Hydraulics

Hydraulics is the technology of controlling pressurized fluids to create force and motion. Parker hydraulics enable and improve machinery performance.
Latest Hydraulics Blog Posts

Drive controlled pump technoloyInefficient energy allocation, heat generation and noise are typical concerns among facility engineers in manufacturing environments. Parker’s new variable speed drive solution, called Drive Controlled Pump (DCP), increases hydraulic power unit efficiency while maintaining high power density, precise control and performance. DCP is the pairing of electric motors, hydraulic pumps, electronic drives and software to meet the local load demands within your hydraulic system. Precisely controlled variable speed pump macros are custom configured to meet the functional requirements of each process within a complex hydraulic system. 

Here is a list of ten dos and don’ts when implementing DCP technology: 1. Right math matters.

Don’t just use the Hydraulic Power Equation to size the electric motor.

(HP = P x Q ÷ 1714)

Do compute the pump torque first, then use the motor’s base speed to compute power.

(T = Vi x P ÷ 24π)

(HP = T x N ÷ 5252). HP: Horse Power, P: Pressure PSI, Q: Flow GPM, T: Torque Ft-Lb, Vi: Pump Displacement In³/Rev, N: motor base speed (4 pole motor’s base speed = 1,800 RPM).

  2. Pump losses matter.

Don’t just use load’s flow and pressure demand to compute motor power.
Do consider the pump’s internal flow and torque losses at various speeds and pressures.

  3. Power to accelerate flow matters.

Don’t be content with power computations to maintain flow and pressure.
Do allow for the acceleration power requirement. Variable speed pump controls need reserved power to accelerate the combination of the electric motor rotor, couplings and the pump’s rotating group while under full pressure. The reserved power gets larger with the acceleration rate and rotor moment of inertia.

Ta = I x Δω / (308 x Δt), Ta: Acceleration Torque(Ft-Lb), I moment of inertia (LB-Ft2), Δω: Speed Change (RPM), Δt: Speed Change (Sec)

Drive Controlled Pump4. Exact motor size matters.

Don’t oversize the electric motor. Oversized motors have larger rotor inertia and require larger drives to power.
Do break down the cycle by pressure, flow and time. Compute each segment for power.

  5. Maximum pressure and flow matters.

Don’t just use maximum flow and maximum pressure to compute power. You might end up with an oversized motor.
Do use the larger of the two computed horsepower values. Compare flow at maximum pressure and pressure at maximum flow.

  6. Hydraulic peak power matters.

Don’t just use the RMS value of computed power segments to size the electric motor.
Do use the RMS value, yet pay attention to peak power. Peak power should be less than 150% of the selected motor size, and its duty cycle must be within the operation parameters of the electric motor and drive.

  7. Electric motor frame size matters.

Don’t use your standard TENV electric motor for variable speed fixed pumps.
Do use low rotor inertia motors to minimize reserve acceleration power. Open frame and force ventilated motors offer much lower rotor inertia.

  8. Electric motor base speed matters.

Don’t exceed the induction motor’s base frequency when operating at maximum pressure.
Do exceed motor’s base frequency only when pressure drops proportional to over-speed.

  9. Pump minimum speed matters.

Don’t operate below the minimum recommended pump speed. Operating below minimum speed damages the pump.
Do add a controlled bleed off loop to the pump’s outlet to limit its minimum speed. Also, an accumulator can allow the pump to get turned off at deadhead conditions.

  10. Flow change rate matters.

Don’t accelerate/decelerate a pump too fast.
Do limit the pump speed change rate to stay above the pump’s minimum inlet pressure to avoid cavitation. Also, keep in mind rapid pump speed changes consume additional power which can lower the HPU’s efficiency.

To learn more about Drive Controlled Pump (DCP) Technology, download the white paper, Integrated Energy-Saving Hydraulic Systems Customized to Your Application Requirements here or view the on-demand presentation.

download whitepaper gif

view on demand Drive Controlled Pump webinar

 

Rashid Aidun Drive Controlled Pump Technology

Rashid S. Aidun who draws on his electrical and fluid power background to create custom drive controlled pump solutions. Prior to joining Parker 17 years ago, he worked as an industrial manufacturing and fluid power and controls engineer for various OEMs. He has a BSME from Syracuse University.

