The Ash Probe is a portable instrument for measuring the ash content of coal, providing the user with highly accurate readings within seconds. Instantaneous readings can be made of coal quality on stockpiles, trains or trucks, allowing customers to check the quality of incoming coal supplies and specifications against their suppliers’ claims.
Widely used in the mining industry, it allows suppliers to verify the quality of their product and therefore have confidence that the delivery will be accepted by the client ensuring the agreed price per tonne is paid.
Ash Probe was the first portable product to be developed by Bretby Gammatech (now a part of Parker's Instrumentation Products Division) with the first one sold to a mine in South Wales. Since then, hundreds of Ash Probes have been delivered all around the world, with many of these customers also purchasing Ash Eye or Lab Ash equipment.
Like all Parker Bretby Gammatech’s products, the Ash Probe uses natural gamma radiation, with no radioactive sources.
The Ash Probe has been developed to withstand harsh environments and is therefore renowned for being extremely robust. It is currently being used in temperatures down to -50oC in Mongolia, China, as well as in temperatures over 40oC in many African countries.Ash Probe – features and benefits
Pic. 1. Parker's Ash Probe with a display unit.How to operate the Ash Probe
The Ash Probe comprises two main parts: a probe and a display unit. To obtain an ash reading, the probe is pushed into the coal pile or truck to be tested. After a few seconds an ash result shows on the display unit.
In order to obtain an accurate assessment of the ash content of the whole pile (or wagon load) the probe is inserted at several locations. This is repeated until the desired precision level has been reached.
In Pile Mode up to 99 probings per pile can be made and data from up to 99 piles can be stored. In Truck Mode up to 12 probings per truck can be made and data from up to 600 trucks can be stored.
Calibration is readily achieved by the customer using the supplied calibration sample gathering equipment.
Tests on a wide range of coals from over twenty countries on five continents have shown that the Ash Probe can measure the ash content to closer than 1% (1σ) ash. In some cases better than 0.5% (1σ) accuracy has been achieved with high-grade anthracite.Applications
The Ash Probe is currently being used by customers around the world to provide quick testing for the ash content of:
Article contributed by Gary Wain, piping products, product manager, Instrumentation Products Division Europe of Parker Hannifin.
The quest to find and retain skilled machinists and engineers is harder than ever with Eurozone countries experiencing their lowest ever levels of unemployment.
Instrumentation Products Division Europe (IPDE) and Parker globally recognizes that providing competitive benefits is just one factor in achieving this. To develop a high performing and stable workforce we must engender the right values and behaviours coupled with a shared vision, supported by solid strategies and delivered through engaging leadership. But what about beyond this?Apprentices will define and deliver our future.
In 2017, IPDE introduced its apprenticeship scheme aimed at attracting and developing the finest mechanical engineering apprentices in our regions, who will define and deliver our future for many years to come.
A mechanical apprenticeship within IPDE affords talented people the opportunity to ‘earn, learn and qualify’ and also prepares the foundations for a fantastic career in one of the world’s most successful organizations.
“Having worked with various apprenticeship schemes in my previous roles, I was keen to introduce this scheme into IPDE so that we can develop and grow our own talent from within. It also enables us to protect our business for the future as our most skilled professionals move into retirement.”
Andrew Spivey, General Manager of Parker Instrumentation Products Division Europe.Former apprentices have made impressive progress.
IPDE has a strong track record of developing people through previous apprenticeship schemes. Former apprentices have made impressive progress in the organization and currently hold roles such as Division Supply Chain Manager; Production Manager; Lean Manager; Deputy Production Manager; Value Stream Champion; Senior Quality Engineer and Design Engineer.
Neil Shapland, Materials, Planning and Production Manager at IPDE, who began his career with Parker as a manufacturing apprentice 24 years ago, worked within several key areas including value stream manager roles and planning and production manager. He believes that his apprenticeship and the skills he learnt stood him in ideal ground to progress within the organization. He said:
"I am passionate about the manufacturing apprenticeship programme and the positive impact it will have on the business as a whole. I believe it provides the ideal opportunity to nurture and develop first class engineers, our next top manufacturing leaders and committed team members of the future."
Neil Shapland, Materials, Planning and Production Manager at Parker Instrumentation Products Division Europe.
Article contributed by Michelle Liney, Group HR Manager, Instrumentation Products Division Europe of Parker Hannifin.
