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Extremely cold environments with conditions such as snow, ice and high wind speeds are a challenge for all rubber hydraulic hoses.
Frequently, hoses must withstand temperature ranges below -57 °C which influences the rubber compounds used on the inner tube and the hose cover. What does this mean for your equipment?
When rubber is permanently cooled, the material characteristics and the bending behaviour will change even if the product has been developed for such temperature limits. Elastomers are used at the inner tube and the hose cover. When cooled to permanent low temperatures, hoses may no longer behave with their normal characteristics and become hard, stiff and inelastic. They can even decompose or work at reduced performance under continuous thermal loads. The material parameters change under the influence of heat and cold. If you cool down to lower temperatures, rubber becomes hard, tough and leathery.
Engineers describe this process with thermal changes that affect the molecular behaviour and the microstructure becomes crystalline. The result is that the rubber compounds become brittle, but in principle they remain deformable. The heat builds up in heat or mechanical energy. At -40 ° C (depending on rubber compound and hardness) the so-called glass point is reached; the rubber is hard. Crystallization of the elastomer at low temperatures may cause cracking. However, this depends strongly on the type of load in the low temperature range, more critical here are shock loads. We strongly recommend a regular visual inspection of the rubber for cracks, which can reduce its service life under unfavourable conditions and failure and leakage can occur when the temperature exceeds the rubber compounds acceptable range.
Hose manufacturers, such as Parker, are continuously putting their designs to the test. With the latest in technology, our state-of-the-art materials development and performance test labs are capable of determining baseline engineering and design properties to ensure that hoses meet application requirements. The cold-flexibility test is one of those tests required to meet specific specifications such as ISO 10619-2. An advantage to Parker's manufacturing process is the use of in-house compounds. This advantage opens new opportunities for the ideal compounds mixture of hoses such as Parker's SX35LT and SX42LT, which are multispiral hoses with four or six spiral high tensile steel wires for high pressure applications of 35,0 Mpa (5000 psi) and 42,0 Mpa (6000 psi) for extreme cold environments. These hoses are developed for extreme cold and demanding low temperature applications.
Parker also offers braided hoses with a synthetic rubber inner tube and as well a No-Skive thin synthetic rubber cover construction for mobile applications in low temperature environments such as forestry machines or refrigerated warehouses (461LT) or a 3-wire braid low-temperature compact hose with 4SP working pressures (371LT). These two hose types are not only cold resistance up to -50 °C but also characterized for an excellent ozone resistance. General typical applications are heavy construction equipment, side booms, mining and/or mobile equipment, arctic oil fields, materials handling in low temperature conditions, snow grooming equipment and any cold storage applications.
If your equipment relies on hydraulic systems, you know, it is not “IF” but “WHEN” a hydraulic hose fails, the race against downtime begins. The longer your equipment is down, the greater the loss and cost. Hydraulic system failures cause 35 to 65 percent of all mobile equipment downtimes – a great part due to relatively simple and cheap hydraulic hoses.
Ask yourself the following questions:
If YES is the answer to your questions, then the Parker Parkrimp No-Skive Self-Assembly system might be a problem solver for you.
Learn more about how to make your own assemblies using Parkrimp® No-Skive hose crimpers.
International companies with substantial expertise, such as Parker, have a global presence for the leading companies of the mobile market and can offer the right hose for each mobile application and on top, you can choose the way of product supply which best answers your individual manufacturing philosophy. The delivery options include complete hose assemblies, hose/tube assemblies, single hose and fittings and hose crimpers and tooling for the Parkimp No-Skive self- assembling.
Learn more about Hose Products.
This blog was contributed to by Conny Stöhr, marketing services manager, Hose Products Division Europe.
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19 Jul 2018
Selecting the proper hose for a hydraulic assembly is critical to ensure that it meets the requirements for that specific application. One of the first steps in selecting the proper hose is to identify the type of reinforcement that is needed. The reinforcement is the strength of all hydraulic hoses; it determines the working pressure of the hose. Within the hydraulic hose industry, you will commonly see three types of reinforcement:
Download our HoseFinder app to make it easier to select your next hydraulic hose.
It is important to note that there are hoses that have a reinforcement that is a combination of fiber and wire, or multiple layers of wire braids or spiral layers but typically there are one or the other. Watch this video to see the differences.
Hose reinforcement has a direct correlation to the working pressure rating of a hydraulic hose. Pressure capacity is the defining criteria for hydraulic hose and pressure dictates how it is constructed. The type of reinforcement as well as the number of layers; 1-wire hose, 2-wire, 4-wire, etc., generally indicates pressure capacity. As you increase the number of layers, the pressure rating increases.