 

 

 

 

 

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Energy-Saving Hydraulic Systems Using Drive Controlled Pump (DCP)

 

 

 

 

 

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How to Specify the Proper Sized Heat Exchanger for Your Hydraulic SystemGiven the many risks of excess heat in a hydraulic system – such as fluid decomposition, increased wear on system components, damage to seals and bearings, etc. – the need for an effective heat exchanger is often an essential consideration.

Smaller hydraulic systems with low operating temperatures may be able to rely on natural convection, but when that doesn’t provide sufficient cooling, a heat exchanger must be installed. You can also assume a heat exchanger is needed when a specific oil temperature is required to stabilize hydraulic fluid viscosity, or when equipment has a history of hot oil problems, such as shortened seal life or frequent oil breakdown.

Whether you work with large mobile equipment (for example, construction, military, forestry, and material-handling units) or commercial/industrial process machinery with hydraulic systems, hot fluid is a concern. A properly sized heat exchanger in any equipment can save time, money, repair headaches and extend system life.

 

 To learn more about heat exchanger types and choosing the proper size for your hydraulic system, download the whitepaper

  Keeping your cool in choosing the right heat exchanger

So how do you determine which heat exchanger is best for a particular application? As with most design challenges, the answer is, it depends.

Accurately defining hydraulic cooling needs can be confusing because actual heat generation often varies as a machine goes through different cycles and because ambient temperatures or other environmental factors can affect system heat levels. When considering application and sizing of heat exchangers, the ideal operating temperature of the hydraulic fluid and the time it takes to arrive at that temperature must be used.

“There are many factors to consider and a wide range of heat exchangers, with certain benefits to each kind. The choice of a heat exchanger generally ties directly to the type of system to be cooled. That means you have to take into account vital parameters like heat load, available space, environmental conditions, power source, noise, operating costs, and so on.”
Rick Morton, business development manager, Parker Accumulator and Cooler Division.


Whether it’s a new design or a retrofit, it’s hard to pick the right heat exchanger without identifying the challenges and performing all the calculations. Fortunately, most heat exchanger manufacturers offer software to help you determine the best fit for each application. For example, we provide an online calculator (Essential Cooler Sizing Parameters) and other interactive resources where an engineer can plug in specifications to get a better idea of what exactly is needed.

  Simplifying the choice

Given the many variables involved, it’s not uncommon for some engineers to delay their decisions on heat exchanger specifications until after seeing how a system performs and how much heat transfer is actually needed.

When you have questions, it's often best to simply contact a heat exchanger supplier directly. Here at Parker, if a customer comes to us with questions on heat exchanger specifying, we can walk them through the process.

 

Getting started

Before reaching out to a manufacturer for assistance, a bit of preparation will go a long way in expediting the selection process. For example, gathering the necessary information such as heat load parameters and other key influencing factors. 

 

To learn more about heat exchanger types and choosing the proper size for your hydraulic system, download the whitepaper

 

How to Specify the Proper Sized Heat Exchanger for Your Hydraulic System - Rick Morton, Business Development Manager Parker HannifinArticle contributed by Rick Morton, business development manager, Parker Accumulator and Cooler Division.

 

 

 

 

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How to Specify the Proper Sized Heat Exchanger for Your Hydraulic System

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Lifter Uses Hydraulic Rotary Actuator for High Maneuverability and Flexibility - Helac Rotary Actuator Lift arm on refuse truck - Parker HannifinLooking for ways to reduced worker compensation claims and improve route times, among other benefits, some municipalities and waste companies look to design changes from the refuse truck OEMs to assist. Parker's rotary actuators engineered for use on waste-receptacle dumpers have delivered.