The quick, accurate, and inexpensive measurement of Trihalomethanes (THMs) creates numerous opportunities to improve the water treatment process. THM levels can be lowered throughout the distribution system and chemical usage can be optimized to save money. What’s more, quick process adjustments can be made to control THM formation when surface water Total Organic Carbon (TOC) characteristics alter due to seasonal or unusual weather conditions. Where before you might have had limited THM data, you can now greatly expand the sampling frequency and monitoring locations to help you better understand the THM formation characteristics of your water source, treatment process, and distribution system.Surface water supply matrix changes
Both human activities and seasonal changes can affect source water, altering the mineral characteristics of the water as well as the reactivity of its dissolved organic carbon. A water plant may observe no significant changes in the quantity of TOC due to seasonal events, but they may find their THM level has changed. Frequent measurements of THM can help operators better understand the reactivity changes of their source water.Coagulant evaluation test
A successful coagulation process depends on identifying the correct coagulant type and optimum dosage under suitable environmental conditions of pH and alkalinity such that the coagulant will remove the maximum TOC, UV254, and turbidity, and form easily settleable floc. However, without the ability to measure THM concentration of the finished water in real time, the plant operator will not know if the coagulation process has been optimized to also remove the maximum amount of THM precursors. With the ability to easily measure THM concentration in finished water, the plant operator can adjust the coagulation process to achieve minimal THM formation potential. Additionally, this allows the treatment plant to supply safe drinking water with the required level of disinfectant concentration while also maintaining lower DBP levels throughout the entire distribution system.Real-time monitoring of THM sampling locations
Trihalomethane formation in water distribution systems is a function of water travel time, temperature, and physiochemical and biological characteristics of pipe deposits within the distribution system. The real-time monitoring of THM at different sampling locations will help water distribution operators to identify problematic inorganic/organic pipe deposits that cause increased levels of THM formation.Water quality model evaluation/water quality trend
Hydraulic modeling of a water distribution system is an important tool for water quality management. In addition to basic hydraulic characteristics, modeling identifies water aging and predicts disinfectant decay and DBP formation. Incorporating new data from frequent THM analysis in combination with disinfectant level data will help plant operators build an improved hydraulic model for water quality trend analysis, providing critical information for more targeted and efficient water plant operation.Flushing program
Water quality levels throughout the distribution system are maintained by systematic flushing programs designed to reduce stationary water in dead end lines and increase flow volume to minimize water age. The distance of water from the water plant, dead ends in the pipe, and low water usage may cause water quality deterioration. Lower residual disinfectant levels indicate the need to flush, which can cause a significant water loss. By measuring THM concentration in addition to disinfectant levels, operators can better decide on the location and length of flushing to minimize treated water loss.Water age evaluation
Water age is emerging as an important issue due to increased THM formation in water distribution systems. Excessive contact time caused by dampened peak-hour demands, distribution piping configurations, areas of reduced water requirements, and fire protection storage can result in elevated THM concentration. Identifying and then reducing dead spaces and stagnation in water storage tanks and looping pipe configurations in water distribution systems will reduce water age. These actions can be triggered appropriately by monitoring THM levels in storage tanks and key locations in the distribution system.The Parker THM analyzers
Parker’s On-Line THM Analyzer and benchtop THM Analyzer are easy to operate, integrated Purge-and-Trap Gas Chromatographs (GC) that measure THM concentration at ppb levels in less than 30 minutes right at your own facility without tedious sample preparation.
This integrated system is a powerful tool that can help operators optimize water treatment at the plant and evaluate water age in the distribution system for improved control over the formation of THMs.
Pic. 1. Parker's On-Line THM Analyzer.
Pic. 2. Parker's benchtop THM Analyzer.
Article contributed by Kazi Hassan - technology development manager (water) at Parker Hannifin, Instrumentation Products Division.
Related content on water quality:
Since the NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) MR0175 standard was updated to ISO status in December 2003, there has been an air of confusion on what and how products conform to NACE. Some manufacturers simply buried their heads and try to ignore the standard, some simply decided that they would not pursue NACE product related business, some only certify to old, out of date versions of the standard, and others simply used the wording of certain clauses within the standard as a way of supplying product from materials that do not actually meet the requirements of NACE MR0175.
Parker has taken NACE compliance very seriously and invested a lot of time to ensure that not only did we understand the consequences of the standard but what we actually put out to our customers in the market place was accurate and met the criteria of what the standard is advising the Oil and Gas Industry.