Hose reinforcement also impacts the flexibility of a hydraulic hose. Although hydraulic hoses are usually fairly stationary and don’t move around very much, hoses used on a piece of equipment that has a flexible joint, like a backhoe, must be flexible. Furthermore, the flexibility of hose enables components to be positioned in the most efficient or convenient places due to its ability to bend around corners, through tight spaces, or across long distances. Braided and spiral hoses definitely differ in terms of flexibility along with other differentiating factors.
Braided construction has a crisscross wire arrangement. This ends up looking like a braid when it’s all done. Braided constructions allow for increased flexibility of the hydraulic hose. Several layers of wire braid can make the hose stronger while keeping the reinforcement material untangled and maintaining a constant pitch (i.e. the inclination and the thread count per unit length). "Medium-pressure hoses" typically feature one- and two-wire braided construction. These hoses are frequently found on construction equipment, heavy-duty trucks, and fleet vehicle applications. In general, braided hose is selected for its flexibility, however, this type of hose is also more susceptible to failure under high-impulse applications.
The majority of "low-pressure braided hoses" have a textile reinforcement. In applications with typical operating pressures below 300 psi, the use of fiber braid allows for maximum flexibility. Hoses with textile reinforcement are commonly used to transmit petroleum-based fluids, diesel fuel, hot lubricating oil, air, ethylene glycol anti-freeze and water.
Below is an image of one of Parker Hose Product’s braiding machines.
At one time in the industry, two-wire braided hose was most commonly used in many applications. But the advent of larger, off-road specialty equipment drove the creation of spiral hose, which is very well suited for applications where extremely high impulse pressure is encountered.
Spiral hose construction consists of either textile or wire reinforcement. Each ply is laid at a specified angle for maximum dimensional stability. Instead of crisscrossing, wires remain parallel as they wrap around the circumference of the hose. Even though spiral reinforcement results in a stronger hose; there is an increased minimum bend radius and less flexibility due to the stiffness of the wire reinforcement in most cases. Spiral wire construction was designed to handle the high impulse applications such as construction equipment, heavy-duty trucks and fleet vehicle applications.
Below is an image of one of Parker Hose Product’s spiral hose machines.
Usually the more layers of wire, the stronger the hose, which means higher pressures can be achieved. Multi-layer spiral hoses, such as four- or six-wire construction, are used in a wide variety of applications from lawn tractors to earth movers. The demand for durable, high-performance spiral hydraulic hoses is continually growing, especially in applications where service life is critical.
Helical wire construction is used in addition to layers of fiber spiral or fiber braid hose reinforcements. Helical reinforced hoses are designed with maximum flexibility and vacuum handling in mind. The use of a helical reinforcement construction prevents collapse under vacuum. Helical wire reinforcement can be found in low pressure suction and return line hoses.
If you are in need of a hydraulic hose but don’t know which is best for your application, contact a local hose distributor. Provide them with all the details of your application in order for them to fully understand what you need. You can also download Parker’s HoseFinder to go through the STAMP process, which enables you to identify hoses based on your specific application.
From one- and two-wire braided, and up to six-wire spiral hose construction, and with a variety of cover options to protect from abrasive situations, Parker’s hydraulic hoses cover the pressure and media requirements for most hydraulic applications.
Article contributed by Kyri McDonough, marketing services manager at Hose Products Division, Parker Hannifin.
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12 Jul 2018
The safest, highest quality hydraulic hose assemblies are made with hoses, fittings and crimping equipment from the same manufacturer. Components from different manufacturers should not be used when making hose assemblies (apart from rare instances when both manufacturers have approved the exception). Installing fittings from different manufacturers can cause coupling retention to be adversely affected. For instance, mixing and matching components can lead to hoses bursting, couplings leaking and blown-off ends maiming or even killing workers. Thread or flange ends must also be properly matched to their mating components to create leak-proof connections. In addition to the dangers involved, mixing and matching brand names will void the manufacturer’s warranty and could also exclude manufacturers from liability should someone get injured from a failed hose assembly.
It is important to remember that an individual is solely responsible for the hose assemblies he or she fabricates. Mixing and matching components can potentially expose that person and their employer to liability claims if an assembly fails. The following advisory from Parker addresses common causes, misconceptions, consequences and costs of incompatible hydraulic hose assemblies.
Generic, look-alike and/or "knock-off" hoses and fittings have become more prevalent in the marketplace in recent years. Be certain to correctly identify components before introducing them into a hydraulic system. Laylines on hoses and stampings on fittings designate, among other things, manufacturer, type, size, working pressure and age. Never use a hose or fitting of unknown capability or origin.
