.


Environmental Conditions

What are the environmental conditions in and around the installation site?

Let’s assume the installation is a casual dining restaurant where food is prepared along with water, soft drinks, ice, coffee and hot water for tea. POU water filtration is provided to improve aesthetics and eliminate taste and odor from a chlorinated municipal water source. This filtered water is supplied to the various fixtures and dispensers from this central filter. Each may require a different size supply-tube connection. In this case, the service line from the filter would be a 0.500- or 0.625-inch OD with 0.375- and 0.25-inch branch connections to the various connections. Careful attention to the routing of the tubing for this facility is important, not only for the protection of the quality of the water, but also for the safety of the kitchen and wait staff. In some areas, it may be necessary to run the tubing through a rigid [pipe] chase to protect the softer tubing from potential damage during routine activities in the restaurant.

If the tubing is exposed to a continuously lighted area, it is advisable to use colored tubing to prevent light transmission into the water. Natural (clear) tubing is not recommended because light transmission into the water can allow algae growth, which would be a health code violation and would contribute to bad tasting water.

Tubing that will be routed near hot water lines should be insulated to prevent heat transfer into the tubing which could, in turn, cause tube failure and possible water damage. Where tubing is exposed to direct sunlight, the tubing should be rated for UV light resistance to prevent degradation and potential failure.

Tubing should also be secured with appropriate safety clips on fittings and routed in a manner that does not create an occupational or safety hazard. 

Hostile environments

What cleaning agents are used that might affect corrosion resistance?

Cleaning agents must also be considered for a food-service establishment where corrosive oxidizers and degreasers are used, to maintain antibacterial conditions in the food preparation areas. Corrosion-resistant fittings made of polypropylene or Kynar are recommended for these areas whereas acetal fittings will degrade quickly when exposed to corrosive cleaning agents and/or fumes.

Tubing, fittings, and valves that are exposed to foot traffic, run over or impacted in any way are exposed to hostile conditions that could precipitate into a failure of the installation or injury to an employee or patron. Sometimes it may be necessary to route tubing up and over a doorway or even above a drop-ceiling to avoid these kinds of hostile conditions.

Service and maintenance

What is the maintenance and service of the system after installation, startup, and commissioning?

Routine inspection of the tubing and fittings should be scheduled and any repairs or reconfiguration made if problems arise. Other service contractors or equipment suppliers may cause damage (unintentionally of course) to your system during installation, service/maintenance or removal of equipment, or other related activities that may not be immediately realized until some of the connected fixtures or machines fail to provide the filtered water. Designing the tube routing system in a way that allows prompt and efficient service and/or maintenance should always be at the forefront of this type of installation. Unscheduled downtime in a foodservice establishment is sorely frowned upon, especially if care is not exercised during the system installation. Take care to protect fittings, valves, and tubing from mishaps that could and should be avoided with thoughtful planning and execution of the installation. 


Parker is your single connection to leak-free innovation with faster assembly. We offer a comprehensive line of fittings, valves and tubing in support of our customers in the water and beverage industry. Our solutions are designed to boost customer productivity and profitability while offering specific performance expectations.

Being the world's leader in push-to-connect fitting technology, our engineers designed LIQUIfit™ fittings. The LIQUIfit body is manufactured from a unique bio-based, high performance polymer produced from renewable plants, to expand the use of non-fossil-based resources. 


LIQUIfit™ features a stainless steel grab ring, bio-sourced nylon 11, EPDM D – seal, FDA compliant, NSF/ANSI 51 and NSF/ANSI 61, is silicone free and 100% leak tested in production. Date coding guarantees quality and traceability. The innovative sealing and gripping design dramatically reduces bacteria growth, giving 100% cleanliness. 

LIQUIfit™ fittings offer an innovative alternative for water applications; no fluid contamination occurs and environmental protection is guaranteed.

Our TrueSeal Fittings are lightweight, field attachable and connect to tubing without the use of tools. These all plastic push-to-connect fittings are manufactured from FDA compliant materials.



Thermoplastic fittings, valves, and tubing play an important role in the purveyance of water and many other media applications and will for many years to come. Paying attention to the details outlined in this brief overview will help you hone your application skills for every installation, no matter how complex or simple it may be. Reliable, long-term performance of your installation depends on your attention to the proper selection of connector fittings, valves, tubing and accessories relative to the project requirements. Your customer confidence levels are in direct proportion to the quality of your work. In Part 2, we will look more in depth at the differences in compatibility of different materials, as well as specific applications. Stay tuned!

Visit Parker’s water solutions website for all available system solutions.


Gary Battenburg, Technical Support and Systems Design Specialist with the Fluid System Connectors Division of Parker Hannifin Corporation Author, Gary Battenberg is a technical support and systems design specialist with the Fluid System Connectors Division of Parker Hannifin. He has 35 years of experience in the fields of domestic, commercial, industrial, high-purity and sterile water treatment processes. Battenberg has worked in the areas of sales, service, design, and manufacturing of water treatment systems and processes utilizing filtration, ion exchange, UV sterilization, reverse osmosis and ozone technologies. 


Traci Simmons, Marketing Services Specialist at Fluid System Connectors Division, Parker Hannifin.Submitted by Traci Simmons, marketing services specialist at Fluid System Connectors Division, Parker Hannifin.





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