Engineers from Instrumentation Products Division Europe attended a conference organized by the authors of the NACE MR0175/ ISO 15156 document and arranged for one of the authors to visit our manufacturing facility at Barnstaple to discuss its implications and how we as a manufacturer of saleable goods should be certifying the materials we use for NACE compliant products.Declaration of Conformity
Managing emissions is a major challenge for many companies. In Europe alone, a typical refinery can lose between 600 and 10,000 tonnes of fugitive emissions every year; and the majority of those losses are estimated to be caused by plant equipment, such as process to instrument valves and small bore fluid system technologies.
Valve leakage is believed to account for around 50 per cent of emissions within the chemical and petrochemical industries. That can place a major financial burden on companies - not just due to potential plant inefficiency, but also the potential costs of repairing leaks, wasting energy and environmental fines.
Reducing emissions can help businesses to protect the environment, reduce waste and save valuable time and money in the process. Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) and end users involved in commissioning may find it helpful to follow a series of checks - alongside any existing processes - to determine prospective supplier capability.Adherence to international Standard ISO 15848.
International standard ISO 15848 sets a requirement for zero emissions for processes involving hazardous fluids and volatile air pollutants. The standard is split into two parts:
ISO 15848 defines three leakage classifications that specify maximum leakage rates, with Class A being the most stringent.
Parker products have been compliant with ISO 15848 for some years now.
Pic.1. Lloyd’s Register verification for the Pro-Bloc® 15mm process to instrument valves dates back as far as July 2007.Verifications and third-party approvals.
Typical industry procurement practices require certificates of approval or third-party verifications as a condition of supply. Reputable valve manufacturers, including Parker, can provide signed and witnessed certificates - along with verification from industry-leading organisations and technical advisors such as Lloyds, TUV and DNV.
If verifications are provided by an unknown third party, engineers and procurement specialists may want to satisfy themselves with the quality and level of certification offered - ensuring that any named verifiers are trusted experts in their field. And it’s important that suppliers can provide access to any stated certification, as proof of capability and to ensure practices are up-to-date.
Experience supporting major companies and being on approved vendor lists can also be a useful indicator of supply quality. Manufacturers of process to instrument valves who are working with oil majors typically have to pass stringent pre-qualification checks and approval systems. For example, Shell’s robust enterprise framework agreement requires suppliers to:
Passing these tests is a strong indicator of supplier credentials. Parker is proud to have recently secured a five-year extension to its framework agreement with Shell following a recent factory audit and witness-tested Type Approval Test. The extension was secured due to Shell being satisfied with Parker products and service over the previous five years.
Pic.2. Parker’s MESC compliant Double Block and Bleed valve.Industry expertise and training.
In offshore applications, the implications of insufficient expertise or training can carry significant risk. It’s therefore imperative that any suppliers demonstrate their understanding of the business environment and relevant operations.
Asking suppliers for details of their testing practices and procedures, familiarity with legislation and adherence to industry standards will help to build a clear picture of suppliers’ relative experience and credentials.Suggested questions for potential suppliers.
EPC contract engineers and procurers commissioning process to instrument valves may find it helpful to consider the following areas when considering potential suppliers:
Article contributed by Jim Breeze - Flange Products Product Manager at Parker Hannifin, Instrumentation Products Division Europe.
From surgical equipment to cooking pans to skyscrapers, stainless steel has transformed the world as we know it today. Stainless steel is present in our daily lives and has made a significant impact in a wide variety of industrial applications. The oil and gas industry, in particular, has been no different, as operating conditions and extracting methods made stainless steel a very cost-effective, convenient and reliable choice.
Higher operating pressures and temperatures
Despite worldwide efforts coming to rely on renewable energy for power generation, oil and gas remain the skeleton of the power generation energy supply at present. Many conventional reserves have been exhausted and oil and gas reservoirs found in very inaccessible locations and hostile environments are now usual targets for exploration. Pressures and temperatures that were deemed in the past as not viable are at present common operating parameters, imposing considerable limitations on existing equipment and technology and making the oil and gas power generation industry face serious material related challenges.