 

The situation

A Midwest-based original equipment manufacturer (OEM) designs and builds waste-receptacle dumpers that attach to garbage trucks, recycling vehicles and other waste-handling equipment. The lifter attaches to the front or side of a vehicle or onto the dumpster of a front-load refuse truck. After an operator positions a receptacle cart onto the dumper, the latter then lifts and tilts the cart, spilling its contents into the vehicle. When the dumping cycle is complete, the lifter returns to a stowed position.

 

The advantages

Advantages of using carts and cart lifters include reduced worker compensation claims, faster route times and larger routes since workers don’t tire as quickly. The carts also improve street sanitation, reducing health risks by helping prevent animals from disturbing waste left outside overnight.

 

The solution

 

Lifter Uses Hydraulic Rotary Actuator for High Maneuverability and Flexibility - Helac Rotary actuator closeup - Parker Hannifin

The helical rotary actuator (painted black shown with arrows) provides 220 deg. of rotation, completely emptying carts.

 

 The heart of the lifter mechanism is a helical rotary actuator—a TorqBear Series Model T20-14E, manufactured by Parker Helac, Enumclaw, Wash. The 220 deg. of rotation produces a sharp and aggressive dumping angle that completely empties the contents of the cart.

The actuator’s mounting feet with through drilled holes facilitate attachment to the lifter mounting plate: The feet are not flush with the actuator housing but, instead, are situated on the sides of the housing. This contributes to the compact nature of the mechanism by enabling the actuator to be positioned partially below the surface of the mounting plate. The through-shaft has extensions at both ends with straight spines that facilitate the easy attachment of the lifting arms—adapters with matching splines to which the arms are welded.

 

How it works

 

 

 

These sectional drawings show the operation of a helical-gear rotatory actuator.

            Actuators vs. Cylinders

The use of the actuator in its lifter designs allows the OEM to build a high-performance machine not possible with a cylinder. Actuator-equipped machines dump higher and deeper than cylinder machines. At the same time, they can be designed thinner, making access to the hopper by the operator as easy as possible.

In the illustration, the cutaway shows initial positions of piston (green line) and output shaft (red line). Pressurized fluid entering the lower port pushes the piston up. The stationary ring gear causes the piston to simultaneously rotate clockwise. In the cutaway at right, teeth on the output shaft mesh with those in the ID of the piston, causing the shaft to rotate clockwise relative to the piston. (The output shaft rotates at twice the speed of the piston.) Pressurizing the upper port returns the piston and shaft to their initial positions.

The long, slender configuration of the helical shaft actuators provides a clean, compact design that enables the lifter mechanism to be bolt mounted flush to the vehicle for an exceptionally low profile. The rotary actuator has no exposed moving parts; lifters using hydraulic cylinders can provide no more than 180 deg. of rotation and incorporate a more complicated system consisting of bearings, brackets, pivot points, and rods—all exposed to damage. Further, the inherent characteristics of Helac’s helical rotary actuators offer several advantages over other rotational devices and actuator designs:

Very high torque output in an ultra-compact configuration; Equal torque output from both ends of the shaft; Shaft support provided by integral large diameter tapered roller bearings; Smooth, positive positioning without drift due to the elimination of internal bypass and external leakage (and nearly zero backlash); No exposed, external moving parts; A helical gear design that provides exceptional resilience to shock loading and abuse; Constant speed and consistent torque through the entire angle of rotation; and much cleaner and more streamlined installation.

Taking everything into account, the helical actuators have enabled the refuse truck OEM to design a compact lifter with power sufficient to lift heavily loaded carts.

 

Low flow

A typical refuse truck’s hydraulic system operates at pressures to about 3,000 psi, with flow rates varying widely from 20 to 80 gpm. The rotary lifter uses less than 2 gpm, so a way to siphon off the correct flow was required. The lifters tap into the truck’s existing pressure line via a flow-diverter valve. This custom-made valve sends an adjustable amount of flow to the lifters and allows the remaining flow to pass through to the packer (compactor) blade.

The system has been designed to minimize back pressure, which in turn, minimizes heat and extends oil and system life. Competing OEMs use a fitting with an orifice, but those systems do not properly regulate flow (which fails to regulate lifter speed) and create excess heat. The Helac actuator has been designed for low flow requirements, thus helping minimize oil take-off from the packer and virtually eliminating any packer slow-down.