Correction: While manufacturers’ fittings may look similar, they likely have not been approved for use on a different manufacturer’s hose. Parker, for instance, subjects its fittings to a substantial number of testing and qualification procedures prior to approving them for use on a particular hose. It is important to note that SAE and NAHAD also indicate that it is extremely important that the specific instructions of the hose and coupling manufacturers be followed. The intermixing of hose and couplings from different manufacturers is not typically acceptable. Couplings are engineered to only work with approved hoses and vice-versa. Do not use hose/coupling combinations that are not approved by the manufacturer. If the hose and coupling are supplied by different manufacturers, then both must approve of their use together. In no instance should the information printed in this section supersede a manufacturer's instructions.
Correction: Only use specific hose and fitting combinations that have been tested together as an assembly in accordance with the industry specification. The fitting, unless qualified by its manufacturer (then also by the hose manufacturer) for use with a particular hose, should not be used.
Correction: A manufacturer’s formal crimp specifications rarely, if ever, support different manufacturers’ hose, fitting and crimper combinations. Only crimp hoses and fittings with equipment approved by the manufacturer of the hose and fitting. Please reference Parker Crimpsource for Parker’s crimp specifications as well as compatible hose and fitting combinations.
To mix and match components is to increase the risk of hose failure – a dangerous situation regardless of setting or application. Possible consequences of hose failure resulting from the use of incompatible components include:
- Fittings thrown off at high speed
- High velocity fluid discharge
- Fluid injection injury
- Violently "whipping" hose
- Sparking or explosion from sprayed flammable fluids
- Suddenly moving/falling objects otherwise held static by fluid pressure
Hose failure is also expensive for those who sell assemblies or rely on them to get the job done. The high cost of hose failure can include:
- Assembly replacement
- Subsequent machine and/or system damage
- Warranty claims
- Customer dissatisfaction
- Worker lost-time/compensation
- Medical bills/increased insurance premiums
- Contamination control/clean-up
- EPA penalties/fees
- OSHA infractions
Parker’s recommendations are consistent with SAE standard J1273: Industry Consensus on Best Practices for Using Hydraulic Hose. The complete technical paper, which includes SAE-recommended practices for hose assembly fabrication, can be purchased from www.SAE.org.
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28 Jun 2018
Any of us who have driven a vehicle knows from experience certain mechanical issues produce symptoms that can be detected by our senses of touch and hearing. Vibrations felt in the steering wheel and noise from the floorboard can be indicators of out-of-balance tires. Warped brake rotors may trigger shaking through the brake pedal. Through abnormal levels of vibration, one can determine a mechanical device is declining.
The same holds true for machines and industrial equipment. Many components of a machine are rotating and each one is generating its own distinctive pattern and level of vibration that creates a smooth flow of energy. But, when the flow is interrupted, excessive noise and shaking signal a problem or deterioration in the machinery. The reactionary move would be to service the equipment immediately. By being proactive though and pinpointing issues before they arise, you’re maintaining a machine’s integrity while getting the most out of your investment.
No two vibrations are the same. Each level and frequency are unique that even the human touch cannot distinguish. This is where a vibration analysis can provide the imperative sensitivity, especially for any rotating machinery, to evaluate the condition of equipment and avoid failures. Vibration analysis looks for anomalies and monitors changes from the established vibration signature of a system. This is achieved through recordkeeping of a machine’s vibration history and over time predict problems before serious issues arise.
A critical component of vibration analysis involves sensors. These machine-mounted devices are necessary to gather complete data to assess and monitor machine health quickly and accurately. That means obtaining a full-spectrum vibration signature in three axes (horizontal, vertical and axial) on both ends of the motor and driven equipment through an accelerometer, which measures low to very high frequencies. They are used for low to medium frequency measurements and are used for vibration monitoring and balancing operations on rotating machinery.
Sensors are used to quantify the magnitude of vibration known as vibration amplitude. In other words, it reports how smooth or rough the machine is running. A vibrations’ magnitude is expressed as:
Displacement - total distance traveled by the vibrating part from one extreme limit of travel to the other extreme limit of travel.
Velocity - the speed of the vibrating mass changes continuously.
Acceleration - the value representing the maximum rate that velocity is changing.
Vibration analysis and monitoring can be used to discover and diagnose a wide range of problems related to rotating equipment. This includes unbalance, misalignment, sleeve-bearing problems and resonance issues. However, determining the presence of these problems is not a simple and easily performed procedure. Collecting and evaluating vibration signature analysis can be complex and cumbersome.