The emergence of the “Corrosion Resistant Alloy”
Nearly a decade ago, numerous oil and gas producers started specifying and using the low end of the Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRAs) spectrum, including super austenitic stainless steels, duplex and super duplex varieties. This trend was mainly driven by failures experienced on existing equipment, where the basic stainless steel range could not perform appropriately. Awareness of corrosion cost and assets impact and safety have also been drivers for corrosion resistant alloy usage. Today, nearly every oil and gas producer includes CRAs in their portfolio. However, there is yet a lot to be learned on how other CRAs could help optimise performance and integrity. In addition, the lower corrosion resistant alloy range is just an enhancement to the traditional stainless steel grades used for decades, but those have limitations as well and are not the solution to every problem.
Meeting the demands of an ever-changing environment
Figure 1: Parker 6 Moly tubing
Over the last months, we have observed increased demand for more special alloys, such as the nickel-based ones. What is more, end users do not only seem to be interested in using those advanced materials but for the first time, they also require specific melting methods, controlled manufacturing routes and extensive mechanical and corrosion testing methods to ensure maximum equipment performance. This is just another indication of harsher environments and highly demanding production routes.
Both, onshore and offshore applications are major contributors to the CRAs fast-growing demand. Onshore shale gas production has flourished in the past years due to the availability of new drilling technology, by using advanced materials to fight the extreme corrosion effects of shale gas and the higher operating pressures. On the other hand, the offshore market, especially deepwater exploration, is emerging too, due to the development of subsea technology. Both those sectors are bound to grow very rapidly in the future, and so CRAs high demand is expected to continue for years to come.
Parker Instrumentation Products Division, with over 40 years of experience in CRAs, offers an extensive range of equipment in a variety of materials, including super austenitic grades (commonly referred to as 6 Moly), duplex and super duplex steels, Nickel- Copper alloys (Alloy 400), Nickel alloys (Alloy 825, Alloy 625, Alloy C276) and Titanium. We have the knowledge and expertise to face the fast pace of CRAs development and continuously changing and demanding market needs. We can help you engineer your success.
Table 1. Common uses of Corrosion Resistant Alloys.
Clara Moyano is innovation engineer - material science at Parker Hannifin, Instrumentation Products Division, Europe.
There are many reasons why bolts should be included in material specification, particularly in the oil & gas and petrochemical industry. In this latest blog from the Process Control team, we present an overview on items for consideration that may not always be considered for a commodity part.1. High chloride environments are extremely corrosive.
Because the high chloride environments where the instrumentation is used, including seawater and bleach plants, are extremely corrosive, therefore it is a good idea if Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) are specified by engineers for all parts in these applications. Super austenitic stainless steel 6Mo is a high-performance alloy renowned for its corrosion resistant properties.2. The wrong material specification can lead to the whole system’s downfall.
It can be a false economy if inferior materials are chosen for the bolts, rather than corrosion resistant alloys. In highly exposed environments, 6Mo is often specified by engineers for instrumentation systems, including tubing, manifold, gauge and fittings. However, bolts may seem like the last piece of the jigsaw - a tiny part of an overall system - but if the wrong material is specified, this could lead to the whole system’s downfall. Corrosion of the bolts in a hook up could lead to stress corrosion and cracking, causing them to snap, which results in catastrophic failure and the potential for accident and injury.3. An inferior material specification can cause maintenance issues.
The third reason is that inferior material specification can cause maintenance issues too. Corrosion to the bolts can be so rapid that by the time it is noticed, the bolts simply cannot be replaced. Instead, they have to be sawn off, potentially causing expensive damage to the instrument tubing system.
Similarly, if tubing clamps are not manufactured from corrosion resistant alloys, this could lead to stress cracking and fatigue, resulting in equipment failure.
Specifying a Corrosion Resistant Alloy, such as 6Mo, throughout the instrumentation tubing system, including all component parts, gives complete peace of mind. Specifiers and customers can, therefore, be reassured that all components, including bolts, will ensure durability and long-term performance of their instrumentation system.
Deborah Pollard is business development leader capital projects, Instrumentation Products Division, Europe of Parker Hannifin.
Condensate pots play a key role in maximising the accuracy of differential pressure flow measurement on steam or vapour applications. When installed correctly, these simple devices can significantly improve flow measurement accuracy in differential pressure measurement systems by providing an interface between the vapour and liquid phases.
Condensate pots also prevent flashing of liquid in the impulse line, which can occur if there is a sudden change in the temperature of the steam.
As a result, condensate pots are widely used in applications such as refineries, power plants, chemical and petrochemical, steel plants and other process industries as they provide an interface between the vapour phase and the condensed phase in the impulse lines. They also facilitate the minimisation of gauge line error caused by pressure differences in pairs of impulse lines.