 

 

Lifters Designed with Rotaray actuators Dump Waste More Effectively - Jessica Howisey - Parker Hannifin

This article originally appeared on Hydraulics & Pneumatics and was contributed by Jessica Howisey, marketing communications manager, Helac Business Unit, Cylinder Division.

 
 
 
 
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Lifters Designed with Rotary Actuators Dump Waste More Effectively

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6 Technology Trends Behind the Top Hydraulics Blogs of 20172017 brought about innovative new technologies that laid the foundation for the latest hydraulic systems and applications designed for construction, agriculture, mining, power generation and related markets. From smart user interfaces to load sensing valve technology to hybrid actuation systems for renewable energy applications and more, the solutions revealed in these blogs have customers documenting productivity increases, energy savings and maximized operational efficiency - both at the plant and on the job site. Learn about the key technology trends that shaped the most read hydraulics blogs in 2017.

 

 Innovative Heavy-Duty Vehicle Technology on Display at IFPE

From optimizing peak performance to minimizing unplanned downtime, the products and systems Parker showcased at the International Fluid Power Expo (IFPE) 2017 are designed specifically to help customers increase their productivity and profitability. Here is a look at some of the innovative new technologies.

 

 

 How Does a Smart User Interface Improve Machine Efficiency?

The manufacturing industry is currently facing increasing pressure to reform and innovate to remain viable. On the consumer side, the Internet of Things (IoT) has made smart devices available for all, and new changes and challenges of digitalisation are generating business development possibilities for industries as well. Smart IoT devices enable an industrial internet that includes analytics and user action analysis. These improve efficiency and offer new services to customers. Parker has been actively building a new presence in industrial internet platforms and ecosystems by developing a software platform for advanced and flexible user interface design.

 

 Energy-Saving Hydraulic Systems Using Drive Controlled Pump (DCP)

Modern industrial machinery is creating ever-increasing demands on hydraulics to provide more efficient and quieter solutions with a smaller footprint, while maintaining the benefits traditionally associated with hydraulic systems, i.e., high power density, precise control and enduring performance. But historically, these benefits have come with the high cost of inefficient energy allocation, heat generation and noise. The variety of discreet components constituting each hydraulic system has complicated the challenge.

 

 How Variable Speed Drives Become Simpler and More Efficient

Variable speed pump drives save up to 70 percent energy compared to conventional drive solutions. But many are still hesitant due to their greater complexity. For you, Parker has developed a new, innovative variation of its Drive Controlled Pump - the combination of an optimized axial piston pump with two displacement volumes and a very compact synchronous servo motor offers decisive advantages over common variable speed pump systems.

 

 Read This if Your Wind Turbines are Overheating

Rising temperatures - which lead to water evaporation and loss of coolants in critical wind turbine cooling systems – may cause 1.5 MW wind turbines to overheat. Fortunately, there's a solution to help keep your wind turbines running efficiently and in good working order.

 

   New Hybrid Actuation System Ideal for Renewable Energy Applications

Actuation systems must be efficient, precise, and durable enough to withstand harsh power generation environments. Parker Hannifin has developed a hybrid actuation system (HAS) that is ideal for renewable energy actuation applications, such as those used with solar panels, wind turbines, and hydroelectric dams.

 

 

 

Watch the video and learn more about our Hydraulics technologies and key markets:

 

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 Dump pumps have long been the standard in the dump truck and trailer segment. The cost-effectiveness of a combination pump and valve with a built-in relief has been a winning combination in the North American marketplace for decades. 

Trucks are constantly evolving and space for hydraulics has become a major issue. In today’s fast-paced world, the dump body lifting speed requirements are increasing. As a result, most fleets require pumps with larger volumetric displacements and that presents a problem - there’s often no room left next to the truck's transmission for a larger pump with a built-in valve. Newer trucks have more exhaust piping, DEF tanks, diesel particulate filters, SCR catalysts, tighter frame rails, heat shields and several other obstructions that just weren’t an issue 10 years ago.