Parker values the importance of vibration analysis to ensure the longevity of industrial machinery. They’ve introduced a simple, yet highly effective way to measure vibration through their new SensoNODE Vibration Sensors. These easy-to-use devices can be attached to any type of equipment to monitor vibrations in even the most difficult-to-reach locations. They help identify the specific cause and location of a problem, reducing maintenance costs and equipment downtime.
With simplicity in mind, the SensoNODE Vibration Sensor provides two measurements of vibration: Root Mean Square Amplitude (RMS) and Peak. This allows the user to receive an indication of when a machine is starting to experience degradation and proceed with immediate maintenance actions. For example, data of the overall vibration may indicate an alignment of the shaft or balance of the motor system of a particular piece of equipment needs a slight adjustment. These are simple fixes that can be applied without compromising the machinery.
Data is compiled in a clear and concise way that can be interpreted and compared to the output of vibrations with International Standard ISO: 10816 charts to know what is an acceptable rate of vibration. A user can look at the measurement coming off of the sensor and read across the chart to get an exact number. This is an indication as to whether machinery is operating in an area where damage is likely to occur or things are running perfectly.
A small shake or rattle can indicate big problems. Vibration analysis can be an essential tool for predicting equipment failure and increasing machine efficiency. There are a variety of methods and ways to measure vibration. With SensoNODE vibration sensors, a user has access to data that’s straightforward and an early indicator of developing failures or problems with rotating machinery. This allows you to take immediate action and ensure operations are running smoothly.
See demonstrations of the SensoNODE Vibration Sensor at Sensors Expo, booth 1109, June 26 – 28, McEnery Convention Center, San Jose, CA.
Learn more about the SensoNODE Vibration Sensor.
This post was contributed by David Shannon, business unit manager, Parker Hannifin.
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25 Jun 2018
Blowout prevention systems — or BOPs — are one of the most important pieces of equipment used in exploration and deep drilling applications. These large systems are vital to safety in both on- and off-shore operations, working to restrict or shut down pipes in the event of a blowout.
In the Oil and Gas industry, blowout preventers are critical to the safety of crew, rig, and environment, as well as monitoring and maintaining well integrity. BOPs are intended to provide a fail-safety to the systems that include them in drilling operations. This fail-safety means that BOP systems must be dependable, strong, and in perfect working condition. The dangers of deep drilling and exploration leave little room for mistake, and safety equipment such as blowout preventers is vital, and sometimes life-saving for equipment.
BOP fluid in hydraulic lines provides the muscle needed for the blowout preventer's powerful rams to seal a well shut during drilling or in an emergency, preventing pressurized hydrocarbons from escaping into the environment. The BOP Stack is equipped with hydraulically-powered rams that prevent the escape of high-pressure gas if a gas pocket is encountered while drilling. Therefore, the hydraulic hoses act as control lines that operate (open/close) the rams. Blow-out prevention is a major safety and environmental issue and therefore there are extremely stringent requirement regulated by the American Petroleum Institute for BOP systems.
A blowout in the world of oil and gas drilling is the uncontrolled release of crude oil and/or natural gas following the failure of pressure control systems. Before pressure control equipment was made available in the 1920s, the uncontrolled release of oil and gas from wells during drilling operations was common. The phenomenon was referred to as an oil gusher or a wild well. While gushers were iconic to oil exploration and served as symbols of newfound riches, they were dangerous and wasteful. An accidental spark in the event of a blowout leads to catastrophic oil or gas fires. Modern wells now have BOP systems, which are intended to prevent such damage and danger.
Our high-performance BOP hoses are designed for hydraulic use and certified to withstand fire, high heat, and pressures in safety critical applications. All Fire Armor BOP hose assemblies are tested and approved by Lloyd’s Register (LR), ensuring compliance with American Petroleum Industry API 16D guidelines to meet and exceed OD/1000/499 flame testing at 1300°F for five minutes.
Parker's range of BOP hoses are used for hydraulic connections between the well control equipment and the control system in BOP systems. Combining Parker’s trusted ParLock multi-spiral hose range with Interlock connection and optional stainless steel armor, these high-performance hoses are designed provide protection from external shock and withstand the pressures of BOP applications.
Parker offers a full range of hose sizes from -6 to -32, and a working pressure range of 3000 to 5000 psi:
The FA21 BOP hydraulic hose is made for general applications where flame resistance is required. The braided construction offers a constant working pressure of 3000 psi and a ½ SAE bend radius. The specially formulated cover is designed to withstand the flame test requirements outlined by API specification 16D.
The FA35 BOP hydraulic hose uses a spiral construction that offers a constant working pressure of 5000 psi. The red synthetic rubber cover offers flame resistance.