Parker’s condensate pots are suitable for use either on vertical or horizontal lines, between the primary (Flow Meter) and the secondary (transmitter/gauge) to act as a barrier to the line fluid, allowing direct sensing of the flow conditions.
The correct installation of condensate pots, however is really important to ensure long service life and maximum efficiency.Here are 10 tips which will help ensure best practice in the installation of condensate pots.
Make sure you evaluate the number of connections required on the condensate pot before ordering (for example, inlets, outlets, fill port, drain port, gas vent port.) This ensures that the Condensate pot meets your specific application requirements.
Carefully define the condensate pot volume in litres, system pressure and temperature requirements. This is important as the size of the pot needs to relate to volume of steam passing through the steam pipeline.
It may be necessary to trace heat and insulate all impulse lines. This ensures that the vapour phase is maintained in the tube lines between the pipeline and the condensate pot. It may also be required to prevent freezing in the liquid lines between the condensate pot and the transmitter.
Consider adding an anti-freeze media, such a glycol, to the water lines. This may be essential in climates where below freezing temperatures are reached.
Keep vapour impulse lines as short as practicably possible. This ensures that the steam can remain in this state and requires minimal or no heating.
Ensure both condensate pots are mounted at the same level, minimising possible error that could arise due to unequal head of fluid in the connecting pressure lines. This should take into account both vertical and horizontal steam pipelines. The higher connection point should be the reference.
The differential pressure measuring device (DP) should be mounted below both the condensate pots and the steam pipe line.
It is recommended that both impulse lines from the condensate pot to the DP include the facility for ‘blow down’. Blowing down these lines periodically prevents the collection of debris, which could impact on measurement accuracy.
Ensure both the high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) impulse lines are the same length, which should eliminate pressure head errors. The theory of operation for condensate pots is that between the process taping and the pot is steam vapour. Between the pot and the differential pressure transmitter is water (liquid) thus eliminating any measurement errors due a liquid / vapour mix at the measurement device.
It is advisable to select condensate pots as part of a complete Parker instrumentation solution. We can supply all associated valves, manifolds, tubing and fittings alongside condensate pots, ensuring that all components work together and providing added reassurance about accuracy and safety. This also includes providing tubeline heating and insulation to ensure performance is maximised.
Parker condensate pot pressure ratings are for temperatures up to 100°C. We can also supply condensate pots to meet other pressures and temperatures. The most commonly used materials to manufacture condensate pots are steel, 316, 304, 6MO stainless steel and monel.”
Article contributed by Graham Johnson, Small Bore Product Marketing Manager - EMEA, Instrumentation Products Division Europe.
Traditional coal ash sampling and analysis using a laboratory facility can take a few hours if there is an on site lab or days if the samples are sent away for analysis. Using the Parker Bretby Gammatech portable Ash Probe, the results are available in a few minutes by probing the coal pile with no special training required by the operator. All the data is collected during the shift and can be downloaded onto a memory stick or direct USB cable to a PC in CSV format for analysis and reporting. The unit comes with the Parker Bretby Gammatech utility software for ease of download. This white paper describes the journey the Parker team made in producing the new AshGraffix controller for the Ash Probe.
During the latter part of 2012, we were advised by our supplier that the micro processor used in the Ash Probe system was being made obsolete; this gave us two choices:
1. Incorporate the new processor and modify the software for the existing display unit.
2. Develop a new design display unit based on our customers feedback using the latest processor.
Fig 1. Old QWERTY keyboard display unit with LCD display in English only.
To support sales of the Ash Probe while we developed the completely new unit, we chose to write the new software code for the existing display unit as the old processors were getting harder to obtain; this was essential so we did not leave customers waiting for the upgraded version of the display unit and gave us the opportunity to upgrade older units coming back for repair.