 

Using a smaller combination pump and valve, for example, Parker’s G101/102 Series dump pumps, won’t deliver the same dump body lifting speed performance. Now, there’s another option that has entered the market.

 

 

 

 

Our CVA16 tipper valve can be used with the PGP051/PGP350 series gear pumps and with most fixed displacement hydraulic pumps. Unlike traditional valves, this valve can be placed anywhere along the chassis of the truck, helping to eliminate spatial constraints. 

 

  Value-added

For such a small component, the benefits are substantial. In addition to solving the problem of space, the CVA16 tipper valve is:

  • extremely cost-effective - the tipper valve should last the life of your truck;

  • very robust and not overly sensitive to contamination;

  • easy to install and the only one on the market today that comes with an owner's manual and installation guide;

  • available for purchase from any Parker Distributor that carries gear pumps;

  • available as single or dual pressure, with cable and air shift options; 

  • three different in-cab console options to pair with the valves;

  • easy to plumb.

 

 

 

Air shift

The air shift version comes standard with a ¼” SAE DOT push-to-connect fitting.

Dual pressure

You can use this version of the valve to operate systems requiring two different pressure settings. The low-pressure setting can be used for a dump hoist and the high-pressure setting can be used for a moving floor or another circuit requiring higher pressures.

In today's rapidly evolving world where taking chances could mean not getting the job done, Parker is there with the tools to make maintaining your truck easy. If your work trucks demand a high-displacement dump pump but don't have space for one, the CVA16 tipper valve series is a cost-effective solution.

Download the brochure or owner's manual for specs and installation guide for more information.

 

Meeting Your Work Truck's Demand for More Hydraulics Space  - Nicholas Roberto, National Sales Manager - Parker HannifinArticle contributed by Nicholas Roberto, national sales manager, Vocational Truck Team, Parker Hannifin.

 

 

 

 

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Hydraulic Fan Drives: Efficiency Driven - constuction equipment - Motion Systems Group

Looking to improve the efficiency of your construction equipment? Consider a hydraulic fan drive. Compared to mechanically driven fans, hydraulic fan drives provide several advantages. This is proven across multiple markets and applications.

The proof is in the productivity

Because most vehicles already have a hydraulic system in place, it’s easy to switch to hydraulic fan drives. Once in place, the fan can be decoupled from the engine speed so no excess cooling is generated. The fan can now run at the necessary speed regardless of engine speed. This creates amazing efficiencies: total overall efficiency gained can range from 70% - 90% depending on the system.

Hydraulic Fan Drives: Efficiency Driven - Fan Drive White Paper Download - Parker Hannifin

Hydraulic Fan Drives: efficiency Driven -  White Paper Download Button - Parker Hannifin         Better fuel economy

One critical efficiency is in fuel savings. Compared to a mechanical drive, a hydraulic fan drive system can save one gallon of fuel per day. This can amount to $600 in savings per vehicle per year (based on $3.00 per gallon diesel fuel and 200 work days per year).

Engine power available for useful work

Another area of efficiency is in power consumption. Because the fan drive is consuming less power, it allows for the freed up power to be employed doing useful work. The result: a more productive vehicle.

The benefits are abundant

Additional benefits include the ability to control the engine temperature. By using temperature sensors, highs and lows can be set, turning the fan on and off accordingly. Hydraulic fans also have the ability to reverse motion, which can clean radiators by blowing the dirt and debris out. And hydraulic fans can be mounted remotely, freeing up space for other components.

Compliance that’s sustainable

Lastly, but importantly, hydraulic fan drives are vital to complying with Tier IV emissions regulations. That’s the true power of hydraulic fan drives. Parker is a global leader in motion and control technologies and a pioneer in hydraulic fan drives.

For in-depth details on hydraulic fan drive options, download the white paper.  For additional construction equipment content from Parker, visit www.parker.com/buildingbetterlives.  

 

Hydraulic Fan Drives: Efficiency Driven Andrew De JongArticle contributed by Andrew De Jong, engineer, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Global Mobile Systems.

 

 

 

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