Parker’s FA35 BOP hose can be combined with the optional metal
armor cover to provide added protection against external damage in harsh environments. The armor is available in 304 stainless steel.
BOP systems depend upon reliable, strong equipment for safety of operations and assurance that the system will effectively contain and stop damage in the event of a blowout. Parker's Certified BOP Assembler Program guarantees customers convenience, speed, and the expertise of a local distributor with the quality, accuracy, and traceability of a factory-made hose assembly. In the world of exploration and deep drilling, waiting for replacement parts means risking the safety of workers and possible environmental damage. To ensure the best speed to market, Parker-qualified distributors undergo workshop audits, the Parker Certificated BOP Hose Assembler Program, and recertification and auditing, which means minimal risk and maximum efficiency, keeping applications running and getting the job done safely and on time.
Certified experts are trained by Parker to put together BOP hose assemblies, which must then be tested and pass the assembly burst test. Certified assemblers then receive assigned designation. Only Parker-certified distributors are qualified to complete BOP hose assemblies, and by certifying individual assemblers rather than locations, Parker ensures superior quality parts and proper assembly from local oil and gas distributors. All Parker-qualified distributors undergo recertification and audits annually to ensure the reliable and safe products every time.
Customers can expect convenient, on-hand inventory from local warehouse and assembly facilities, with an unmatched preventative maintenance plan that removes the burden of inspection and repair schedules and ensures safe and properly working equipment using the Parker Tracking System (PTS). A powerful, comprehensive, and easy-to-use system, PTS provides fast, simple, and accurate delivery of parts and services. Frequent equipment inspections and change outs are vital to safety in BOP systems. PTS provides assurance that Parker's BOP hose assemblies always provide superior quality, safety, and reliability in even the most severe conditions.
Balancing the need to control costs, while expanding exploration into ever harsher environments, requires a supplier who can address these challenges and bring innovation and quality through products and services that meet your needs. With more than five decades of experience serving the oil and gas market globally, Parker’s Hose Products Division has become a valued partner and technology leader for today’s oil and gas companies.
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21 Jun 2018
In many applications across a multitude of industries like mining, hazmat and pharmaceuticals, employers must supply breathing air systems when necessary to keep employees safe. A variety of hazardous substances can be present in the air of these applications. Biological agents, dust, noble gases, processed substances, fumes, mist, asbestos and even lead are harmful and require breathing air purification to keep people healthy and away from dangerous breathing hazards.
The challenge for breathing air applications is that even with a compressed air fed breathing system, the air that feeds the system is ambient; therefore any contaminants in the air can penetrate the breathing air system, as well as any contaminants that the system itself could introduce to the breathing air. Air purification systems are necessary to remove contaminants like
Depending on the application, air must be purified to the relevant International Breathing Air Standard.
Of course, with a wide variety of purification products available, ranging from a simple respirator offering basic protection against low levels of dust particles to self-contained breathing apparatus it is essential that the inhalation risks be fully assessed and a suitable purification product selected.
With any potential inhalation hazard exists. It is essential that a full assessment of the risk to the user is completed in order to identify the risk of contamination and level of contamination in order to comply with the required air quality standards. The air flow rate must meet the needs of the total number of users in the system. Parker can assist in air purity testing and breathing air purifiers to get your breathing application to standard and is available to connect your system everywhere you need it to go.
Transair® is the ideal choice for breathing air system installations since they require the highest quality of air. You wouldn't want to hang pipe that could contribute to the contamination of the breathing air. This defeats the entire purpose of the system. Transair's aluminum piping does not rust or corrode. Transair has no rough surfaces or interior restrictions that can accumulate contaminants. The full-bore designed interior is completely smooth and allows air to flow to filters and dryers, for the efficient removal of contaminants and providing employees with safe breathing air. View the entire product line of Transair products on our website.
Parker domnick hunter breathing air purifiers are designed to offer the user protection against some or all of the contaminants that may be present in a compressed air fed breathing air system. As the world leader in filtration and purification of compressed air, Parker domnick hunter offers unrivaled experience in the design and manufacture of air treatment equipment. With Parker domnick hunter breathing air purifiers in constant use worldwide, protecting lives in virtually every type of industry and the commitment to continuous research and development, Parker domnick hunter provides a complete range of breathing air purifiers designed to match the specific needs inherent when breathing from a compressed air supply.
Did you know that Transair® is approved for OSHA Class breathing air applications?
Contact us today for more details and watch our system video to see the product in actions!
Article contributed by Guillermo Hiyane, product sales manager, Parker Hannifin, Fluid Systems Connectors Division - Transair
20 Jun 2018