Our customers gave us some important clues as to what features they would find useful in a new unit:
During 2014 we set out to design the new product and software called AshGraffix with the customer needs in mind. The project time frame was 12 months from concept so we would be able to demonstrate the first unit at mining shows in 2015. The design for hardware, electronics and software was all done in house by the Parker team. Support from our local suppliers was critical as we went through several iterations of the printed circuit board design as this was the first time we had used surface mount components and touch screens. Finding low power components was key to the end result as the unit needed to work a full shift in some very harsh conditions from the heat and humidity of India and Vietnam to the low temperatures and dry conditions in Mongolia and Siberia.Component list
Neil Jenkinson, our mechanical Engineer, selected an aluminium extrusion for the outer case that was rugged and could hold the printed circuit board and touchscreen. He found a superb membrane protector product that would sit on top of the touchscreen preventing scratching and potential failure if sharp items hit the screen by accident or in duality use, e.g a pen tip to tap the screen. The industrial cable connectors were retained as they had given good service over 20 years and readily available for after market sales. Different types of of battery packs were tested for durability and full function duration with industry standard Metal Halide rechargeable cells coupled with an intelligent charger selected as the best all round option for the AshGraffix.
As Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) have become more prevalent in the industrial world and availability for colour touchscreens has increased, we had a good choice of suppliers knocking on our door to show us their ranges. In the end a choice was made and the quality has remained high during the last two years of sales.Circuit board
The multi-layered printed circuit board was the most difficult item to develop as we wanted all the electronic components and connections to the outside world on a single board only slightly larger than the touchscreen. This task did not phase Chris Knight, our electronics engineer, who put in many hours working on the pcb design software to get the SMT components and tracks right on the multi layered design before it went out to prototype manufacture. The end result was a triumph for the design team.
Fig 2. New AshGraffix multi-layered single printed circuit board with new processor and using many surface mount components (SMT).Coding
The next task that faced Kevin Corcoran, our intrepid software engineer, was to incorporate all our ideas into code. After many discussions and updates during 2014 (usually accompanied with tea and some form of cake - this was before the Great British Bake Off was aired to the nation, as we found this was the best way to inspire creativity), we designed the home screen, menus and navigation through the system with the question to the operator:
What do you want to do today?
The concept was to give the operator access to commence ash sampling with two taps from power up screen and standard icons used for configuration and saving files to the unit itself or to USB output.With additional processing power, came new features:
Fig 3. Ash Probe and AshGraffix complete system.
During the first half of 2015 we were happy with the final design; software bugs had been eliminated and some test users had put the unit through its paces; only then did we go to the mining shows and offer the unit to the market.In conclusion, the key take aways for updating the display unit were:
Gary Wain is Product Manager, Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Ltd, Bretby Gammatech, Instrumentation Products Division, Europe
Innovations in the design of primary isolation valves and manifolds for mounting pressure instrumentation can deliver enormous pressure control advantages to both instrument and piping engineers, ranging from significantly enhanced measurement accuracy, to simpler installation and reduced maintenance. Parker Hannifin has created a comprehensive range of instrument manifold mounting solutions for the main types of pressure instrumentation, employing close-coupling techniques which eliminate impulse lines and tube fittings to improve overall instrument performance and reliability.What is close-coupling?
There is no formal definition for close-coupling, but it has come to mean any instrument mounting system that enables a user to connect an instrument directly on to the process line, and primary flow control isolation valve. The overriding objective of this is to optimise the accuracy of measurement, by eliminating the long runs of tubing, tube fittings and bends and joints between process pipe and instrument that can cause pressure drops, and gauge/ impulse line errors.
Transmitter ‘hook-ups’ are often configured individually for each application, and can be large, heavy and difficult to install. By replacing such arrangements with purpose-designed close-coupled manifold/mounting solutions, users are able to optimise accuracy and reap a whole range of additional benefits such as...
‘Hook-ups’ for pressure transmitters often involve the custom configuration of complex arrangements of tubing, with multiple connections and valves. Measurement errors can be introduced as a result of long length impulse lines. These errors are frequently compounded by the use of different tube, fitting and valve components whose diameters may vary throughout an instrument installation.
Inaccuracies can distort the pressure impulse signal, causing errors of up to 15% (on flow measurements).Traditional ‘hook-up’ for a differential pressure transmitter
This traditional solution uses two sets of valve assemblies to create the double block and bleed valves, which are connected with impulse lines and connectors to the instrument manifold. It involves numerous discrete components, with all the associated costs and assembly time, and introduces bends that cause attenuation and turbulence that can affect measurement accuracy. If not carefully specified, other measurement accuracy problems can arise from differences in bore diameters of the various components, and unequal lengths of tubing.
The close-coupled alternative
Jim Breeze is Product Manager, Instrumentation Connections and Process Valves, Parker Hannifin, Instrumentation Products Division, Europe.